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STUDIES DI HISTOBT.EOONOmcS AND fOBUO LAW 



Volume XXXn 



THE ENFORCEMENT OF THE 
STATUTES OF LABOURERS 

During the First Decade after the Black Death 
1349-1359 



BERTHA HAVEN PUTNAM, Ph.D. 

/wfrKcter m Hiilaty at KoulU Bo^gott ColUg« 




Nem'Sortt 
COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY 

LONGMANS, GREEN & CO., AGENTS 
London: P. S. Kiiio ft Son 



u 3I 






Copyright, 1908 

BY 

BERTHA HAVEN PUTNAM 



r 

V 

\ 



PREFACE 

While taking a course of lectures on the history of Eng- 
lish Poor Law, given by Professor F. H. Giddings of 
Columbia University, I became interested in the law of 
parochial settlement and in its effect on the mobility of the 
working-man. My original purpose had been to give an 
account of its origin and development and of its final repeal 
during the era of the abolition of the Corn laws. Begin- 
ning with a study of the earliest instances of national legis- 
lation dealing with the labouring classes, I was, of course, 
led to consider the ordinance and the statute of labourers 
of 1349 and 1351, and found that although these measures 
and their consequences had been frequently discussed by 
economic historians, no detailed investigation had as yet 
been made of the methods and machinery by which they 
were enforced. This monograph presents the results of 
such an investigation, based chiefly on an examination of 
the manuscript sources in the Public Record Office, London. 

I am indebted to many scholars both here and in England 
for valuable assistance on specific problems, and in the dis- 
cussion of these problems I have sought to make clear my 
indebtedness. To others I am under still heavier obliga- 
tions. My warm appreciation is due to my former teacher, 
Professor C. M. Andrews, once of Bryn Mawr, now of 
Johns Hopkins, who has given me freely of his time and 
has helped me with many suggestions. It is not easy ade- 
quately to express my gratitude to Mr. Hubert Hall, of the 

Public Record Office, for the generosity with which his 

111 



t c 



• . . * f o 



iv PREFACE 

paleog^aphical skill and scholarship have been placed at my 
service at every stage of my work — from the reading of my 
first manuscript to the collation of my final copy. For my 
transcripts of manuscript material I must thank several 
transcribers, but more especially Miss Mary Trice Martin; 
without her cooperation I could hardly have ventured on 
printing the appendix. In addition to making many of my 
transcripts, she has collated with the original manuscripts 
the typewritten copy of the text of all my documents and 
has verified all my references to manuscript sources. 

For the arduous task of seeing this monograph through 
the press, my grateful acknowledgments must be made to 
Professor E. R. A. Seligman. My thanks are also due to 
Dr. Eugene E. Agger for correcting the English proof and 
to Mr. Otis Hill, Dr. Richard Riethmiiller and Dr. Clar- 
ence Perkins for assistance in reading the Latin and French 
proof. 

Through the courtesy of the editor and publishers of the 
English Historical Review I am enabled to make use of my 
article entitled " The Justices of Labourers in the Four- 
teenth Century," which appeared in July, 1906. 
New York, September, jgo8. 



TABLE OF CONTENTS 



Introduction. —The Black Death and the enactment of the ordi- 
nance and of the statute of labourers 



PA«I 



PART I 

The Enforcement of the Statutes of Labourers by Special 

Machinery 7 

CHAPTER I 

Account of the Justices of Labourers g 

(i) The form of their commissions lo 

(2) Their relation to the keepers of the peace 17 

(3) Method of appointment and removal 26 

(4) Territorial districts of their jurisdiction 36 

(5) Their oath of office 40 

(6) The amount of their salaries 44 

(7) The personnel of the commissions 49 



CHAPTER n 

Proceedings before the Justices of Labourers 57 

(i) General description of the sessions and of the sessional records. 58 

(2) Procedure in sessions 65 

(3) Clauses of the ordinance and statute most frequently enforced . 71 

(4) Economic and social status of the delinquents 77 

(5) Penalties 83 

(6) Rates of wages and prices 87 

(7) Supervision of the proceedings of the justices of labourers • . 92 

V 



vi TABLE OF CONTENTS 

rxGi 

CHAPTER III 

The Disposition of the Money Penalties under the Statutes of 

Labourers 98 

(i) Period of the triennial grants of 1348 and 1352; the claims of 

the taxpayers 99 

A. Tenth and fifteenth of 1348 99 

B. Tenth and fifteenth of 1352 106 

(a> System of collection and distribution of the penalties . 108 

(b) Embezzlement by collectors . ..... 120 

(c) A comparison of the amount of the penalties with that 

. of the tax 127 

(2) Period after the cessation of the triennial grants of 1348 and 1352. 131 

A. The rights of the crown: Easter, 1351, to Easter, 1352; 

Michaelmas, 1354, to November, 1359 131 

B. The claims of the lords of franchises 138 



PART II 

The Enforcement of the Statutes of Labourers in the Old Local 

Courts and in the Central Courts 151 

CHAPTER I 

The Old Local Courts: Communal Courts of the County and 
OF THE Hundred; Seignorial Courts, Feudal and 

Franchise; Municipal Courts 153 

CHAPTER II 

Central Courts: King's Bench and Common Pleas, 1349-1377 166 

(i) The treatment of the sources 166 

(2) Numerical account of actions on the statutes of labourers . . 170 

(3) Clauses of the ordinance and statute on which the actions are 

brought 174 

(4) Qasses to which the compulsory service and contract clauses 

applied 179 

(5) The contract 189 

(6) The effect of the compulsory service and contract clauses on 

the lord's relation to his villeins 199 

(7) Judgments and verdicts . 206 



TABLE OF CONTENTS vii 

?AGI 

PART III 

Summary of the VS^ork of the King's Council 215 

Conclusion 219 

APPENDIX 

I. Account op sources 3* 

II. Documents, extracts from documents, lists and tables . 6* 

A. Parliament and council 6* 

1. List of parliaments 134Q-1359 8* 

2. Enactments 8* 

Extracts from Close Rolls and Statute Rolls 8* 

B. Chancery. {Administrative side) 19* 

1 . Extracts from Chancery enrollments, chiefly Patent Rolls, 

and corresponding documents for the palatinates . . . 21* 

2. Chronological list of commissions to enforce the statutes 

of labourers issued during the years 1 349-1 359 . • . . . 32* 

3. List of the 671 justices responsible for the enforcement 

of the statutes during the decade . . ...... 43* 

4. List of territorial districts for which separate commis- 

sions for labourers were issued betii^i 1352 and 1359.138* 

C. Local courts under crown-appointed justices 142* 

1. Quarter sessions records 142* 

Extracts from Ancient Indictments and Assize Rolls . . 145* 

2. Records illustrating the supervision of the justices in ses- 

sion 239* 

Extracts from Assize Rolls, Coram Rege Rolls and 
County Placita 241* 

D. Exchequer 255* 

1. Extracts from Assize Rolls, Memoranda Rolls and Ori- 

ginalia Rolls 258* 

2. Extracts from Lay Subsidies and Memoranda Rolls . . . 268* 

3. Extracts from Memoranda Rolls 289* 

4. Accounts of the collectors of the triennial of 1352. A 

table of figures taken from Enrolled Subsidies. Ex- 
tracts from Accounts, K. R., Enrolled Subsidies and 
Lay Subsidies 31a* 

5. Extracts from Accounts, K. R., Close Rolls, Memoranda 

Rolls and Pipe Rolls 363* 

6. Extracts from Accounts, K. R., Memoranda Rolls, 

Patent Rolls and Pipe Rolls 373* 



viii TABLE OF CONTENTS 

?AGI 

E. /Records of th^ old local courts . . 391* 

Extracts from Assize Rolls and Court Rolls. 391* 

F. /Records of the central courts 400* 

1. Extracts from Ancient Indictments and Assize Rolls . . 400* 

2. Form of writs, counts, exigends, pardons for outlawry 

from the Registrum, Nova NarraHones, Coroners' 
Rolls and Patent Rolls 411* 

3. List of 44 reports from Year Books and abridgments and 

of the corresponding records from Coram Rege Rolls 
and De Banco Rolls 416* 

4. Cases 44, 31, 6, 42 and 20 419* 

5. Cases 10, 17, 28, 32 and 36 439* 

6. Cases 9, 38 and 43 • • . 452* 

Bibliography of printed sources 464* 

Index 475* 



CITATIONS IN FOOTNOTES. 



Printed sources: 

A. H. R. — American Historical Review. 

E. H. R. — English Historical Review. 

R. D. K.— Report of the Deputy Keeper. 

Cal. — Calendar. 

Rot. Pari. — Rotuli Parliamentorum. 

Statutes — Statutes of the Realm. 

Since the full titles and names of authors are given in the bibliography, 
in general only shortened forms are used in the notes, but it is hoped 
that the abbreviations are all obvious. 

Manuscript sources, in Public Record Office unless otherwise indicated : 

Gaus. — Rotuli Literarum Clausarum. 

Pat. — Rotuli Literarum Patencium. 

Orig. — Originalia. 

In each case the first numeral refers to the regnal year of Edw. III. 

Mem. K. R. — Memoranda Roll of the King's Remembrancer. 

Mem. L. T. R.— Memoranda Roll of the Lord Treasurer's Remem- 
brancer. 

The first numeral refers to the regnal year and is followed by the ab- 
breviation for the law term, then by the sub-title and by the number 
of the membrane when the latter is given. 

Law terms: 
Hill.-T-Hilary. 
Pasch.— Easter. 
Trin. — Trinity. 
Mich.— Michaelmas. 

For the sub-titles the only abbreviations used are the following: 
Breu. Baron. — Breuia directa baronibus. 
Breu. Ret.— Breuia retornabilia. 
Breu. Irret. — Breuia irretornabilia. 

Plea Rolls : 

De Banco— De Banco Rolls. 

Coram Rege — Coram Rege Rolls. 

The first numeral refers to the regnal year and is followed first by the 
law term, then by the number of the membrane, and lastly by the name 
of the county. In the Coram Rege Rolls, either ** Rex " or the name 
of the chief justice has to be added just before the number of the mem- 
brane in order to distinguish between the two portions of the roll. 

ix 



Page 3, note 2, line 5, for 89 93 read 89-93. 

Page 30, note i, line 2, for Ramsay read Ramsey. 

Page 54, note 6, line 2, for 3157 read 1357. 

Page 69, line 8, for snpersedeas read supersedeas. 

Page 73, line 7 from bottom, for ** or he read or '* he. 

Page 200, note 6, for pt. i, ch. i, s. 7, read pt. i, ch. ii, s. 7. 

Page 41*, line- 16, add manor of Kirton twice. 

Page 58^, for Brughbrigg read Burghbrigg. 

Page 66*, for Coiuyll read Colvyll. 

Page 140^, line 18, for 8 July / 30 read 26 March / 30. 

Ibid,, line 21, A?r 8 June/30 fV(»/ 8 July / 30. 

Page 159*, line 7, for lohanes read lohannes. 

Page 171*, last line, for Johannes read lohannes. 

Page 191*, line 2 from bottom, for Thirty years read Thirty days. 

Page 216*, line 23, for lohannis recui Johannis. 

Page 224*. line 2 from bottom, for Regeri read Roger i. 

Page 253*, last line, for Robcrti read Roberto. 

Page 3Q2*, line 5, for attacheret read attachiaret. 

Page 374*, line 3 from bottom, for adudicata read adiudicata. 

Page 413*, throughout extract from Novae Narrationes, for v read u. 

Page 416*, line 4, for three tead two. 

Page 425*, last line, for concordati read concordari. 

P^c 454(» 1^1^^ 6 ^rom bottom, for ipsuis read ipsius. 




INTRODUCTION 

THE BLACK DEATH AND THE ENACTMENT OF THE ORDI- 
NANCE AND OF THE STATUTE OF LABOURERS 

The Black Death reached Dorsetshire in August, 
1348/ and spreading first toward the west, and then 
toward the northeast, appeared in London by the end of 
September or the beginning of November ; ' it was at its 
height in Surrey and Hampshire during the following 
spring,' and in the northern and eastern counties during 
the summer and early autumn,^ ending nearly every- 
where in England by the last months of 1349.' Esti- 
mates of the mortality during these fourteen or fifteen 
months vary from nine-tenths to one-fifth of the total 
population; a half is probably fairly near the truth,^ 

^Creighton, Hist, of Epidemics, i, 116; for discussion of the exact 
dite, see Gasqnet, Tlie Great Pestilence, 71-74. 

*Creighton, loc, cit, *Gasquet, op. cit., 11^114. *IMd., 67, 128. 

*Creighton, op. cit.^ i, 177, gives Michaelmas, 1349, ^s ^^^ latest 
date, btxt Gasquet, op. cit., 160, quotes an instance in the north as late 
as the spring of 1350. 

^Eulogium Historiarutn, iii, 213, one-fifth; Le Baker, Chronicon, 
gp, nine-tenths; Rogers, Work and Wages, 223, a third; Jessopp, The 
Coming of the Friars^ 205-206, a half in East Anglia; Creighton, op. 
cii., i, 123-139, gives various estimates for specific localities; Gasquet, 
op. cit., 194-195, inclines to a half; Cunningham, Growth of Eng. In- 
dustry and Commerce, i, 329-336, in a summary of the effects of the 
plague and of the statutes of labourers, inclines to the theory of "nearly 
a half." For an accurate estimate in one district, cf. Little, "Black 
Death in Lancashire/' \vl E. H.R., v. These modern calculations are 
based largely on records of presentations to livings and on the evidence 
fornishcd by manorial court rolls. The sources examined for this mono- 
graph contain much information both direct and indirect as to the de- 
vastation of the country. 

I 



art 



2 ENFORCEMENT OF THE STATUTES OF LABOURERS 

representing perhaps two and a half millions of deaths/ 
While the plague was by no means confined to the 
labouring classes, the consensus of opinion is that the 
death rate was highest among the poor ; * complaints as 
to the scarcity of labour of all kinds, especially agri* 
cultural, of the exorbitant wages demanded by the lab- 
ourers fortunate enough to survive, and of the consequent 
inability of landowners to till their lands, arose immedi- 
ately, and have been recorded by all commentators from 
the contemporary chron iclers^ down to the modern 
economic historians.^ Parliament being unable to meet 
on account of the pestilence, the responsibility of dealing 
with the emergency fell upon the king's council;^ the 
result was the issue on i8 June, 1349, of the famous 
ordinance of labourers.^.^rhe continuance of the serious-^ 
ness of the labour problem is given as one of the reasons ] 
for the summoning, for February, 135 1, of the first parlia- / 
ment that sat after the plague;' the statement of the / 
commons that the council's decree is not obeyed is met / 
by the statute of labourers, not as a re-enactment of the 
ordinance, but as a supplement to it.® The provisions of \^ 

'The total number of deaths is also a debatable qaestion; Cunning- 
ham, op. cit.y i, 331-332, summarizes the controversy between Seebohm 
and Rogers on this point. See my bibliography for references to their 
articles. 

Gasquet, vp, cii., 195; Creighton, op. cit., \, 124. 
Of the chroniclers Knighton g^ives the fullest xlescription; ii, 5^65, 
74. Cf, also Eutogium Historiarum, iii, 213-214; Ckronicon Angliae^ 
27; Le Baker, 98-100; Avesbury, 406-407. 

'Gasquet and Cunningham both contain references to many valuable 
manuscript documents. 

^Stubbs, Const. Hist., ii, 418, note 2, 428, note i. 

•App., 8-12. '^ Rot. Parl,^ ii, 22sb. 

^lind., ii, 227b; for the text of the statute see app., 12-17. The usual 
opinion, even that of Stubbs, is that the statute re-enacted the ordi- 
nance. In reality the latter was not made a statute until the next reign ; 
Statutes, 2 R. II, st. i, c. 8. 



n 






INTRODUCTION 3 

the two measures will later be analyzed in detail; here 
It is sufficient to say that their main object was to secure 
an adequate supply of labourers at the rate of wages pre- 
vailing before the catastrophe/ and that the notable 
feature of these enactments is that they constitute the 
first important attempt of the central authorities to 
apply to the country as a whole, uniform legislation on 
wages and prices^ — matters that had been previously left 
to local control.* y^ 

In considering this legislation there are two questions 
that must be answered ; first, were its provisions legiti- 
mate, and second, were they effective? Among histori- 
ans we find strongly opposed ^^jpinions on both these 
points. On one side it is urged that the statutes ^ repre- 
sent an endeavor to perpetuate villeinage and to hinder 
the movement toward freedom* and aimed to restrict 
wages in the interests of the employer to a degree that 

'Since the simply was to be provided in part by the compulsory labour 
of the able-bodied vagrant, it is true, as Cunningham points out, op. 
^•» if 53S> that this portion of the ordinance marks the beginning of 
what afterwards developed into a poor law. I am not here concerned 
with this later development, which was certainly not foreseen by the 
framers of the measure. 

' For an account of the action of the central government on economic 
questions previous to 1349, see Cunningham, op, cit,, i, 270 ei seq., 
3^9-330, ii, 6-7; and Ashley, Ec. Hist., i, ch. 3. The closest analogy 
to the present enactment is that of the ordinance of prices of 131 5, which 
was speedily withdrawn; Rot. Part., i, 295; Trokelowe, 89 93; Stubbs, 
op. cii., ii, 350. I shall deal with the subject to a slight extent in pt. 
ii, ch. i. 

'Throughout this work for the sake of brevity I use "statutes" to 
include the ordinance and the statute, except when it is essential that a 
distinction between them should be made. 

* Eden^ State of the Poor, i, 41-42; Mackay, Hist, of Eng. Poor Law^ 
iiif 13-17; Nicholls, Hist, of Eng. Poor Law, i, 45; Pashley, Pauper- 
ism and Poor Laws, 161-163; Seebohm, ''Villainage in England," in 
E. H. R., vii, 458. 



4 ENFORCEMENT OF THE STATUTES OF LABOURERS 

was unjust and atrocious ; ' on the other side it is held 
that the statutes were hostile to villeinage, inasmuch as 
they interfered with the relations of the lord to his 
villein and lessened the dependence of the latter on the 
former,' and that in accordance with the economic theo- 
ries and practices of the age it was both reasonable and 
desirable that wages should be regulated, these statutes 
being peculiarly equitable in that they aimed to restrict 
prices as well as wages.^ As to their effectiveness, we 

Ifind that while the belief is often expressed that the 
statutes were one factor in the causation of the peasants' 
revolt,* the common statement is that they were inopera- 
tive as to their avowed object and may be regarded as 
dead letters.' This view is based either on the fact of the 
undeniable rise in wages after the plague, put at from 

'Eden, op. ciL, i, 39-42; Pashley, loc. cil.; Rogers, Hist, of Prices, 
V, preface, x\-xii, passim; Seebohtn, "The Black Death," in Fort- 
nightly Review ^ ii, 270-273. 

' Petrushevsky, Wat Tyler's Rebellion (Russian) , reviewed by Savine 
in E. H. R., xvii, 781-782; Savine, '' Bondmen under the Tudors," in 
Trans. Royal Hist, Soc., new series, xvii, 254-256; for an important 
discussion of this aspect of the statutes, cf. Vinogradoff, Villainage in 
England, 53*55 • 

•Ashley, op. cit., i, ch. 3, ii, 332-337; Brentano, Hist, of Gilds y 
cxlii-cxiiii; Cunningham, op. cit., i, 249-254, 335-336; Tout, Polite 
Hist, of England, 372-374- 

^Bergenroth, Sybel's Hist. Zeiischrift, ii, 51-86; Kriehn, "Social 
Revolt, 1381," in A. H. /?., vii, 282-285, 477-479; Oman, The Great 
Revolt, 7-9, 17; Page, End of Villainage, 71; Petit-Dutaillis, in intro- 
duction to R6ville's SouUvetnent des Travailleurs d' Angleterre, xxxii, 
xlv-xlix; Powell, The East Anglia Rising, i; Seebohm in Fortnightly 
quoted supra, 272; Stubbs, op. cit., ii, 420; Trevelyan, Wycliffe, 189- 
190, 217-218. 

*E.g., Powell, loc. cit.', Stubbs, op. cit., ii, 428, 473. Eden is an 
exception, and with no reference to the revolt holds that the statute was 
"rigorously enforced;" op. cit., \, 42. Cf. also Denton, Eng. in the 
15th Century, 239-241. 



INTRODUCTION 5 

fifty to a hundred per cent,' or on the persistence of 
complaints in parliament of the failure of the statutes ana 
on the necessity of their frequent re-enactment.^ 

It has seemed to me that the simplest and most ac- 
curate manner of trying to answer these questions and 
to discover what actually happened was to examine the^ 
available sources dealing with the methods of administra- \ 
tion,3 and to attempt to present a detailed account of the J 
efforts of central and local officials to enforce the statutes, i 
For this purpose I have been obliged to confine myself 
almost entirely to the first ten years after the Blacl 
Death ; my conclusions, therefore, with a few exceptions 
to be noted in due course, apply only to this limited 
period, but it is hoped that for a century in which con- 
stitutional, political and economic problems have at- 
tracted by far the largest share of attention a study of 
any one sphere of administration may be valuable as 
typical of administrative methods in general, and may 
therefore serve to increase our knowledge of the life of 
the times. 

' Rogers, Hist, of Prices , i, 265, 269-270, 292, 298--500; Work and 
We^es^ 237; "England before and after the Black Death," in Fort- 
Mgkily Review, iii, 193; **Thc Peasants' War of 1381," ibid,, iv, 92. 
Rogers does, however, admit a possible effect on agricultural wages in 
certain districts. Ashley, in an article on Rogers in Political Science 
Quarterly, iv, 398, points out that the latter was the first to try to esti- 
mate this rise in wages. Other writers usually follow Rogers; cf, e.g., 
Gibbins, Industry in England, 153, and Trevelyan, Wycliffe, 187-188. 

'Gasquet, op. cit., 197-198, presents this view with peculiar emphasis; 
^. also Rogers, Hist, of Prices, i, 299. 

* For an explanation of my omission of the work of the church in en- 
forcing the statutes, and of my insufficient treatment of the old local 
.anthorities, see app., 3-4, and pt. ii, ch. i. 



PARTI 

THE ENFORCEMENT OF THE STATUTES OF LABOURERS BY 

SPECIAL MACHINERY 

The assertion by the central government of its right 
to le^slate on economic matters for the whole country 
on a scale previously unheard of necessarily included the 
duty of providing for the administration of the legisla- 
tion; the special machinery devised for this purpose 
must first be described. 



CHAPTER I 

ACCOUNT OF THE JUSTICES OF LABOURERS 

The lack of accurate knowledge as to the extent of 
the enforcement of the statutes of labourers is in no way 
more clearly shown than by the fact that there has not 
even been unanimity among historians as to whether 
these statutes were, in the beginning, as was certainly the 
case later, included in the jurisdiction of the justices of 
the peace or whether they were left to a separate com- 
mission.' My first task, therefore, is to establish the 
identity of the justices mentioned in the ordinance and 
the statute/ 

^ I am indebted to Professor Cheyney for having called my attention 
to this question and to Professor C. A. Beard for many valuable sug- 
gestions. Lambard (Eirenarcha, 562-3), referring to the statutes for 
the regulation of the sessions of the justices of the peace, writes: "The 
first of these foure Statutes" {i. e., 25 Edw. Ill, c. 8) '' doth (in shew, 
and in common opinion) concerne the Sessions of the lustices of Peace, 
but in truth it belongeth not at all to them: for it was made to direct 
the lustices of Labourers in the times of holding their sessions: and 
they were not Commissioners of the peace, but speciall lustices for the 
causes of Labourers alone, not resiant in the countrey, but sent downe 
for the time of that seruice, as it may expressely appeare, not onely by 
the preamble and all the parts of the said statute it selfe, but also by the 
statutes 28 Ed. Ill, cap. 5, 31 £. Ill, cap. 6, and 34 E. Ill, cap. 11, 
during all of which time also, the Wardens of the peace were neither 
called lustices by any Statute, nor authorized to deale with Labourers." 
For the same view cf, Howard, The Kind's Peace, 40, and Beard, 
Justice of the Peace, 60-61. For the theory that the persons assigned 
to execute the statutes of labourers were probably the keepers of the 
peace, see Reeves, Hist, of Eng. Law, ii, 330. The historians of the 
English Poor Law have usually shirked the question altogether. 

'The main portions of this section and of section 2 have already ap- 
peared in my article on the "Justices of Labourers" in E. H, /?., xxi. 

9 



lO ENFORCEMENT OF THE STATUTES OF LABOURERS 

(i) TAe form of their commissions. — From the point 
of view of the jurisdiction of the justices responsible for 
the enforcement of the statutes of labourers and, there- 
fore, also from the point of view of the form of their 
commissions, four periods are distinguishable for the 
reign of Edward III, three of which fall within the 
decade 1349-1359.* 

I. Of these the first, running from 18 June, 1349, the 
date of the ordinance of labourers, to February, 1351, 
the date of the statute of labourers, or more strictly to 
15 March, the date of the first commission issued as a 
result of the statute,* was a period of various administra- 
tive experiments. The ordinance, while specifying the 
duties of existing local officials, bailiffs, constables, etc., 
merely refers in the victuallers' clause ^ to iusticiariis pet 
nos assignandis, with no account of their powers; one 
must turn to chancery enrollments for information as to 
these justices. On 20 February, 1350, a commission for 
seven counties was issued for the preservation of the 
peace and the enforcement of the ordinance of labourers ; ♦ 
on 15 June a commission for the enforcement of the 
ordinance was issued by the bishop of Durham for five 
districts within his palatinate;^ commissions were also 

' For the fourth period, see the article just mentioned, 526-527. 

*App., 34. 'App., II. 

^"De pace conseruanda;" app., 33. As I am here dealing with 
justices I have omitted from the discussion in the text the two earliest 
recorded commissions issued in pursuance of the ordinance, namely, 
one of 6 Dec, 1349 to the chancellor of the university and to the mayor 
of Oxford, app., 33, and one of 8 Dec. to the mayor and sheriffs of 
London, app., 33 , note i. 

•App., 27, and note 3. Mr. Lapsley in 77i^ County PaltUine of 
Durham, 257, note 3, refers to a commission to execute the statute of 
labourers in Rot. Hatfield, ann. i, m id, curs. 30; evidently by an 
error, as the first year of Bishop Hatfield's pontificate was 1345, and 
therefore previous to the labour legislation. 



THE JUSTICES OF LABOURERS j j 

issued for the enforcement of the ordinance on 20 Octo- 
ber for Lancaster,* and on 12 and 18 November for 
Lindsey and Suffolk respectively;' while from sources 
other than the Patent Rolls there is evidence that for this 
same year justices were executing the ordinance in Dor- 
sct,5 Essex/ Northampton* and Surrey,* and in Lindsey^ 
even previous to November, 1350. In the case of both 
Dorset* and Lindsey' the Patent Rolls show that these 
same men were already acting as keepers of the peace. 
There is, therefore, a total of sixteen commissions,** nine 

^"De inquirendo de malefactortbus in comitatu Lancastrie;" app., 
34. Henry of Lancaster received palatine rights on 6 March, 1351; 
Jf. D. AT. , XXX, V. During the rest of the decade therefore commis- 
sions were issued by him instead of by the king; cf, p. 16, infra, 

'" De operariis castigandis;" app., 34. Although this document 
was printed by Rymer, the only reference to it that I have found in 
modern writers is in Creighton, Hist, of Epidemics ^ i, 182: "The same 
ordinance (t. e,^ 23 Edw. Ill), with some added paragraphs, was re> 
issued on the i8th November, 1350, to the county of Suffolk and to the 
district of Lindsey (Lincolshire)." The text shows that the document 
is a commission to justices, not a re-issue of the ordinance. 

'Mem. L. T. R., 31, Hill., Recorda, rot. 9, Somerset' Dorset', ''De 
vicecomite commisso prisone quia supersedit levacioni debitorum Regis;" 
a reference to '* Roberto fitz Pavn et lohanne de Munden et sociis suis 
custodibus pacts et ad excessus operariorum Regis in comitatu Dorset' 



anno xxun**. 



*App.,D, I. 

'Orig., 24, m. 33, 12 June, " De compellendo stipendarios soluere 
excessiua per ipsos recepta subtaxatoribus;" Walter de Mauny and his 
companions are referred to as having power to enforce the ordinance; 
the wording indicates powers for the preservation of the peace also. On 
the same roll there is a similar reference to William de Thorp and his 
companions as acting in Leicester. 

•App., 248-249. ^ App., 242-243. 

•Pat., 23, pt. 2, m. 27 d, I July; Cal,, viii, 382. 

*App., 243, note I. 

''The commission for the several divisions of Durham is counted as 
<mly one. 



12 ENFORCEMENT OF THE STATUTES OF LABOURERS 

of which certainly included jurisdiction both for the pre- 
servation of the peace and under the ordinance of labour- 
ers. For the same period there are a number of separate 
commissions of the peace,* so that evidently neither sys- 
tem had become fixed. 

The experimental character of these first attempts at 
enforcement is shown by the varying forms of the above 
commissions. That for Durham is sut generis, couched 
in vague terms, scarcely intelligible, but for the marginal 
heading ; the joint commission * includes eight important 
clauses: i. The preservation of the peace under the 
statutes of Winchester and Northampton. 2. Powers of 
array. 3. Inquiry by sworn inquest as to the violence 
committed by vast multitudes of malefactors. 4. Inquiry 
as to labourers who had received excess wages contrary 
to the ordinance. 5. Inquiry as to misappropriation by 
local officials, bailiffs, etc, of the penalties imposed on 
such labourers. 6. Inquiry as to similar misappropria- 
tion by the subsidy collectors.^ 7. Punishment of 
offences against any portion of the ordinance. 8. Power 
of two of the commission to hear and determine cases of 
homicide and felony.* The commission for Lancaster 
omits clauses i, 2, and 8, but contains an almost exact 
duplicate of the remainder of the joint commission, with 
merely slight verbal variations in clause 3. The form of 
the commissions for Lindsey and Suffolk is, however, 

*Pat., 23, pt. 2, m. 27 d, CaL, viii, 382-383; 24, pt. i, m. 38 d, Cal.y 
5x6. 

"'Joint commission'' is used throughout to describe commissions 
having jurisdiction over both the preservation of the peace and the sta- 
tutes of labourers. 

'For the duties of the collectors, cf, pt. i, ch. iii, s. i, A. 

*The usual instructions to the sheriff and the authority to hear and 
determine unfinished indictments are not touched on in this analysis. 



THE JUSTICES OF LABOURERS 



13 



entirely different; the letter patent begins with the 
recital of the whole ordinance and continues with the 
statement that in consequence of the complaints of its 
non-observance that have reached the council, special 
justices are now appointed to punish all offenders against 
the measure, ending with the reservation that these jus- 
tices arc not to interfere with the rights of the justices 
of the peace or of the collectors of the subsidy. 

In view of the small proportion of counties here repre- 
sented one is somewhat puzzled by the clause in the pre- 
amble to the statute of labourers : Sur qoi commissions 
furent faites as diuerses gentz en chescun counte denquere 
et punir tone ceaux que venissent au contraireJ^ The 
length of time between June, the date of the ordinance, 
and the following February, the date of the first enrolled 
commission,' is also difficult to explain. It seems prob- 
able either that, as in the case of the five counties men- 
tioned, commissions similar to those recorded, or at least 
supplementary instructions to the existing keepers of the 
peace, had failed to get enrolled,^ or that some other set 
of officials received the powers referred to in the pre- 
amble. The evidence in favor of this last possibility will 
be given in full later.* 

2. The second period, from 15 March, 1351, to De- 
cember, 1352, was one of joint commissions of the peace 
and for labourers.^ It has already been emphasized that 
the statute of labourers passed in February, 1351, was 
not a re-enactment of the ordinance but a supplement to 

*App., 12. 'C/. p. 10, note 4, supra, 

'For the years 1351-1359 the indications are that comparatively few 
eommissions were omitted from the Patent Rolls, cf, p. 21, note i. 

*Pt. I, ch. iii, s. I, A. 

'For conciseness I use this phrase in place of " commissions to en- 
force the statutes of labourers." 



14 



ENFORCEMENT OF THE STATUTES OF LABOURERS 



it ; ' its importance consisted mainly in the much-needed* 
administrative details' and in the definite mention of addi- 
tional classes of labourers and of specific rates of wages. 
While many duties are still left to local officials, the 
"justices" who are to be assigned, and who are described 
as coming into the country to hold their sessions, are 
given, in successive clauses, full powers in regard to the 
labour legislation, including the responsibility for inquir- 
ing into the misdeeds of local officials and also for hand- 
ing over to the collectors of the current tenth and 
fifteenth the penalties arising from infringements of the 
act. Every phrase in the text serves to confirm Lam- 
bard's inference that these justices were " speciall Justices 
for the causes of Labourers alone." ' Hence it is a dis- 
tinct surprise to find that the form of the first commis- 
sions issued as the result of the statute duplicates almost 
exactly that of the joint commissions of the first period.^ 
The first three clauses as to the peace, array and violence 
of malefactors, are identical in phraseology ; clause 4, in- 
stead of referring merely to excess wages as does the 
corresponding clause of the earlier commission, has be- 
come a general clause for the enforcement of both the 
ordinance and the statute of labourers ; clauses 5 and 6 
relating to the supervision of certain officials are exactly 
identical; clause 7, on the punishment of all offences 
against the legislation, has only slight verbal modifica- 
tions ; while clause 8, dealing with homicides and felon- 
ies, is considerably amplified. Commissions of the type 
just described were now issued for forty-two districts, 

' Introduction, p. 2. 

^Ibid.; the complaints that the ordinance is not obeyed find expres- 
sion in the preamble to the statute; evidently the first system of ad- 
ministration had proved a failure. 

^Supra^ p. 9, note i. ^ App., 21-24, and 34. 



THE JUSTICES OF LABOURERS 15 

comprising thirty-nine counties and three towns* and 
during the following year commissions varying slightly 
in phraseology but all including jurisdiction over both 
the peace and the statutes of labourers were appointed 
for several counties and for a number of towns.* 

3. The .third period, from December, 1352 to Novem- 
ber, 1359, is a period of separate commissions of the 
peace and for labourers, issued systematically for practi- 
cally the whole country. 248 commissions are recorded 
on the Patent Rolls ; ^ the jurisdiction of those enrolled 
during the first five years was limited to the statutes of 
labourers,* but in 1357 it was extended to include the 
enforcement of uniform standards of weights and meas- 
ures. ' The form has been greatly simplified. The first 
three clauses as to the peace, array and violence of male- 
factors and clause 8 dealing with homicides and felonies 
have, of course, disappeared, as well as clause 6 provid- 
ing for the supervision of the collectors ; * clause 4, the 

*App., 34. *App., 34-35. 

'App., 35-42. It must be remembered that in some counties the old 
joint commissions were not superseded for several years; cf, e, g., Mid- 
dlesex which had no separate commission for labourers until i Oct. of 
the 29th year. ^ App., 24-25. 

* In 1351 a statute had entrusted the enforcement of the uniformity of 
weights and measures to justices to be assigned by the king in each 
county whenever there should be need; Statutes, 25 Edw. Ill, st. 5, 
cc. 9 and 10. Cf, Pat., 27, pt. 3, m. lo-d, 4 Dec. (Cal,^ ix, 541). In 
1353 and again in 1355 the commons petition, apparently in vain, that 
justices of labourers shall have jurisdiction over weights and measures 
(Rot, Pari, ii, 252b-253a, 265b); yet only two years later without any 
statutory change, the regular form of their commission includes this 
jurisdiction; see app., 25-27. As a result of a petition in parliament 
(Rot. Pari., ii, 260a) a statute had also given to justices of labourers the 
power to p^inidh these who sold iron at an excessive price; see app., 17- 
18. It is not easy to understand the necessity for such an enactment. 

* All but clause 6 re-appear in the form of the commission of the peace 
of the period; cf. e, ^., Pat., 30, pt. i, m. 20 d, 12 Feb.; ** De custodia 
pacis." 



1 6 ENFORCEMENT OF THE STATUTES OF LABOURERS 

general clause for the enforcement of the legislation, has 
now become the opening clause, and is followed by the 
clause for the supervision of local officials (formerly 
clause 5), and by the clause on the punishment of all 
offences against both the ordinance and the statute (for- 
merly clause 7) . Usually the power to hear and deter- 
mine unfinished indictments is included in this last. The 
only important modification is the addition of the clause 
concerning weights and measures. 

In the case" of the counties palatine there is less evi- 
dence as to the form of the commissions.* For Chester 
the first entry on the Recognizance Rolls is a reference 
to a commission for Flint, apparently dated 30 Sep- 
tember, 1360;* but other sources show that justices of 
labourers, evidently on commissions distinct from those 
of the peace, were acting in Chester in 1352, 1353, 1356, 
1357, 1358 and 1359.^ For Durham, although the 
statute is punctually enrolled on the Cursitor's Roll,* I 
have found no record of any commission issued between 
that of 1350, already described, and one of 1369.* For 
Lancaster, commissions for labourers entered on the 
Chancery Rolls were issued in 1355,* 1357' and 1359; * 

^I have examined the manuscript evidence for the commissions for 
labourers only. 

'"G)mmissio Ken ap Roppert ad inquirendum de operatoribus et 
artificibus," 30 Sept., 34th year; Recognizance Roll, no. 43, m. i. Cf. 
Calendar in If, D, fC., xxxvi, app. 2» 409. I have reason to believe 
that the date should be a year later, but the discussion of this point does 
not belong to this monograph. 

•App., 145-149. 

^Cursitors' Records, 30, rot. i, Hatfield, ann. 6, m.6 d; cf, Lapsley, 
op. cii.y 125. For calendar, see app., 19-20. 

*Rymer, iii, pt. 2, 863; Lapsley, op. cit., 179. 

*App., 29-31; there is some difficulty as to the date. ^ App., 27. 

'Duchy of Lancaster, Chancery Rolls of the Palatinate, ii, no. 38d; 



THE JUSTICES OF LABOURERS 17 

the first of these differs slightly from the typical com- 
mission for the rest of England, but the last two are 
verbally identical with the form as finally fixed after the 
inclusion of weights and measures. 

On 4 November, 1359, writs of supersedeas were issued 
to all justices of labourers throughout England ; ' never 
again, except for the palatinates, was a separate commis- 
sion for labourers appointed. Henceforth a study of the 
form of the commission of the justices responsible for 
enforcing the labour legislation becomes a study of the 
form of the commission of the justices of the peace." 

(2) Tlteir relation to the keepers of the peace, — For 
the time previous to the statute, it has been shown that 
the data are insufficient to warrant authoritative state- 
ments as to the number or the jurisdiction of the justices 
appointed; 3 all that can be safely asserted is that the 
period was one of experiments, apparently not favorable 
to the separate commissions, since with the enactment 
of the statute the consolidation of the commissions of 
the peace and for labourers was universal throughout 
the country.* The number of men assigned to each 
commission varies from five to ten, six, eight or nine 
being very usual ; but from the first series of writs for 
the payment of wages, it appears that usually only two 
or three of the justices appointed to a given district 
were receiving salaries, their double set of duties being 

^' lusticiarii assignati de operariis et mensuris;" 26 April, gth year of the 
duke. There is also an association on the same roll, no. iQd, 3 May, 
6th year. For calendar see app., 20. 

'App., 31-32. 

•See my article in E, H, /?., 526-527. 

*See preceding section. 

^With the exception of the palatinates. 



l8 ENFORCEMENT OF THE STATUTES OF LABOURERS 

specified in the writs.* It seems probable, however, that 
some differentiation of the work soon arose ; in the next 
series of writs for wages, issued at a date when the joint 
commissions were everywhere in force, the men on the 
pay roll, comprising as before, only a small proportion 
of the whole commission, are now described as assigned 
merely to execute the statutes of labourers." The ex- 
planation of the change may possibly be found in the 
application to the subsidy of January, 1352, of the money 
penalties under the statutes of labourers. The full dis- 
cussion of this experiment in taxation is reserved for a 
later section ;3 here it is to the point to note that, since 
the scheme necessitated the separation of the estreats 
of the penalties under the statutes of labourers from 
those for the infringement of the peace, and also put ad- 
ditional pressure of work on the justices who were re- 
sponsible for the statutes, recourse to a division of 
duties and to separate sessions may easily have seemed 
advisable.* Dissatisfaction with existing conditions is 

'Claus., 25, m. 16; 12 July: *'De vadiis pro iusticiariis assignatis 
soluendis." CaL, ix, 3I4-3I7- 

' App., D, 2, contains an example o! an original writ to de Meignill in 
Derby and also his receipt for payment. There are similar writs to 
two of his colleagues while the commission for this county includes 
eleven names; Pat., 25, pt. i, m. 14 d; 15 March, /did,, m. 13 d; 15 
July and 20 July. 

A full list of such writs are enrolled Claus., 26, m. 16; i May: " De 
vadiis soluendis iusticiariis ad inquirendum de operariis assignatis." 
With a slightly different form of writ, — ** Aliter de huiusmodi vadiis 
soluendis" — the list is continued on the same membrane under the date 
of 20 June. These lists are summarized in Cai. , ix, 436-437 and printed 
in part in Rot, Pari,, ii, 455 a and b. Nearly all the justices named 
appear on the joint commissions of the 25th year; app., 34. For this 
whole subject, cf, pt. i, ch. iii, s. i, B, a. 

'Pt. I, ch. iii, s. I, B. 

^ It is possible that the estreats of penalties " coram lohanne de Bem> 



THE JUSTICES OF LABOURERS 



19 



recorded several times in petitions of the commons;' 
but toward the end of 1352, with no apparent connec- 
tion with any of these petitions,"* the issue of separate 
commissions for labourers began tentatively and spas- 
modically, and continued with increasing regularity. 
The following table shows the number of districts for 
which the two series of commissions, of the peace and 
for labourers, were issued during the eight years when 
the system of joint commissions was in abeyance.^ 

eye et sociis suis ad pacem in comitatu Norff' obseruandam assignatis," 
covering the years 24-28 Edw. Ill, indicate sessions of the peace dis- 
tinct from those for labourers. During the first two years mentioned 
de Berneye was serving on the joint commissions of 1350 and 1351, and 
yet the estreats contain no reference to offences against the statutes of 
labourers. For the case of de Berneye, see next section and pt. i, ch. 
ii, s. I. 

'These petitions are analysed in the next section. 

'It is to be noted that there was not at any time during the decade 
any statutory enactment as to the separation or the consolidation of the 
two commissions. 

'This table is made up on the basis of the lists in app., 35-42; the last 
two columns show the frequency with which two sets of commissions 
were issued for a given district on different dates and often for a given 
district on the same date. 



ao ENFORCEMENT OF THE STATUTES OF LABOURERS 



•a 



Commissions. 



26{ 
32 



33 



{ 
{ 



Peace • - • • 
Labourers 
Peace . • • • 
Labourers 
Peace • - • • 
Labourers 
Peace • • . - 
Labourers 
Peace • • . . 
Labourers 

Peace 

Labourers 
Peace • - • • 
Labourers 
Peace . • . . 
Labourers 



Districts 



e 



2 

3 
13 

31 
15 

18 
II 
10 

41 
10 

9 

44 

9 



01 



I 

5 
5 
4 

4 

2 

I 

12 

2 
2 
I 



e .. 

if «0 
V) 



o 

|2° 



2 
12 

4 

2 

19 



■n 

22 J 
3^1 
47/ 

s} 

26\ 

10 1 

43/ 

10 1 

12/ 

44l 
10 i 



Number of Commis-> 
sions in each Series 
issued for 



V) 

8 igti 



ctf 

CO 

U3 



« a 

O B 



I 



I 
II 
22 

5 
5 



S « 

St; 



2 

5 

8 

12 

7 
7 
5 
9 



The total number of men appointed between 1349 and 
1359 to enforce the statutes of labourers was 671/ While 
** justices of labourers" is commonly used in contem- 
porary documents to refer to those members of the joint 
commissions having to do with the labour legislation,* 

' Of course this by no means adequately represents the number of ap- 
pointments; one man may have received as many as ten or fifteen letters 
patent for various counties, or on successive occasions for the same 
county. 

'The phrase also occurs during the first period; but by chance I have 
found it only as applied to men whose appointment is not recorded on 
the Patent Rolls, so that it is difficult to determine the form of their 
commissions. 



THE JUSTICES OF LABOURERS 2 1 

the title belongs, strictly speaking, to the members of 
the separate commissions, and it is their relation to the 
keepers of the peace that must now be considered. Of 
the total 671, 501 were serving on the separate commis- 
sions for labourers issued between 1352 and 1359,'' many 
of them having been already appointed on previous com- 
missions. Now during the period of the double series 
of commissions 404 men were appointed as keepers of 
the peace ; a comparison of their names with those of 
the 501 justices of labourers for the same period shows 
that 299 were identical — that is that about three-quarters 
of the keepers of the peace were justices of labourers. 
A further study of names shows that 32 of the remaining 
list of " keepers " had previously been appointed to the 
joint commissions, and that one was serving as justice of 
labourers in the palatinate of Lancaster, so that only 72 
of the 404 are unaccounted for.^ An examination of the 
501 justices of labourers reveals that of the 202 names 
not duplicated as keepers of the peace, 80 were assigned 
to towns, liberties, or wapentakes that often had no com- 
mission of the peace distinct from that of the county. 
A comparison of the two series of commissions district 
by district shows that frequently the same men were per- 

'The remaining names (not included in the 501) are distributed as 
follows: on the joint and separate commissions previous to the statute 
of 1351, 30; on the joint commissions from 1351 to 1352, 113; for the 
palatinates, Chester, 2; Durham, 4, and Lancaster, 10; additional names 
not found on the Patent Rolls, 11. The latter, distributed throughout 
the three periods, are: Bealknap, Brewes, Burwell, Cranesle, Forster, 
Houel, Lovel (R.), Nevill (R. de), Northtoft, Radeswelland Rougham. 
For the complete list of justices, references to their appointments, etc, 
see app., C, 3. Both Lovel and Radeswell had been appointed to com- 
missions of the peace in their respective counties as early as 1345; CaL 
Patent Rolls y vii, 30 and vi, 511. 

' Many of them appear on the commissions of the first period. 



22 ENFORCEMENT OF THE STATUTES OF LABOURERS 

forming the double set of duties ; in several hundred out 
of several thousand possible instances (roughly speak- 
ing)> at the same date or within a month of the same 
date, a given man would be appointed on both commis- 
sions for the same district. Occasionally the two com- 
missions are practically identical, but since the commis- 
sion of the peace usually includes from eight to ten, 
while that for labourers ranges from two to five with 
three or four as the most common number,* merely a 
large proportion of the names on one list re-appears on 
the other. It is noticeable that the more important and 
distinguished names are the ones omitted from the com- 
missions for labourers.' This tendency to make use of 
the same men has been so noticeable from the beginning 

^The greater number of districts, liberties, etc., that receive distinct 
commissions of labourers, while only one commission of the peace is 
issued for the whole county, explains the greater total number of justices 
of labourers; cf. s. 4. 

' Examples might be multiplied indefinitely, but a few will serve. In 
Beverley, each commission includes nine names, eight of them being 
identical; Pat., 27, pt. 2, m. 26 d, 25 Aug., and idid., m. 25 d, 25 Aug.; 
CaL, ix, 508-509. In Coventry, the commission of the peace is as fol- 
lows: Henry Grene, William de Skipwith, Hugh de Aston, John de 
Meryngton, Nicholas Michel, Walter Whitwebbe, Richard Frebern 
(Pat., 28, pt. I, m. 21 d, 28 Feb.). The commission for labourers 
(idid,y m. 22 d, 28 Feb.) is identical, except that Grene and Skipwith 
are omitted. Cf, the estreats given in app., D, 5. An excellent instance 
is that of Notts. (Pat., 29, pt. i, m. 28 d and m. 29 d, 26 Jan.) . The com- 
mission for labourers includes William Deyncourt, Geoffrey de Staunton, 
John Lysens, John Bozon, William de Wakebrugge and John Powerr 
that of the peace is identical, except that Grene and Skipwith are added. 
Apparently, however, they did not act, for according to Mem. L. T. 
R., 30, Trin., Breu. Ret., writs dated 8 July are issued to Deyncourt 
** et sociis suis iusticiariis ad pacem nostram et statutaapud Wyntoniam 
et Norhtamtoniam edita in comitatu Not' custodienda necnon ad ex- 
cessus operariorum, seruientum et artificum in eodem comitatu pun- 
iendos assignatis," bidding them deliver their estreats into the ex- 
chequer. 



THE JUSTICES OF LABOURERS 



23 



that the petition of the commons in the spring of 1354 
seems superfluous — que les Gardeyns de la Pees et les 
Justices des Laborers satent uns la ou bonement poet estre 
fait^ 

The precise reason why the justices of labourers had 
proved unsatisfactory it is difficult to understand : Lam- 
bard's statement that they were disliked is not an ex- 
planation.' After Michaelmas^ 1354, the penalties under 
the statutes no longer went to the subsidy,^ so there was 
not the same need for the separation of the two sets of 
estreats ; therefore, the cumbersomeness of a system that 
forced such large numbers of men to act in a double 
capacity, making necessary two series of quarter sessions 
etCy may have become apparent. Administrative diffi- 
culties increased in connection with the whole problem 
of the claims of the lords to a share in the penalties 
under the statutes of labourers. The climax seems to 
have been reached in Warwickshire and Leicestershire, 
and is perhaps indicated in a petition to the king in the 
spring of 1359 from the magnates of these counties:* to 
their complaint of the trouble caused by the necessity of 
separating fines from "excess,"* as well as of distin- 

^Rot, ParL, ii, 257b-258a. Possibly the petition had some effect, for 
the duplication of names is peculiarly noticeable in the commissions 
issued during the following summer. Reeves, Hist, of Eng. LaWy ii, 
276, says: "The commission to execute the statute of labourers was 
usually directed to the same persons who were in the commission of the 
peace," a somewhat different statement from that quoted p. 9, note i. 

* Eirenarcha, 563. *pt. i, ch. iii, s. 2, A. 

*Mem. K. R., 33, Trin., Breu. Baron., rot. 8d. Cf, also Mem. L. 
T. R., 33, Trin., Precepta, rot. 4 and 3, Warwick and Leicester. A 
peculiarly large number of claims to penalties are here recorded as made 
by the lords in these two counties. 

^For the reason for this separation, see pt. i, ch. ii, s. 5, and ch. iii, 
s. 2, B. 



24 



ENFORCEMENT OF THE STATUTES OF LABOURERS 



guishing between the penalties arising from the sessions 
of the peace and those arising from the sessions for 
labourers,* the king replied by bidding the barons of the 
exchequer stop all proceedings in the matter until the 
following Michaelmas in order, as he said, that the whole 
subject could be thoroughly discussed and the most suit- 
able remedy adopted. The next step of which I have 
knowledge is the writ of November, 1359, suspending 
the action of all justices of labourers.* Of the parliament 
of 1360 no record of enactments exists ;' and with the 
exception of proclamations to be made by sheriffs,^ the 
statutes of labourers were apparently allowed to lapse* 
until the meeting early in January of the parliament of 
1361. In the meantime there must have been talk of the 
re-organization of the office of justice of the peace, and 
the tendency proved to be in favor of a consolidation of 
county administration. 

The statute of 1361, usually regarded as marking the 
culmination for this century of the development of the 

'The estreats for Coventry mentioned supra ^ — a case where the two 
commissions are practically identical — may have been one factor in this 
special crisis. 

'Sec s. I and app., 31-32. The writ is signed by the king's son 
Thomas, Edward being out of England from a8 Oct., 1359, to 18 May, 
1360. Longman, Edward the Thirds ii, 46, 57. 

'Parry, Pafliaments^ Ivi. 

^Claus., 33, m. 5 d; 20 Nov.: " De proclamacione facienda de sti- 
pendiis operariorum." Printed by Rymer, iii, pt. i, 459. 

'The commissions of the peace of this period do not refer to the 
statutes of labourers; cf. Pat., 34, pt. i, m. 28 d, m. 9 d, m. 6d. There 
is some evidence that it had not been intended that either the justices 
or the statutes of labourers should be permanent; cf. e.g., the phrase 
"tant come la iusticerie des laborers dure" of the statute of the 31st 
year, or "durante statuto et ordinacione predictis " in a letter fiatent of 
the 32nd year; app.. A, 2 and D, 6. 



THE JUSTICES OF LABOURERS 



25 



powers of the justices of the peace/ gave to them juris- 
diction over weights and measures ; " but, although con- 
taining some important modifications of the existing 
labour statutes,^ it does not include the specific state- 
ment that the justices of the peace are henceforth to be 
responsible for their enforcement. In spite, however, of 
the lack of a definite enacting clause, the first commis- 
sion of the peace issued as a result of it, included the 
power to punish labourers eU., offending against this 
new labour legislation/ The commissions of the peace 
during the years immediately following varied in form, 
sometimes — but not always — including the authority to 
deal with the earlier labour statutes also.* Finally after 
two petitions in parliament,^ the statute of 1368 settled 
the matter definitely and brought all the labour statutes 
permanently within the jurisdiction of the justices of the 
pcace.^ There is, however, an obstinate persistence of 

^ Statutes y 34 £dw. Ill, cc. i, 5, 6, 9, 10 and 11, 1360-1361; usually 
cited as 34 £dw. Ill, 1360. The heading on the Statute Roll, m. 10, 
is "Statutum factum in parliamento tento . . . anno xxxiiii*";" but 
since the session lasted from 24 Jan. to 18 Feb. 1361 (Parry, Parlia- 
ments, Ivi and 127) it is only for one day that it can be described as tak- 
ing place in the thirty-fourth year. The first commission issued after 
this statute is on the Patent Rolls of the thirty-fifth year, dated 20 
March (pt. 2, m. 33 d.j and contains a reference to the statute made 
"in our last parliament." The actions in the De Banco Rolls based 
on clauses of this same statute always refef to it as 35 Edw. Ill, e, g., 
46, Trin., Gimb., 361, or 40, Pasch., York, 96 d. 

'Cc. 5 and 6. 'Cc. 9, 10 and 11. 

^Referred to supra, note i; it is headed " De pace conseruanda." 
Cf. Lambard op. cit,, 39 and my article in E, H, H,, 526. 

*Sce my article, 526-527. ^JRot, Pari., ii, 286 b; 296 a. 

"* Statutes, 42 Edw. Ill, c. 6. It is worthy of note that the scheme 
had been put into practice even before the first recorded petition of the 
commons. The increase in the powers of the justices of the peace 
secured in the early years of Richard II did not affect their relation to 
the statutes of labourers; Rot, Pari., iii, 83-85; Beard, Justice of (he 
Peace, 48. 



26 ENFORCEMENT OF THE STATUTES OF LABOURERS 

the phrase ''justices of labourers,"' — even as late as the 
middle of the fifteenth century — , that seems unintelligible 
except on the hypothesis of a recurrence to the practice 
of the division of the work of a joint commission ; " pos- 
sibly the provision in Elizabeth's labour law for a special 
salary for justices of the peace while executing the act^ 
is a survival of the old differentiation of functions. 

(3) Method of appointment and removal, — The rela- 
tion of the justices of labourers to the keepers of the 
peace made it inevitable that the two sets of officials 
should be appointed by similar methods. By the middle 
of the fourteenth century, the crown, that is the king 
and his permanent council, had made good its authority 
to assign the keepers, but subject to continual efforts on 
the part of parliament to assert its rights in the matter. * 
The struggle lasted during the rest of Edward's reign, in 
regard to both the justices of labourers and the keepers 
of the peace, and was not permanently settled in favour of 
the crown until late in the next reign.' For the decade 
under consideration three out of the five parliaments of 
which there are printed records * contain petitions on the 
subject. During the second parliament of the 25th year 
there are complaints as to the execution of laws in gen- 

* See my article, 530. 

* Especially is this true in regard to the petitions in the Good Parlia- 
ment on the labour legislation; Rot, Pari,, ii, 340-341 » "Bille des 
Laboriers." 

^Statutes, 5 £liz.» c. 4, s. xxxi. 

* Beard, op, cit,, 42-44. For an account of the occasional election of 
the * * conservatores pacis" in the county court at an earlier date, sec 
ibid,, 23-32. 

^Ibid,, 42, note 4, refers to a petition of the third year of R. II as the 
last on the subject; but there is even a later one in the fourteenth year. 
Rot, Pari., iii, 279a and b. 

'See app., 8, for a list of parliaments during the decade. 



THE JUSTICES OF LABOURERS 



27 



eral, including the labour legislation, and a request for 
new commissions with more comprehensive powers: that 
justices eslus en cest present Parlemeni^ par avis des 
Grants et autres de la dite Commune .... soient as- 
signez. The king's answer : il voet qe les Commissions 
des Laborers estoisent en lour force * does not prevent a 
repetition of the request : que commissions dez laborers 
soient faites as certeignes gents en chescune countee^ nomez 
par les ditz communes en meisme le parlementJ^ The 
petition in the autumn of 1353 that justices of labourers 
and keepers of the peace soient establiz solonc la disposi- 
tion notre Seignur le Roi et son bon Conseil receives 
the king's assent : // plest au Roi que Justices bons et 
covenables soient esluz^ and results in a statute. ^ Finally 
there is a more specific request in the parliament in the 
spring of 1354: 

que les Nouns des Justices des Laborers soient veues et ex- 
aminez par le Chaunceller, et Trcsorer, et Justices de Tun 
Baunk ou de I'autre, & en presence des Chivalers du Countee ; 
et ceux qi sont covenables demoergent pur tiel noumbre come 
busoigne solonc le graundure du pais. Et en lieu de ceux qui 
serront oustez soient autres nomez par les ditz Chivalers, 
queux ne soient mye oustez sanz especial commandement 
notre Seignur le Roi, ou resonable cause tesmoignee par lour 
compaignons. * 

Although this petition is granted, a study of the lists of 
appointments and removals does not indicate that the 
commons exercised their right with any regularity. 

^Jiot. Pari,, ii, 238a and b. 

'Embodied in "Statutum de Forma/' etc., app., D, 2; for an analysis 
of this document, see pt. i, ch. iii, s. i, B, a. 

^Jiot. Pari., ii, 252b-2S3a. *App., 17. 

^Rot. Pari,, ii, 257b-258a. 



28 ENFORCEMENT OF THE STATUTES OF LABOURERS 

Except for the 30th and 33rd years, parliament met every 
year during this decade, but sat for only a few weeks at 
a time. A glance at the dates of the appointments of 
the justices of labourers shows that it had not yet be- 
come the custom to issue a complete list annually ; ' in- 
stead, it appears that for nearly every month of the year 
some commission is issued, often for a district that has 
received a previous one very recently, so that many 
counties have as many as three commissions within 
twelve months." In addition, it is apparent that frequent 
associations are made, — on ninety-nine occasions during 
the decade, including usually one or two names, some- 
times more, and thus making a fairly large total.^ On 
the one hand, it is significant that in several instances 
full lists seem to have been the result of parliamentary 
action. For example, the long list of 15 March, 1351, 
or of 2 July, 1354,* may easily have been discussed in the 
sessions immediately preceding those dates ;5 while the 
list of 20 December, 1355, was also issued only a few 
weeks after parliament had sat.* On the other hand, the 
equally complete list of 5 February, 1357, is dated several 
months before the session of that year, ^ at a time when 
no parliament had met for over twelve months. 

^See the chronological list of appointments in app., B, 2. 

'This same statement is true of the keepers of the peace. 

'See app., 42, and B, 3, passim. The practice of associations was 
evidently regarded as an evil and was forbidden in the next reign; 
Statutes, 12 R. II, c. 10. 

* App., B, 2, contains the references to these and to the following lists. 

'The respective sessions had ended on i March and 20 May; the latter 
had included the petition, part of which is quoted on p. 27 and part on 
p. 50, and which may conceivably have had some influence. 

•The session had been from 12 to 30 Nov. 

^It began on 10 April. 



THE JUSTICES OF LABOURERS 



29 



Positive evidence as to how the lists are made up ex- 
ists in a few instances and although referring chiefly to 
the " keepers " may be quoted to illustrate the method. 
I found among Ancient Indictments a list of twenty-three 
names, two of which are crossed through, with a note 
asking the king to grant commissions of the peace to the 
men named for each wapentake in Lancaster;^ letters 
patent enrolled 2 June, 1350, appoint sixty men as keep- 
ers of the peace in Lancaster and include all of the above 
list except the two mentioned." The people of the 
county of Hereford petition the king and council that 
Gilbert Talebot, Piers de Graunsoun and Roger de 
Chaundos shall be keepers of the peace ; ^ the joint com- 
mission of 15 March, 1351, composed of eight members, 
includes the two last named and Richard Talbot. An 
important action (to be discussed again) had been 
brought in the court of king's bench against de Roulegh 
and atte Wode, who had been removed from the joint 
commission in Surrey;* in the winter of 1354, in the 
course of this process, there is a complaint to the king 
that there are no keepers of the peace or justices of 
labourers in the county, and an urgent request that 
Richard de Birton and Henry de Loxleye be made 
"keepers."* Accordingly, in the following July, (there 
had been no full commission for Surrey since March, 
135 1,) two commissions are issued, one for labourers and 
one of the peace, both including de Birton. 

'No. 56. '24, pt. I, m. 3 d; Cal,, viii, 533. 

'Ancient Petitions, 5741; the petition is undated. 

^See pt. I, ch. ii, s. 7. 

* Coram Rege, 28, Hill.» Rex, Surrey, 35: ''et dixerunt quod nulli 
custodes pads seu iusticiarii ad inquirendum fuerunt in partibus illis et 
domino regi supplicauerunt quod . . . ." It seems almost certain that 
"de operariis, etc/' has been accidentally omitted after "ad inquiren- 
dum." 




30 ENFORCEMENT OF THE STATUTES OF LABOURERS 

In lieu of direct evidence, much information as to the 
method of appointment may be derived from a study of 
the changes in the commissions; in addition to those 
caused by death,' there are during this decade thirty 
instances of removal or discharge of individual justices* 
and three of the cancelling of entire commissions.^ A 
detailed analysis of the thirty cases gives the following 
results as to causation : in six, no information ; ^ in six, 
appointment to other duties ; ^ in one, inability to attend 
to the office;* in two, infirmity and old age;^ in fifteen, 
merely quibusdam certis de causis} In the case of two 
of these fifteen, it appears that complaints of their mis- 
deeds brought before the king's council by their col- 

* Croft, Hillary, Lye, Staanton (J. dc), Styuecic (J. de). On the 
claim of the abbot of Ramsay to the penalties before Albert and Sty- 
uecle, justices of labourers in Hunts., the latter were summoned to the 
exchequer. Albert appears and states that no penalties were levied 
" per tempus contentum in brevi; eo quod marescalcia domini Regis per 
totum tempus supradictum in comitatu Hunt' extiterat. £t vlterius 
vobis significo quod lohannes de Stukele mortuus est." Mem. L. T. 
R*> 33 » Mich., Recorda, rot. 2d. We know that the latter was dead 
by Nov., 1357, and yet by the very end of 1358 the news had not reached 
the exchequer. For the manuscript references to the above names as 
well as to the other names in this section, see list of justices in app., 

B, 3. 

'Adam, Beauchaump (W. de), Benteleye, Berneye, Broun, Bures 
(A.), Botetourt, Chaumont, Colvill (J.), Crouthorn, Debenham, Fol- 
vill, Golafre, Grey (J. de, of Rotherfield) , Haldenby, Hubert, Laundels, 
Luscote, Michel (R.), Munden, Novo Mercato, Pakeman, Roulegh, 
Surflet, Sutton (J. de, of Holderness), Tyrel (the elder), Ughtred, 
atte Watere, atte Wode and Wychingham. 

'Essex, Northants. and Northumberland; see app., B,2. 

* Adam, Benteleye, Bures, Munden, Sutton and atte Watere. 

'Botetourt, Laundels, Luscote, Michel, Novo Mercato and Ughtred. 

•Broun. ^Beauchaump (see p. 34), Crouthorn. 

'Berneye, Chaumont, Colvill, Debenham, Folvill, Golafre, Grey, 
Haldenby, Hubert, Pakeman, Roulegh, Surflet, Tyrel, atte Wode and 
Wychingham. 



THE JUSTICES OF LABOURERS 31 

leagues had resulted first in their removal and later in 
judicial actions against them.' In six instances, the 
reasons for a change are brought coram consilio nostra)^ 
in one, coram nobis et consilio \^ while in seven, coram 
nobis or an equivalent phrase is used;^ in half of the 
cases, thus, the action of the crown is clearly indicated. 
In ten instances out of the thirty, the discharge is evi- 
dently honorable, as in four of these the verb is exon- 
erandus,^ in five, other important duties are named,^ and 
in one, old age is alleged ; ' in six, disgrace is implied by 
amouendus;^ in one, there is the doubtful phrase, "he 
cannot attend to the office ; " ' in three, the commissions to 
the individuals named are revoked ; *° while in the remain- 
ing ten the formula "appointed in the place of another" 
gives no clue to the motive. Fourteen of the thirty, 
or nearly a half, are re-appointed during the decade 
either to the same or to a different district ; but only 
three of these fourteen had been described as removed ; " 

'Roulegh and atte Wode; see pt. i, ch. ii, s. 7. 

'Botetourt, Golafre, Grey» Hubert, Roulegh, and atte Wode. 

' Haldenby . 

^Adam, Berneye, Debenham, Folvill, Pakeman, Surflet, and Wych- 
ingham. 

^ B«auchaump, Botetourt, Golafre and Grey. 

'See list in note 5, p. 30; Botetourt is named in note 5. 

^Croathorn; Beauchaump is classed with the " exonerandus " list in 
note 5. 

'Adam, Folvill, Hubert, Pakeman, Roulegh and atte Wode. 

•Brown. 

^Berneye, Debenham and Wychingham. The wording of the writ 
implies that it is the old joint commissions that are being revoked ; 
Gaus., 28, m. 29, i Aug. The news did not reach the exchequer very 
promptly; for on 12 Oct., 30th year, Berneye has to inform it of the 
change. See document quoted pt. i, ch. ii, s. i. 

^* Beauchaump, Benteleye, Berneye, Botetourt, Chaumont, Deben- 



32 ENFORCEMENT OF THE STATUTES OF LABOURERS 

one of the three was tried in the court of king's bench 
and acquitted;' another was restored on better evi- 
dence brought before the king's council." Parliament 
was meeting at the time of this last decision,^ but only 
three times did its sessions coincide with the dates of 
the instances of removal.* In the first of the three cases 
where the entire commission was cancelled, it is because 
another and somewhat different commission was issued a 
few months later ; in the second I have no information as 
to cause ; 5 but in regard to the third, Northumberland, 
there is definite evidence.* A writ of the great seal, 
signed per consilium, directed to the barons of the ex- 
chequer, informs them that the letters patent to the 
justices of Northumberland have been cancelled on ac- 
count of the state of war prevailing in that county, and 
in its wording clearly implies that the action of the crown 
had been taken as a result of complaints to the council.^ 
The story of the repeal of the special commissions * as 
well as of the final repeal of all the separate commissions 
for labourers,' plainly indicating action of the council 



ham, Folvill (removed), Laundels, Michel, Munden, Pakeman (re- 
moved) , Ughtred, atte Wode (removed) ; in the case of Broun, * * Void " 
is written after the entry. 

* Atte Wode . " Pakeman . 

'The letter close is dated 6 Feb., 1352; the session was from 13 Jan. 
to II Feb. 

*In the case of Broun,! Haldenby and Laundels. 

'^ Essex and Northants.; app., 35, note 10 and 37, note 2. 

•App., 39, note I. 

^Mem. K. R., 30, Trin., Breu. Baron., rot. 2 d; pro lohanne de 
Striuelyn et aliis: "propter discrimina guerrarum iminencia in partibus 
supradictis.'' Four years later it was necessary for these same justices 
to petition the crown to order the exchequer to stop process against 
them for their estreats; idtd,, 34, Pasch., Breu. Baron., rot. 5. 

*See pt. I, ch. iii, s. 2, B. *See p. 23-24. 



THE JUSTICES OF LABOURERS 33 

and of the exchequer, without interference from parlia- 
ment, does not belong here ; but enough has been said to 
make out a strong case for the theory that it is the 
king's council (including as ex-offido members both the 
treasurer and the chancellor) with whom the actual 
choice of names usually rests, and that this body is some- 
times guided in its choice by the commons as well as by 
the advice of the local communities. It is worthy of 
note that although by the next century the practice 
began of establishing borough justices of the peace by 
charter,' at this earlier date there is no difference in 
method of assignment as between the county and the 
borough justices, either of labourers or of the peace; 
except that in Oxford the commissions for labourers are 
directed to the chancellor of the university and to the 
mayor of the town, and in London, to the mayor and 
the sheriffs." 

The striking irregularity in the dates of the appoint- 
ments, the frequent issue of a commission for a district 
that had just received one,^ the removal of a man within 
a few weeks after he had been appointed,^ and the ex- 
ceedingly numerous associations to the commissions, 

^ Beard, op, cii,^ 148. 

*P. 10, note 4 and app., 33, note i. 

'In Worcester e, g,^ commissions were appointed successively on 3 
and 20 Dec. , 1355; app., 3S-39. In the course of exchequer processes for 
the Worcester estreats, it appears that the first set of justices had held 
a session for one day and had then been superseded; Mem. L. T. R., 
32y Hill., Presentaciones, rot. 3 d. This must be typical of what fre- 
quently happened. 

^E. g,, Adam was appointed for Derby on 12 July and removed on 
8 Aug., 1356; app., 44. Botetourt was appointed for Warwick and for 
Worcester on 20 Sept., 1351; on 15 April, 1352, on the ground of his 
commission for Warwick ( issued on 20 April) , he was ' ' exonerated ' ' from 
service in Worcester; on 2 July, of the same year, he was re-appointed 
for Worcester, and on 26 Aug., again "exonerated" from service there. 



34 



ENFORCEMENT OF THE STATUTES OF LABOURERS 



caused a constant shifting in the personnel of the com- 
missions to an extent that must have been embarrassing 
and inconvenient. The failure of the council in this re- 
spect may easily have been due to lack of knowledge of 
local conditions and certainly explains the continuance 
of the endeavor of the commons to control the lists, an 
endeavor that did not cease with this reign. 

Closely connected. with the appointment and removal 
of justices is the question of the possibility of an indi- 
vidual's obtaining exemption from the necessity of ser- 
vice against his will. The list of public offices given at 
this period in the regular letters patent of exemption 
does not specify either justices of labourers or keepers 
of the peace, although " other bailiff or minister of the 
king" may be interpreted to cover both. In one in- 
stance a member of a joint commission, William de Beau- 
chaump, had received a letter patent exempting him from 
serving against his will in " any office or commission " ' — 
a slightly different phrase from the usual one — and a few 
weeks later, he is " exonerated " from the joint commission, 
presumably on the ground of this general exemption.* 
In four cases, however, justices of labourers who had re- 
ceived the regular letters patent of exemption are shortly 
afterwards appointed to commissions for labourers.^ In 
the next reign the exemptions in the printed calendars 
mention specifically justices of labourers and of the peace,* 
but I am unable to say at what date the change occurred. 
It is possible that so early in the development of the 

'Pat., 26, pt. 2, m. 21, 13 June; CaL, ix, 297. 

•App., 49. 

*Pakeinan» Pat., 27, pt. i, m. 27, 4 Feb.; Cal., ix, 400. Aton, Pat.» 
27, pt. I, m. 16, 12 March; CaL^ ix, 422. Frenyngham, Pat., 27, pt. i, 
m. 10, 16 April; Halsham, tdtd., 13 April; CaL, ix, 429. 

*Scc my article in £, H, R., 530. 



THE JUSTICES OF LABOURERS 



35 



office of justice of the peace and of labourers, it had not 
become apparent how onerous the service might te; it 
is also to be remembered that the salaries paid were 
some compensation. There is still another point to be 
considered ; were all the men named on a given commis- 
sion forced to do actual work? Both for the large joint 
commissions as well as for the smaller separate commis- 
sions for labourers, the writs for wages answer this 
question in the negative, payment being made only to 
those justices who held the sessions.' Evidence from 
other sources confirms the truth of this statement. In 
actions against the justices brought by the exchequer 
to secure the delivery of the estreats, it is clear that a 
given justice may excuse himself on the plea of never 
having received his letter patent or of not having taken 
part in the session, and that he is fairly sure of being 
sine die^ provided that the exchequer can obtain the 
estreats from some one of his associates.** On the other 
hand, it appears from a Northumberland case previous to 
the one already quoted that service was compulsory, — 
barring some valid excuse which must be made good in 
court. In this instance the justices explained that the 
whole community had earnestly begged them not to exe- 
cute their commission, since the enforcement of the statutes 
of labourers against those rascally Scots, the only labour- 
ers left in the county, would drive the latter in despera- 
tion to acts of violence ; after some consultation on the 
part of the court it is decided that the excuse of the 
justices be accepted.^ On what principle it was deter- 
mined by a given group of men named in a commission 
who were to act and who not, I do not know,** but the fact 

*S. 6. *See pt. i, ch. iii, s. 2, A. *App., D, 5. 

*My impression is that the first named on the list, "capitalis iusti- 
ciarius" might have greater difficulty than his companions in avoiding 
service; cf, pt. i, ch. ii, s. i. 



36 ENFORCEMENT OF THE STATUTES OF LABOURERS 

that the really obligatory matter was the delivery of the 
estreats is only one of the many proofs of the over- 
whelming importance of the profits of justice ; the ap- 
pointments may be irregular or chaotic, but there is no 
irregularity or chaos in the means adopted by the ex- 
chequer to compel service from some members of the 
commissions in each county. 

(4) Territorial districts of their jurisdiction, — The 
ordinance was issued in the form of a letter close. The 
copy enrolled is directed to the sheriff of Kent, with a 
note to the effect that similar writs had been sent to all 
sheriffs ; ' but it has already been shown that there is no 
authoritative evidence as to the number of districts that 
received commissions in pursuance of these writs.* The 
statute clearly applied throughout England, including 
London and all other cities and boroughs, within fran- 
chises as well as without ; ^ but the only direct reference 
to the territorial limits of the jurisdiction of a given set 
of justices is the provision that the justices were to hold 
sessions in each county ."^ 

An analysis of the districts that at some time during 
the years 1 352-1 359 received commissions for labourers 
proves that the actual practice was more complicated 
than the scheme implied by the statute for the joint com- 
missions. The districts may be grouped as follows : ' ( i ) 

^App., II. 'S. I. 

*App., 17. There was considerable difficulty as to London; cf, pt. 
I, ch. iii, s. 2, A for an account of the matter. Unwin, Industrial 
Organization, 138, claims that Elizabeth's great codification was the 
first instance of the application of uniform economic legislation to all 
geographical as well as to all industrial sections of the community; but 
cf, Cunningham, Growth of Eng. Industry , ii, introduction, for a 
more accurate statement. 

* App., 16. ^ These lists are given in app., 138-141. 



THE JUSTICES OF LABOURERS 37 

34 geographical counties; (2) 7 divisions of counties, 
I. e. the three divisions of Lincolnshire and Yorkshire 
respectively, and the Isle of Wight as distinct from the 
rest of the county of Southampton; (3) 8 groups of 
wapentakes within Yorkshire, arranged in varying com- 
binations; (4) 22 towns, all but 2 being boroughs;' (5) 
24 franchises in the hands either of individuals or of an 
ecclesiastical order; (6) 2 counties palatine; total, 97 
districts. Previous to 1352, in addition to districts in- 
cluded in the above list," one separate commission for 
labourers had been issued for Durham ^ and one for Lan- 
cashire before it had become a county palatine;^ also 
joint commissions had been issued on one occasion to 
Holland and Kesteven classed as a single district,^ and to 
two towns* that did not again receive any commissions 
distinct from those of the county. These few instances 
belonging to the complicated and changing systems of 
the first and second periods are not included in the totals 
under consideration. 

A comparison with the districts receiving commissions 
of the peace reveals a marked contrast. The counties 
show some differences; Southampton is never divided 
and Yorkshire almost never, — the West Riding twice,^ 

*On the authority of Mere wether and Stephens » Hist, of Boroughs; 
Newark and Southwell are the exceptions. It should be added that two 
of the towns comprised in the Cinque Ports group were not made bor- 
oagrhs until a little later. 

'A glance at the list in app., 33-35, shows that during the period of 
the joint commissions the total number of districts was small in com- 
parison with the figures just given. 

•See app., 27. *See app., 34. 'See app., 33. 

• Ncwcastle-on-Tyne and York; app., 34. 

'Pat., 27, pt. I, m. 25 d, 8 July (CaL, ix, 450); 30, pt. i, m. 20 d, 13 
May. 



38 ENFORCEMENT OF THE STATUTES OF LABOURERS 

and a group of wapentakes once, obtaining commissions.' 
Only 14 towns" and 4 of the private franchises ^ appear 
in this series, and of the counties palatine only Lancas- 
ter/ making at most a total of 58, nearly a third less 
than the previous total. It appears, therefore, that the 
justices of labourers were frequently acting within much 
smaller geographical limits than were their confreres of 
the peace; but it is worthy of note that, for this decade 
at least, there is no foundation for Lambard's complaint 
that before the statute of 1360 commissions were made 
to the "Wardeins of the peace, not alwaies seuerally 
into each shire, but sometimes ioyntly to sundry persons 
ouer sundrie shires."^ 

All the joint commissions and most of the separate 
commissions of the peace, in cases where they were 
issued to towns, include a non'tniromtttant clause as 
against the keepers of the peace of the county.* As far 
as I can discover, a similar clause against the county jus- 

*Pat., 30, pt. I, m. 20 d, IS Nov.; liberties of Pickering, Whitby 
and Scarborough and wapentakes of Rydale and Harfordlyth. 

'13 identical with those in the first list; see app., 139, and Grantham 
in addition; Pat., 30, pt. i, m. 20 d, 10 May. 

*Pat., 28, pt. I, m. 21 d, 25 Feb., Richmond; 11 March, Holderness; 
30, pt. I, m. 20 d, 25 Oct., liberty of abbot of Reading in Berks.; 8 
Nov., towns of Cambridge and Chesterton. 

^Calendar, TP. D. K.^ xxxii, app. i. 

^Lambard, Eirenarcha, 20-21 ] but cf. p. 51. 

•C/. e. g.y Pat., 26, pt. 2, m. 20 d, 25 June (Ca/., ix, 332); town of 
Beverley. On one occasion four out of the eight keepers and justices 
acting in Holderness are instructed by a supplementary writ that they 
alone are to act in the town of Hedon; Claus., 27, m. 19; 22 April; 
" De non intromittendo de custodia pacis infra villam de Hedon " 
{CaL, ix, 543). Beard, op, cit,, 147, quotes Hale to the effect that in 
the Tudor period unless the charter of a corporation had the exclusion 
clause, the county justices could exercise their jurisdiction within its 
borders, even if it had justices of its own. 



THE JUSTICES OF LABOURERS 39 

tices of labourers does not appear in any of the separate 
commissions for labourers in towns, or even within 
private franchises, although occasionally, in the letters 
patent appointing justices of labourers for a county, it is 
specified that a given town is excluded from their juris- 
diction.' Usually, however, the final clause in their 
commissions ends : tarn infra quam extra libertates * — a 
phrase that seems almost meaningless when one con- 
siders the numerous private franchises within which 
special justices were acting. The discussion of the 
latter belongs to a later section ,3 but it should be em- 
phasized here that since a given franchise frequently con- 
sisted of widely separated holdings, these special justices 
must have cut into the jurisdiction of the county or bor- 
ough justices in a strangely confusing manner. I have 
no information as to the extent to which conflicts actu- 
ally arose, nor as to the principle in accordance with 
which they were settled; but in general it is assumed 
that a justice had full jurisdiction within the district to 
which he had been appointed, and that his writs would 
be obeyed only by the sheriff of the county within which 
this district lay. There was, however, a special provision 
in the statute of labourers that in case of a fugitive flee- 
ing from one county to another, a justice could issue a 
writ to the sheriff of the county to which the delinquent 
had fled, bidding him send the latter to the gaol of the 
first named county.^ 

A study of the list of 97 districts shows some over- 
lapping, especially in Yorkshire; this means that at a 

' App., 158, notes i, 2 and 3. ' App., 27. 

^Cf. pt. I, ch. ill, s. 2, B; and also the response to the petition 
(Rot, Pari,, ii, 252b-253 a) embodied in 2^ Edw. Ill, st. i, c. 3 (app., 
17) quoted p. 27. 

*App., 17. 



40 



ENFORCEMENT OF THE STATUTES OF LABOURERS 



given date this total number of districts could not receive 
distinct commissions, but it is evident from the chrono- 
logical list of commissions that the entire country was 
mapped out into subdivisions sufficiently small for efficient 
administration. Since the statute had only provided for 
the county as a district, it is possible that the king and 
council had determined on the experiment of the smaller 
districts in the belief that the justices of labourers would 
thus be enabled to do their business more thoroughly. 
The fact, however, that the majority of the subdivisions 
are private franchises, lends colour to the theory, to be 
discussed later,* that it was their owners who hoped to 
gain by this practice of the appointment of special jus- 
tices within their liberties. 

(5) Their oath of office. — The statutes of this decade 
do not mention an oath of office, but the first parlia- 
mentary petition having to do with the justices appointed 
to enforce the labour legislation, presented in the session 
of January, 1352, contains a reference to the justices as 
sennentez,* The petition as a whole is refused and in the 
printed rolls of parliament the question of the oath does 
not again come up^ until, toward the very end of 
Edward's reign, there is recorded the request that justices 
of the peace, now justices of labourers also, soient ser- 
mentez devant le Consetl le Rot en mesme la manere come 
autres gentz sont,^ There is, therefore, considerable 
doubt as to how the oath of office was administered dur- 
ing these early years, as well as to the exact form which 

* C/. supra, p. 39. ^Roi, Pari., ii, 238a and b. 

* Unless the prayer that the justices " soient artez par notre dit Seignur 
le Roi a pursuyr les Articles de lour Commission " indicates a demand 
for an oath of office; Rot. Pari,, ii, 252b. For this same petition cf. 
p. 27, note 3. 

*Rot. Pari., ii, 333a and b. 



THE JUSTICES OF LABOURERS 



41 



it took. My search for a copy of the oath has been un- 
successful, but a chance reference in one of the sessional 
records fortunately affords a valuable clue. John de 
Roulegh, or de Rowele, who in 1350 was enforcing the 
ordinance in Surrey,' whether on a separate commission 
for labourers or one that included the peace also, it is 
impossible to say, was in March, 135 1 appointed on the 
joint commission for the same county. In the following 
September, however, he was removed by the king and 
council, and in January was indicted by his former col- 
leagues of the Joint commission for offences committed 
during his first term of office : 

Item presentant quod vbi lohannes de Rowele nuper extitit 
insticiarius domini Regis in comitatu Surr' et iuratus ad 
faciendum ius tarn domino Regfi quam populo ipsius Regis et 
tarn pauperibus quam diuitibus et quod ipse hoc non dimitteret 
pro odio, fauore, munde, nee premissa neque iniuriam alicui 
faceret ; ibi dictus lohannes de Rowele, nullo habito respectu 
ad suum iuramentum, ex falsitate et maliciosa ima^finacione 
sua et pro odio quod habuit versus Gilbertum.' . . . 

The phrases here used are strikingly similar to the cor- 
responding phrases in the regular oath of the king's 
justices as it appears in the *' Red Book of the Ex- 
chequer : " 3 

Le serment des Justices est que bien et leaument serviront le 

* App., 248-249, and p. 11. 

'Assize Rolls, Surrey, 907, m. i d; further extracts are given inapp., 
211-213; see also pt. i, ch. ii, s. 7. 

*See Rolls ed., table of contents, Ixx. It is printed in the /Report on 
the Public Records ^ of 1800, 236: '* Sacramentum Justiciariorum." In 
an article on the '* King's Council" in E. H, R, for Jan., 1906, Mr. 
Baldwin proves that this oath, used early in the reign of Edw. Ill, had 
adopted important phrases of the councillor's oath of 1307, which in 
turn goes back to an earlier councillor's oath of 1257. 



42 



ENFORCEMENT OF THE STATUTES OF LABOURERS 



Roi en Office de la Justicerie et dreiture a lour pouer frount a 
touz auxi bien as poures come as riches et que pur hautesce 
ne pur richesce ne pur amour ne pur haour ne pur estat de 
nuly persone ne pur bienfait, doun ne promesse de nuly. . . . 

Further, the earliest recorded form of the oath admin- 
istered to the justices of the peace that I have been able 
to discover, printed in the rolls of parliament for the 
year 1380,' some time after the consolidation of the two 
commissions, reveals in its opening a marked likeness to 
the oath taken by de Roulegh : 

Vous jurrez que bien et loialment servirez le Roi en loffice de 
Gardein de la Paix, & de Justicerie des Artificers, Laborers, 
Pois et Mesures, & doier & terminer les tortz et grevances 
faitz au Roi & a son people .... selonc voz sen et poair 
ent ferrez avoir plein droit as touz, si bien as povres come as 
riches, si que pur hayour, favour, amistee, ou estat de nulluy 
persone, ne pur bienfait, doun, ou promesse.* . . . 

This oathv^hich was to be administered by the sheriff then 
continues with specific instructions as to the preserva- 
tion of the estreats of the penalties and the rolls of the 
proceedings, and also as to the qualifications and the 

^/^oi. ParL, iii, 85. Lambard had evidently not seen this form; in 
referring to the clause of 13 R. II, st. i, c. 7, that justices of the peace 
are to be ** sworne to keepc, and put in execution all the Statutes touch- 
ing their office/' he writes that it is the first oath that he has found to 
have been administered to the justices of the peace, although he is con- 
vinced that they were not ** unsworn before," and that as it was too 
"generall, & hard to be observed" it was changed to the form given 
by Fitzherbert, almost identical with that in use in Lambard's day. 
Eirenarchay 45-50. The words in Richard's statute are probably not 
themselves the form of the oath but only a reference to an oath, prob- 
ably to that of 1380. 

' Certain phrases of the councillor's oath given by Mr. Baldwin also 
appear, notably "conseil le Roi celerez." 



THE JUSTICES OF LABOURERS 



43 



\ 



duties of the clerk of the justices, and as to the oath to be 
taken by him, — provisions that were probably added only 
after half a century of administrative difHculties had shown 
the urgent need of precisely such remedies. The evi- 
dence just given, slight though it is, certainly establishes a 
presumption in favor of the theory that the substance of 
the oath by which de Roulegh was sworn was practically 
the same as that of the justices of the upper courts, and 
that it was afterwards incorporated into the more elabor- 
ate form devised in the next reign for the justices of the 
peace.' The inference also seems sound that the other 
justices during the years 1349-1359, whether of the 
peace or for labourers, were sworn by the same oath as 
that which de Roulegh violated; but in the absence 
of information for this decade, it is impossible to say by 
whom the oath was administered.' 

'In the Report on the Public Records^ of 1800, 223, among the oaths 
of office in the Chancery Crown ofUce, not administered by the clerk of 
the crown or by his deputies there is printed in English under the 
absurd heading "Justices of the OfHce of Labourer's Weights and 
Measures/' an oath really made up of two oaths: i, of the justice of 
labourers and of weights and measures, 2, of the justice of the peace 
and of labourers. The latter half is practically identical with that of the 
justice of the peace given on the preceding page of the Report and by 
Lambard, op, cit,, 5C-51, and printed by Mr. Beard, op. cit., 171, and 
plainly goes back to Fitzherbert's form. In looking for the original of 
this confused oath Miss Martin reports that the clerk of the crown in 
Chancery says that they have nothing earlier than 1700 ; but she has 
discovered at the Record Office among the Petty Bag documents (Rolls 
of Oaths, no. 31, Various) what seems to be the desired original under 
the title: "Sacramentum Justiciar iorum de operacionibus et mensuris 
et pacis/' apparently in a sixteenth century handwriting. From the 
fact that the justices of labourers are still referred to specifically, it un- 
doubtedly antedates the form given by Fitzherbert but is certainly later 
than the form of 1380. 

*In 1380 it was the sherifT; but in 138Q there is a petition that it shall 
be the chancellor and council. For the later practice see Beard, op. 
cii; 143. 



44 ENFORCEMENT OF THE STATUTES OF LABOURERS 

(6) The amount of their salaries, — Both the ordinance 
and the more carefully framed statute are silent as 
to the compensation of the justices, but within a few 
months after the enactment of the statute, there ap- 
pears on the Close Rolls a series of writs directed to 
the sheriffs, bidding them at a fixed rate per day 
pay wages to the justices out of the issues of the 
latters' sessions/ Since the payments are always to 
be made out of the money penalties imposed as a result 
of proceedings held before the justices, through the 
agency either of the sheriffs or of the subsidy collectors, 
it is necessary to reserve the account of the method of 
payment for the section on the disposition of the penal- 
ties.' Here it must suffice to say that owing to some 
hitch in the administrative machinery, these first writs 
were never executed, and that the failure of the justices 
in these early months of their work to receive their 
salaries explains the two petitions of the commons in the 
parliament of January, 1352, the first of which requests for 
the justices responsible for the statutes of labour ers,^«^^j 
covenables,^ and the second, gagee resonablez^ chescun 
solonq son estatey^ — in the latter case to be determined by 
the committee of apportionment which will be described 
later. ^ At the time of these petitions no separate com- 
missions for labourers w^ere in force, and during the rest 
of the decade the printed parliament rolls contain no 
petitions as to wages. Strictly speaking, therefore, there 
is no parliamentary reference to the salaries of the 

'For the references, see p. 18, note i; for the fate of these writs, cf. 
pt. I, ch. iii, s. I, B, a and s. 2, A. 

» Cf. ibid, 

^Rot, Pari., ii,-238b; for this petition, cf, p. 27. 

*In *' Statutum dc Forma," etc., D, 2. 

*See pt. I, ch. iii, s. i, B. a. 



THE JUSTICES OF LABOURERS 45 

justices of labourers as distinct from those of the keepers 
of the peace until, in 1357, the confirmation by statute of 
certain claims made by the lords of franchises to the 
penalties resulting from the labour legislation included 
a provision that they should, out of their quota of these 
penalties, contribute a share to the salaries of the justices 
of labourers.' Assuredly, however, there was no need of 
complaints from the commons or from the justices 
themselves; a study of the whole subject of penalties, 
based on chancery enrollments and exchequer documents, 
shows that if the sessions were duly held and if any 
penalties were levied at all, the justices were fairly cer- 
tain, during this first decade, to receive their recom- 
pense." 

During the running of the subsidy of 1352, when the 
payment of the justices* salaries was made through the 
agency of the collectors instead of the sheriffs, there is 
evidence that in some cases the instructions of the second 
petition of 1352 were followed, and that the rate was deter- 
mined by a joint committee of the collectors and the 
lawful men of the county, the letters close merely order- 
ing " reasonable wages ; ^ but normally the writs of the 
great seal specify a definite rate per day or per year, to 
be paid to a given justice only for those days during 

* See pt. I, ch. iii, s. 2, B, and app., 18. 

' Later, there must have been some diminution in the regularity of 
payment to the justices now acting on joint commissions; cf. e, g.y Rot, 
Part,, ii, 271b: '* Item que covenables Gages soient ordeinez pur les ditz 
Justices, come semblera as Chanceller et Tresorer notre Seignur le Roi. 
. . . Le Roi commandera as Chanceller et Tresorer sur ce sa volente." 
A similar request is recorded, ibid., 286b; and the accusation is even 
made that the justices fail to do their duty for lack of wages; Und., 312b, 
^33b and 341b. In the course of the next reign the frequent petitions 
finally result in a statutory provision, Statutes, 12 R. II, c. 10. 

'See pt. I, ch. iii, s. i, B, a. 



46 ENFORCEMENT OF THE STATUTES OF LABOURERS 

which he had actually sat. Except for the period of the 
subsidy, the only information as to how this rate was 
fixed comes from the date of the re-organization of the 
office of the justice of the peace, just after the merging 
of the two commissions into one ; the king apparently 
bids the chancellor and the treasurer settle the rate.* 
One may hazard the guess that this duty had, in the past 
also, fallen mainly to these two officials. 

A brief summary of the normal rates is as follows : " 

25th year, by the day: either half a mark for a justice 
and his clerk, t, e. 5s. for the justice and is. 8d. for the 
clerk, or 5s. for the justice alone. 

26th year, by the day : some irregularity occurs during 
the running of the subsidy, since in various instances 
"reasonable wages'* merely are mentioned in the writs. 
When specified the rate proves to be as before, half a 
mark for a justice or the same for a justice and his clerk ; 
probably the clerk is assumed in the higher rate. 5s. for 
a justice alone is frequent, and occasionally 6s. or 3s. 4d. 

There are no more enrollments of writs for salaries 
until early in 1356,^ the subsidy having ceased by the end 

' See p. 45, note 2. 

'These figures are taken from the entries on the Close Rolls, referred 
to p. 18, notes I and 2. It must be remembered that a mark is 13s. 4d. 

'I add the references to the Close Rolls: 30, m. 13, ** De vadiis sol- 
uendis iusticiariis ad inquirendum de operariis assignatis;" a long list 
dated variously from 26 May to 12 Oct. Ibid,, m. 2^^ *' Pro Radulfo de 
Middelneye/' 10 Feb. 31, m. 6, *'Pro Waltero Paries, de vadiis sol- 
uendis, ' * 26 Nov. Ibid. , " De vadiis solvendis iusticiariis ad inquirendum 
de operariis assignatis;" a short list dated 12 Nov. Ibid,, m. 25, " De 
vadiis iusticiariis de operariis et seruientibus soluendis;" a long list 
dated variously from 6 Feb. to 12 Oct. Ibid., ** ProThomade Sloghtre 
et aliis," 16 May. 32, m. 6, '*De vadiis iusticiariis ad inquirendum de 
operariis soluendis;" a short list dated variously from 20 Oct. to 26 
Nov. Ibid,, m. 23, " De vadiis iusticiariis ad inquirendum de seruien- 
tibus assignatis soluendis;'' a long list dated variously from 8 Feb. to 



r 



THE JUSTICES OF LABOURERS 



47 



of 1354. The rate is now given by the year instead of 
by the day, a practice that continues during the remain- 
der of the decade. The amount is usually £10 a year for 
one justice and his clerk, and 10 marks a year for the 
other justice or for each of the other two justices, occa- 
sionally falling as low as £5 a year. While at first the 
clerk is not always specified as receiving a share of the 
greater of the two usual rates, he is so rarely omitted 
from the later lists that it is a fair inference that the £10 
regularly included his wages. Xf the intention is that all 
the acting justices are to be paid at equal rates, the 
clerk's yearly salary will be £3 6s. 8d.* 

In comparing the payments per day of the earlier 
method with these annual payments, it is to be remem- 
bered that in the latter case the writs always stated that 
the round sum was due only if the sessions had been 
held for forty days during the year in question ; while in 
the former case forty days were named as the maximum 
for which the daily rate was to be computed. Under 
both schemes, if the sessions had been for fewer days, 
the salaries would be proportionately less. On this basis 
it is clear that normally the 5s. rate per day for a justice, 
exclusive of the clerk, would amount to £10 a year, a 
considerably larger sum than the 10 marks of the second 
scheme, which averages only 3s. 4d. a day. The clerk's 
total per year under the first scheme of is. 8d. per day, 

20 Jan. /did, , ' * Pro Edmundo de Qyuedon/ ' 14 April. 33, m. 8, " De 
▼adiis iusticiariis soluendis;" a short list dated from 11 Nov. to 2 Dec. 
IM., m. 35, ''De vadiis soluendis iusticiariis de operariis; a long list 
dated from 8 Feb. to 20 Aug. For an example of such a letter close, 
cf. app., D, 5. 

'Although in one instance (see writ to Sloghter, p. 46, note 3) it 
is specified that the clerk is to have £2 and two justices 20 marks be- 
tween them, I am inclined to believe that the larger amount is more 
nsnal. 



48 ENFORCEMENT OF THE STATUTES OF LABOURERS 

would at its maximum, equal £3 6s. 8d., exactly the 
same amount as that which he received according to the 
later method.' Occasionally, it appears that justices 
especially zealous in the performance of their duties, 
I. e. successful in an unusually large number of convic- 
tions, are rewarded by additional payments beyond the 
amount of their regular salaries." It is always to be 
emphasized that if the justices failed altogether in mak- 
ing any convictions, they would be entirely without com- 
pensation for their labours ; a fact plainly of the greatest 
possible efficacy in encouraging a thorough enforcement 
of the statutes entrusted to their care. 

^In the earliest enactment on the subject (12 R. II, c. 10) the clerk's 
salary was increased to 2 s. per day, while the rate prescribed for the 
justices (by this date serving on joint commissions) was only 4 s. per 
day, midway between the two previous rates; and the sessions were 
now only expected to last three days four times a year. It is worth 
while to compare with the amounts received by the justices the rate of 
payment to members of parliament at this date; 4 s. a day for a knight 
and 2 s. for a citizen or burgher. Stubbs, Const, Hist,, ii, 247. 

*The writ to Edmund de Clyvedon {suprap. 47, note) had ordered ;f 10 
beyond his regular wages on account of his great expenses and con- 
tinuous labours, '* necnon proficuum magnum, quod nobis per dili- 
genciam et laborem suum fecit." Likewise, an additional payment of 
£S Had been ordered by writ of the great seal for Peverel and Halsam 
in Sussex because they had shown "diligenciam et solicitudinem . . . . 
in sessionibus suis inde pro nostro et populi nostri commodo;" Mem. 
K. R., 34, Trin., Breu. Baron., rot. 14, " Pro vicecomite Sussex'." 
The sheriff had such difficulty in obtaining his allowance from the ex- 
chequer for this payment that he petitioned the crown, and nearly three 
years later, a second writ was issued by the king and council to the 
barons ordering them to make the proper allowance. For an account 
of the episode, cf. Mem. L. T. R., 34, Trin., Precepta, rot. 6 d, Surr' 
Sussex.' (Another portion of the same process is given in app., D, 6.) 
As the ordinary writs for wages make no provision for extra sessions 
held according to the statute (app., 16) at the "discretion " of the jus- 
tices, it is possible that these additional payments represent the reward 
for such sessions. 



THE JUSTICES OF LABOURERS 



49 



It has already been pointed out that only those justices 
were paid who actually sat, and that with the system of 
practical exemption for a portion of each commission 
from the necessity of service, only two or three f on rare 
occasions four or five) received salaries;' the figures 
recorded in exchequer documents show that the maxi- 
mum was frequently, though not always, reached.* From 
these two considerations it is plain that there was a 
fairly definite limit to the total amount due in wages out 
of the penalties in a given county. 

Suits brought by the justices to secure the payment of 
their salaries ^ show the importance with which such pay- 
ment was regarded, and prove beyond doubt that in the 
fourteenth century the compensation was considered an 
essential factor in the organization of the office.^ 

(7) TTie personnel of the commissions^ — During this 
decade the petitions of the commons as to the keepers of 
the peace and the justices of labourers, either of the 
joint or separate commissions, include no requests for a 
definite property qualification * but merely mention rather 

*C/. p. 35. "Sec pt. I, ch. iii, s. 2, A. 

'In the court of king's bench and in the exchequer; see pt. i, ch. iii, 
s. I, B, b and s. 2, A. 

*The later petitions already quoted complaining of the neglect of their 
duties because of the lack of salaries point to the same conclusion; I am 
inclined, therefore, to disagree with Mr. Beard's view {pp, cit,^ 150), 
that " no attempt was ever made to provide a regular salary for the 
justice of the peace." 

*See list of justices in app., B, 3. The calendars of Close and Patent 
Rolls issued since my monograph was practically completed (r/*. app., 
20-21) will render comparatively easy a really thorough study of the per- 
sonnel of the justices. I can here emphasize only a few important points. 

* Neither the ordinance or the statute had specified any qualifications. 
A statute of 18 H. VI, c. 11 {Statutes)^ enacted that to be eligible to 
the peace commission a man must have an income of £^ per annum; 
with the change in the value of money, this sum soon became merely 
nominal. Cf, Beard, op, cit,, 144. 



50 



ENFORCEMENT OF THE STATUTES OF LABOURERS 



vague and varying requirements: they are to be les 
Grants de la terre. Conies et Barons^ chescun en sa 
Marche, od les plus loialx et sages de la ley;^ or desplus 
suffisantg demorants deins les Countees;^ the statute re- 
sulting from this latter petition enacts the appointment 
of iustices sachants de let, qi soient bones et couenables? 
The most specific demand is for des plus loialx , sages & 
sufficeants des CounteeSj , . , et que nul Justice soit as- 
signe par commission sil ne soit sufficient cCestat et con- 
dition a respondre au Rot et au poepie,^ Beyond the 
negative criticism implied by such petitions there seems 
to be no evidence of any general complaint against the 
status of the men assigned during these years. Closely 
bound up with the subject of the qualifications of the 
justices is the question of their residence in the districts 
to which they are assigned ; the petition for men demo- 
rantz deins les Countees,^ repeated next time with greater 
emphasis, et nient en foreins lieux^ shows that there 
must have been some abuse of the non-residence practice. 
An examination of the appointments has already brought 
out a notable difference between the membership of the 

^ Rot, Pari,, ii, 238a; cf, p. 27. 

^Ihid., ii, 252b; cf, p. 27. *App., 17. 

^Rot. Pari., ii, 257b; in this case the request applies to the keepers 
of the peace also; cf, p. 27. A writ of privy seal, addressed to the chan- 
cellor under date of 17 Aug., 1350 is worth quoting although it refers to 
a keeper of the peace, not to a justice of labourers: "Force qe nous 
auons entenduz qe Laurence de Ludelowe qest assigne vn des gardeins 
de nostre pees en le conte de Shropshire nest pas sufisant ne couenable 
pur la garde de nostre dite pees et de faire autres choses qappartignent 
a son office, vous mandons que remue le dit Laurence facez assigner en 
son lieu aucun autre homme suffisant del dit conte qi serra plus couen- 
able pur la garde de la pees susdite." Writs of Privy Seal, Chancery, 
Series I, file 347, no. 21, 102. 

^Rot. Pari,, ii, 252b; quoted supra^ note 2. 

^Ibid,, 2S7b; quoted supra, note 4. 



THE JUSTICES OF LABOURERS 51 

joint as compared with that of the separate commissions ; ' 
the former include a large proportion of men of law and 
of magnates, appointed at the same date, for a great 
number of counties ; e, ^., John de Moubray and William 
de Skipwith for nine counties, William de Shareshull for 
seven, and similarly in many other cases.' Lambard's 
description, therefore, of the justices assigned to execute 
the statute of labourers as " not resiant in the countrey, 
but sent downe for the time of that seruice " is well justi- 
fied.^ While occasionally the payment of wages in a 
given district proves to be to one of these well-known 
men, e. g.^ to Skipwith in Lincolnshire,^ showing that he 
was performing actual service, usually it is the less 
famous names that appear on the salaried list, even in the 
case of the joint commissions. On the separate com- 
missions for labourers there is a much smaller proportion 
of distinguished men and very few instances where the 
same men were appointed to a plurality of districts. 
Perhaps the petitions of the commons had effect ; at any 
rate, on the whole, it is fair to characterize the lists of 
justices of labourers as composed of residents of the dis- 
tricts for which they were acting. 

Further, while the joint commissioners, having power 
to hear and determine cases of felony and of homicide, 

* C/. p. 22. 

'The list in app., B, 3. shows the extent of this practice, an evil a little 
different in nature from that of which Lambard had complained; cf. 
p. 38. 

^Eirenarcha, 562; erroneously described as justices of labourers only. 
Cf, p. 9, note I. 

*Gaus., 26, m. 16, 20 June, in the district of Lindsey; Cal.y ix, 437. 
Und,^ Cavendish in Essex and Suffolk. The latter 's murder by the in- 
surgents has even been attributed to his relation to the statutes of labour- 
ers; Treveljran's Wycliffe, 217 and 219. 



52 



ENFORCEMENT OF THE STATUTES OF LABOURERS 



would naturally include men learned in law,' there seems 
i priori no such urgent need in the case of the justices 
of labourers; but even among the latter, there appear 
the names of twenty-seven men who at some time during 
their careers, served as judges in the upper courts,* and 
merely a cursory study of the list shows that many of 
these justices were acting as justices of assize and of 
oyer and terminer.^ 

It has been shown that in boroughs there is some 
tendency to employ existing officials:^ the mayors of 
York and of Nottingham both served on commissions 
that, included other names as well ; in Oxford on four 
occasions, the mayor and chancellor are alone appointed ; 
while in London the mayor and sheriffs are assigned, in 
the first instance alone, in the second with three others.* 
The case of London is distinctly abnormal, for it had 
been stated in the parliament in the autumn of 1355 that 
sheriffs and coroners were not to be appointed justices.** 

^The statute of 34 Edw. Ill, c. i, provided that the commission of 
the peace (now a joint commission) should include *' one lord, and with 
him three or four of the most worthy in the County, with some learned 
in the law." 

'Including justices of the court of king's bench and of common pleas, 
several barons of the exchequer and several chancellors; cf, Foss' Judges 
of England, 

' See indices of the calendars of Patent and Qose Rolls. 

* As a matter of fact the ordinance had empowered the mayors and 
bailiffs of cities and boroughs to enforce some of its provisions; app.^ 
10-11. 

^ App., 33 and note i, 34, 40, 43. For London see in addition, pt. i ^ 
ch. iii, 8. 2, A. 

*"Ne que nul Viscount, Coroner, ne nul de lour Ministres desore 
soient assignez Justices en nulle commission; " Rot, ParL^ ii, 365b. 
Later it was necessary to repeat the prohibiton; ibid,, 335b. Beard, 
op, ciL, 42, writes that the movement against sheriffs may have been 
an attempt ' * to secure greater independence from purely royal of¥i- 



THE JUSTICES OF LABOURERS 53 

It is probable that there had been complaints that at the 
present moment the evil was peculiarly pressing. A 
study of the lists of sheriffs ' shows, that, leaving out of 
consideration magnates like the earls of Arundell and of 
Warwick, who held the office for life or for long terms, 
and who were also acting on innumerable commissions, 
there are during this decade between thirty and forty 
occasions when a sheriff or a subsheriff is actually serv- 
ing as justice of labourers, and that, at the very time that 
this parliament was in session, five sheriffs were thus 
doing double duty.* Two days before the end of the 
session, Laundels, justice of labourers in Oxfordshire, 
was made sheriff of Oxfordshire and Berkshire; his 
prompt removaP from the commission of labourers may 
have been the result of the parliamentary agitation of the 
question ; but the practice was not checked, since, of the 
cases referred to above, about half occur after this date. 
The anomaly of this special combination of duties is ap- 
parent; a justice would issue writs to himself as sheriff 
to summon jurors and attach delinquents, and would then 
as sheriff report to himself as justice that the writs had 
been executed. A case to the point occurs in Bucking- 
hamshire ; Hamden as sheriff is ordered by the exchequer 
to levy from himself as justice of labourers a sum due to 
the crown.* A very large proportion of men who had 

cers; " the objection on practical grounds seems to me sufficient ex- 
planation. 

*No. ix, in Lists and Indexes, 

*Harewedon, jtistice in Northants. and sheriff of Cambridge and 
Hunts.; Laundels referred to in my text; Northo, justice in Sussex and 
sheriff of Surrey and Sussex; Paries, justice and sheriff in Northants. ; 
Threlkeld, justice and sheriff in Ctmiberland. 

' Appointed sheriff on 28 Nov. and removed from his commission for 
labourers on 2 Dec. 

*App., D, 3. 



54 



ENFORCEMENT OF THE STATUTES OF LABOURERS 



been or were to be sheriffs were serving during this de- 
cade as justices of labourers, often only a short interval 
elapsing between their two sets of duties/ In the cases 
where appointment to other duties is specified as the 
reason for the discharge of a justice from service, the 
following are mentioned : commission in another county,, 
sheriff twice, steward, collector of subsidy, and " other 
business of the king."* 

It has already been emphasized that at the time of the 
enactment of the statute the commissions included a 
number of magnates appointed simultaneously for several 
counties ; it is, therefore, not surprising to find a clause 
allowing the justices the privilege de deputer autres soutz 
euXy tantz et tielx come Us verront que tnieltz sotiy put 
la garde de meisme ceste ordinance? There was, how- 
ever, some opposition to this system; a petition, in 1353^ 
begs that keepers of the peace and justices of labourers 
shall not appoint deputies;^ two years later justices of 
labourers are forbidden to appoint deputies.^ The only 
positive evidence for the custom that has come to my 
notice is in the case of Wiltshire, where for 1352 and 
1355 proceedings exist coram deputatis iusttciariorum , 
although the justices themselves are also acting.^ 

The few definite instances where it is apparent to what 
other ofHces justices of labourers were appointed, the fre- 
quent occurrence of their names on the list of sheriffs,, 
and also in the indices of the calendars that are thus far 

^E,g., in Northants., Blundell had acted as sheriff up to 3 March ^ 
1351, and on 15 March was appointed to the joint commission. 

'See p. 30, and note 5. 'App., 15. 

*Rot, Pari., ii, 2S2b. ^Ibid., 265b. 

*App., C, I, nos. xvi and xvii. In a later Wiltshire roll, that for 
3157, there is no mention of deputies. 



THE JUSTICES OF LABOURERS 



55 



in print, where they appear as justices of oyer and ter- 
miner, collectors of the subsidy,' escheators etc., give a 
fairly clear picture of the general character of the men 
who were doing the work of enforcing the labour stat- 
utes. Apart from a score or more of judges, afterwards 
famous on the bench, and from a still smaller proportion 
of noblemen, the large majority of these justices seem to 
belong to that class of landed gentry to whom at this 
period the business of local administration of all kinds 
was entrusted, and into whose hands the task of the pre- 
servation of the peace eventually fell.* 

There is no record at this period of any general indict- 
ment against the honesty and straight dealing of the 
justices of labourers, and further evidence will show that 
the actual instances of their conviction for misdoings are 
not many. At any rate it is evident that the king's 
council and the commons were at one in their belief in 
the superior merits of local justices for enforcing the 
labour legislation, and were shrewd enough to see that 
as employers of labour in the very district in which they 
were acting, perhaps even of the very offenders sum- 
moned before them for trial,^ the justices would have 
every incentive to show laudable zeal as to frequent ses- 
sions and numerous convictions, and would thus prove 
the most efficient of administrators. 

This account of the 671 justices of labourers affords 

*£'. ^., de la Mare is acting as collector in the same county in which 
he had recently served on a joint commission; see Mem. L. T. R., 29, 
Mich., Presentaciones, rot. 7, Roteland*. 

'See Beard, op. ciL, 71. 

'While Gilbert de Berewyk was on the commission for labourers in 
Wiltshire, his own servant was indicted in sessions for departure from 
Berewyk's service and for receipt of illegal wages; Pat., 27, pt. 2, m. 
14, 8 Aug., " De pardonacione utlagarie {Cal., ix, 485). 



56 ENFORCEMENT OF THE STATUTES OF LABOURERS 

convincing proof that parliament, king and council^ 
x:learly intended that the statute should be enforced, and 
that they were using every means in their power to 
secure this end. The results of their efforts must be 
looked for in the records of the proceedings before the 
justices and in the amounts of the penalties imposed. 



CHAPTER II 

PROCEEDINGS BEFORE THE JUSTICES OF LABOURERS 

In comparison with the completeness of the chancery 
enrollments having to do with the appointments of the 
justices, the number of sessional records in existence for 
the decade is disappointingly meagre/ eighteen rolls, 
representing thirteen counties. Other sources, however, 
abound in references to similar rolls which cannot now 
be found,* while exchequer documents as to the penal- 
ties,5 especially subsidy accounts'* and entries of pay- 
ments of justices' wages,* afford convincing proof that 
the justices were sitting with fair regularity throughout 
the country. The eighteen rolls, therefore, by no means 
give exhaustive information as to the activity of the 
justices, and even if thoroughly analyzed will not furnish 
complete statistics as to rates of wages or of prices, or as 
to the number of oflFenders in the various economic and 
social classes affected by the statutes. They may, 
nevertheless, be regarded as typical for the administra- 
tive methods of the justices, their procedure in session, 
their relative emphasis on different portions of the legis- 
lation, and the character of their penalties, and contain 
important if not conclusive evidence as to the general 
trend of rates and the usual status of the culprits. 

' By no means meagre however in comparison with the usual state- 
ment that none can be found for an earlier date than the sixteenth 
century. 

'See p. 64, and app., 143-144. 'Pt. i, ch. iii, passim. 

*IM., s. I, B. ^Ibid., s. 2, A. and pt. i, ch. i, s. 6. 

57 



58 ENFORCEMENT OF THE STATUTES OF LABOURERS 

The following sections are based chiefly on data de- 
rived from an examination of the entire contents of these 
eighteen rolls, and more especially from the extracts 
selected for printing, the latter having been chosen with 
a view to illustrate as far as possible every phase of the 
work of the justices in session.* 

(i) General description of the sessions and of the ses- 
sional records. — With characteristic administrative pre- 
cision the statute' had specified that the justices were to 
hold their sessions four times a year, Lady-Day (25 
March), St. Margaret's (20 July), Michaelmas (29 Septem- 
ber), and St. Nicholas (6 December), and at any other 
time at their " discretion. "^ This earliest regulation of 
the dates of what may properly be called "quarter ses- 
sions," framed for the joint commission of the peace and 
for labourers,^ was held to apply also to the separate 
commissions for labourers,^ and until two years after the 
consolidation of the commissions, — and, therefore, after 
my decade, — was not modified by statute.^ Although 
there was no enactment as to the length of the sessions, 
the writs for payment of the salaries of the justices from 
the very beginning assume forty days to be the normal 
amount per year,' but do not suggest that this maximum 
is compulsory, or that it needed to be distributed equally 
among the four sessions. A petition of 1354, requesting 
that the justices sit at least forty days a year,® implies 
some shortcomings on their part, but the complaints do 

* App., C, I. 

'The ordinance had not mentioned sessions of justices. 
'App., 16. 

^Cf, p. 9, note I, for reference to Lambard's error in this matter. 
^Proved by the dates of the Cornwall sessions, app., 159-160. 
^ Statutes^ 36 Edw. Ill, st. i, c. 12. 'Pt. i, ch. i, s. 6. 

^Rot. Pari., ii, 2S7b-2s8a; cf, p. 27. 



PROCEEDINGS BEFORE THE JUSTICES 



59 



not become urgent until a later period/ It is evident 
from the entries on the Pipe Rolls as to justices' wages 
that the maximum of forty days was fairly usual, 
although not inevitable.* A glance at the chronology 
of the dates of the recorded sessions indicates wide 
diversity of practice in the different counties, varying 
from the orderliness of the Cornwall rolls, seven sessions 
at the statutory dates, of ten days each, to the irregu- 
larity, for example, of the Derby roll, where the justices 
sat for one or two days in six different months, with no 
reference to the prescribed dates. The utter chaos for 
Hereford and Rutland, where the sequence of the years 
and of the days of the week is hopelessly confused,^ 
seems to indicate a poor job on the part of the clerk, 
but the general impression conveyed by the eighteen 
rolls in distinction from the Pipe Roll entries, is that 
the maximum of forty days was rather rare, and that 
the " discretion " of the justices as to choice of dates was 
freely exercised. 

With no statutory provisions as to the place for the 
holding of sessions, the practice varies from county 
to county ; in some instances the justices sit always at 
the chief town,-* or at two or three important towns ; ^ 
sometimes they move with regularity from place to 
place ;^ in two cases, various sets of deputies hold in- 

*The stattite of the 36th year seems to be due to complaints in parlia- 
ment of the irregularity in the holding of sessions; Rot, Pari,, ii, 
271b; cf. also ibid., 319b. The petitions continue during the next 
reign, but three days four times a year are finally decided as sufficient. 
Seep. 48, note i. Lambard complains that in his time the sessions 
of thc^ peace often did not last over three hours altogether; FArenarcha^ 
570. 

'C/. p. 45, and pt. I, ch. iii, s. 2, A. 

•App., 165-166; 186-189; 202-203. *App., 145-149. 

*App., 165-166. 'App., 159-160; 204-210. 



6o ENFORCEMENT OF THE STATUTES OF LABOURERS 

quests in every hundred, and make their reports to 
the justices who are conducting their sessions at the 
chief town.* I have been unable to discover where, 
within the limits of the town, the sessions were usually 
held; in Essex, a iusiice sur laborers is indicting and 
convicting labourers en le Chaustel Daungre ; it will be 
shown later, however, that there is some doubt as to 
the nature of his commission, and in any case his pro- 
ceedings were irregular.' 

From the rolls themselves one can not always infer 
how many or which justices were acting, as the heading 
is frequently coram . . . (then follows one name) et sociis 
suis ; but it has been emphasized that the writs for wages 
indicate that the number of "working" justices ranges 
from two to five;^ the form of the commission implies 
that a minimum of two must be present,* and it appears 
that one of the charges against a justice under indictment 
is that he sat alone in judgment.^ It seems to have been 
the custom to speak of one justice of each commission, 
usually the first name on the list, as capitalis iusticiarius^ 
or principaliter nominatus ; ' but just what additional re- 

^ App., 228-229. * App., 266. and pt. i, ch. iii, s. i, A. 

^ Cf. pp. 17*18, and notes i and 2. 

^ '' Et ideo vobis mandamus quod . . . vos tres et duo vestrum . . .'* 
app., 26. 

° App., 212. It is strange that in two instances in the second series 
of writs for the 26th year, Kesteven and Holderness, wages are to be 
paid to one man only. See supra, note 3. Chester is a distinct ex- 
ception; some of the proceedings take place before one justice only, and 
the commission issued just after my decade is directed to one man only; 
p. 16, note 2. 

•Mem. L. T. R., 29, Trin., Breu. Ret,, rot. 2 d; Henry de Percy is 
thus described. Ibid,, 32, Mich., Recorda, rot. 21, Derby; Braylesford 
appears in court under this title. 

'See Exchequer, K. R., Accounts, 1 10/15, Norfolk; Berncye (whose 



PROCEEDINGS BEFORE THE JUSTICES 6l 

sponsibilities were incurred by him I can not say/ With 
the two or more justices who were holding sessions there 
sat the clerc des iustices, referred to in the statute of 
labourers, without any account of his duties.* He was 
paid a regular salary,' presumably in return for the labour 
of writing the two classes of sessional records, the placita 
or accounts of the proceedings, and the "estreats'* or 
memoranda of the resulting penalties. The former seem 
usually to be made up according to a definite system, 
beginning with the enrollment of the letters patent in 
virtue of which the given justices were acting, followed 
by the usual writs to the sheriff for the summoning of 

case has been referred to, p. i8, note 4 and p. 31, note 10) makes the 
following explanation to a writ demanding his estreats as a member of 
a peace commission: " Et de alio tempore (. . . illegible) non habeo 
quia commissiones ante tempus infradictum ad inquirendum de infra 
contentis non habui nee post predictum tempus intromittere potui prop- 
ter breve domini Regis michi et Willelmo de Wychingham tunc socio 
meo de premissis directum de vlterius non intromittendo, cuius breuis 
transcriptum patet in cedula in ista inclusa. Et sciendum quod post 
illiid tempus alie commissiones de pace custodienda in comitatu predicto 
dxrecte fuemnt lohanni Bardolf de W3rrmegeye et alia vice lohanni de 
Norwico, michi et aliis, sed recorda et extracte inde remanent penes 
ipsos tamquam prindpaliter in dictis commissionibus nominatos. ' ' Un- 
doubtedly there was no difference in this matter as between a keeper of 
the peace and a justice of labourers. Cf, Chaucer in Prologue to the 
Canterbury Tales: 

'* A Frankeleyn was in his companye 



f » 



At sessiouns ther was he lord and sire; 
Full ofte tyme he was knight of the shire.' 
Verses 331, 355 and 356, 

*For tentative suggestions, cf, p. 35, note 4 and p. 64 of this section. 

*App., 16. 

'C/. p. 46. According to an instance noted in the Records of the 
Borouzh of Leicester^ ii, 80, the mayor seems to have loaned to the 
keepers of the peace the services of his own clerk and then to have 
claimed from them the amount of the clerk's salary. 



62 ENFORCEMENT OF THE STATUTES OF LABOURERS 

the jury of indictment, and then by the presentments and 
summoning of the indicted eU.; * sometimes the amount 
of the penalty is entered over the name of the convicted,* 
but normally the estreat roll is altogether separate. The 
chaotic condition of some of the existing rolls looks as if 
the clerk took merely rough notes during the session, 
and was then responsible for getting the roll into proper 
shape from memory ; in one case a justice admits that he 
has the estreats but confesses that they are not yet prop- 
erly arraiata? There is plenty of evidence that the clerk 
did not always do his work well : e, g.y the justices are 
distrained to correct mistakes in the estreats;^ the es- 
treats are returned to the justices because they seemed to 
the court of the exchequer esse insufficientes et non debita 
forma scriptos vel arraiatos ; ^ there is, on at least one 
occasion, a discrepancy between the date stated in court 
by the justices and that written in the estreat roll by the 
clerk ; * on another occasion the court questions whether 
the estreats brought into the exchequer by the clerk 
(apparently) are in truth the estreats of the justices.' 
The clerk was evidently used as a messenger, and 
appears before the barons to prove that he had 
delivered the estreats to the collectors.* One clerk 
is shown to have had the estreats in his posses- 
sion and to have carelessly lost them;' others are 

*S. 2 of this chapter, and app., 173-175. It is not meant that this 
logical order is always adopted by the clerk. 

'App., 181-183. 

-'Mem. L. T. R., 26, Mich. Presentaciones, De diedato, Southampton. 

^Ibid., 35, Mich., Breu. Ret., rot. i, Holland; a reference to the clause 
of Rubeus Liber, also quoted in a case given in app., 365. 

^Mem. L. T. R., 32, Hill., Recorda, rot. id; Northants. 

^/did., 33, Mich., Recorda, rot. 16, Lincoln. 

'App., 365. "App., 290. 'App., 285. 



PROCEEDINGS BEFORE THE JUSTICES 



63 



worse than careless and, in league with corrupt justices 
to aid in their extortion, are found substituting the 
name of an innocent for that of a guilty man/ It is not 
unnatural that by the next reign it was deemed advisable 
to administer an oath to the clerk as well as to the jus- 
tices, especially as by this date he had become responsi- 
ble for the custody of the records.* 

This brings up a difficult problem ; how and where were 
the sessional records kept? A distinction must at once be 
made between tht placi^a and the estreats of the penalties ; 
in examining the whole question of the disposition of the 
penalties it will appear that there was a carefully worked- 
out system in accordance with which the estreats were 
regularly delivered into the exchequer.^ Innumerable pro- 
cesses show that eventually the estreats were received in 
safety, and that the action of the exchequer was regular 
and persistent in insisting on securing them ; but it also 
appears that the justices used exceedingly haphazard 
methods in the care of the estreats ; apparently any one 
of the "working" justices who chanced to have them 
penes se kept them merely in his own dwelling,* and 
from what has already been said as to the possibility of 
practical exemption on the part of some of the commis- 
sion, there is no certainty as to who the "working jus- 
tices " would prove to be. In the case of the placitay it 

' App., 241-242. 

'The oath of the justices of the peace who were now responsible for 
the labour legislation includes the following: "et que vous ne prendrez 
ne resceiverez nul Qerc devers vous pur faire escrire ou garder les 
Recordes et Proces avantdictes, s'il ne soit primerement jurez devant 
vous de celer le conseil le Roi, & de faire et perfournir bien et loialment 
de sa part qant a son office & degree apent en celle partie . . . '*; Rot, 
P^L, iii, 85b. Cf. pp. 42-43. 

'See pt. I, ch. iii, passim, 

*£, g, app., 283; cf. also "in partibus suis; " pt. i, ch. iii, s. i, B, b. 



64 ENFORCEMENT OF THE STATUTES OF LABOURERS 

is still more difficult to find traces of the development of 
any rigid system for their preservation. That they were 
usually kept for a time at least is clear from the follow- 
ing considerations : records of actions before the justices 
of labourers are summoned to Westminster by writ of 
certiorari in order that the case may come before the 
king's bench, the council or the chancellor;^ the ex- 
chequer for some special reason often orders the justices 
to deliver into its custody their records, rolls and pro- 
cesses ; * in the case of certain difficulties as to the divis- 
ion of the penalties the treasurer and the barons bid the 
justices examine their records and discuss the point in 
question fully among themselves ; ' on one occasion the 
king has heard that a certain one of three justices had 
the placita in his possession and therefore to him and to 
him alone is directed the writ ordering him to examine 
the records.^ There is also some indication that the 
capitalis iusiiciarius was more directly responsible for 
the custody of both estreats and placita than were his 
colleagues.^ 

An investigation of the eighteen existing rolls show 
that in fourteen cases their survival can be explained 
by special causes;* either the roll in question was 
wanted for a particular purpose by the exchequer, 

' See s. 7; also app., C, 2. 

*Cf. writs in app., C, i; note 3 infra contains one instance out of 
many of a reference to the existence of a roll which I have not been 
able to discover. 

'Mem. L. T. R., 35, Mich., Breu. Ret., rot. 27, Berks.: '*nos igitur 
inde per vos cerciorari volentes vobis mandamus si pluries quod visis 
rotulis placitorum inde penes vos residentibus, discussoque plenius inter 



vos . . . ." 



* App., 211. 

^Cf, p. 60, note 7, supra, *App., 144. 



PROCEEDINGS BEFORE THE JUSTICES 



65 



chancery or court of king's bench,' or by some accident 
its membranes had been united to the membranes of 
some other roll of placita that normally belonged in 
Westminster;" in one instance the placita and the 
estreats of penalties were combined.^ Since it is only in 
the case of four rolls that there is no obvious explana- 
tion of their preservation, the conclusion is warranted 
that the writs summoning them to Westminster have 
been lost, and that there is at this date no provision for 
the delivery of such records as a matter of ordinary 
routine into the custody of any one department of the 
central government* or even for their permanent safe- 
guarding in the hands of the local officials.' Unless a 
given roll were wanted within a few years, it probably 
would never be wanted ; it is therefore easy to see that 
there would be no motive for keeping it indefinitely. 
One cannot but rejoice at the fortunate chance that led 
to the survival of these eighteen rolls to serve as a basis 
for a description of what went on day by day before the 
justices and their clerk. 

(2) Procedure in sessions. — While the ordinance had 

'The writs are either attached to the rolls or in some cases enrolled 
elsewhere, e, g,, on the Memoranda Rolls; see app., 173, 231-232. 

«App.. C, i; nos. I, II, III, VII, XI and XVII. 

*App., C, I, no. XIII; r/. pt. i, ch. iii, s. 2, A, as to the London 
records. 

* Although by 1336 it had been enacted (^Statutes, 9 Edw. Ill, st. i, 
c. 5) that justices of assize, of gaol delivery, and of oyer and terminer 
should send all their records and processes into the exchequer each year. 

^ ^y the next reign the oath of the justices quoted previously has the 
following clause: '' & touz les Recordz et Proces que serront faitz devant 
voos ferrez mettre en bone & seure garde." Rot, Pari,, iii, 85b. The 
oath continues as on p. 63, note 2, supra, putting the responsibility on the 
clerk. In spite of this provision there are several instances where dur- 
ing the peasants' revolt sessional records were destroyed by the insur- 
gents; see Rot, Pari., iii, 275a, and R6ville, Soulivetnent, 38. 



66 ENFORCEMENT OF THE STATUTES OF LABOURERS 

said nothing as to the procedure of the justices, the 
statute had been specific: the justices are empowered 
to swear in local officials, seneschals, bailiffs, and con- 
stables, to enforce the legislation and to make reports at 
quarter sessions ; they are also empowered to hear and 
determine all offences against the statutes brought to 
their attention by the suits of plaintiffs and by present- 
ments of juries, and, if necessary, to have recourse to the 
process of exigend after the issue of the first writ of 
capias} The last clause in their commissions informs 
them that the sheriff has been instructed to summon 
suitable juries at a time and place to be named by them.* 
Accordingly, the first step taken by the justices in virtue 
of the receipt of their letters patent,^ is the issue of a 
writ to the sheriff,^ bidding him summon to a definite 
place, at an assigned date, a specific number — normally 
twenty-four or twenty-' — of honest and lawful men, usu- 

^App., 15. In this section, except when otherwise specified, the 
references are to pages of the appendix. 

' Unfortunately I have been unable to discover on what principle an 
agreement was reached as to who of the commission were to do the 
actual work {cf, pt. i, p. 35), nor do I know who administered the oath of 
office to the justices, {jcf, pt. i, p. 43), or how the letters patent were de- 
livered to them. Many instances occur where the justices' excuse for 
not acting has been the failure to receive the letters patent, an excuse 
which seems always to have been accepted without further inquiry; cf. 
e, g,, pt. I, ch. iii, s. 2, A, and app., 282. In one of the commissions the 
sheriff is ordered to read aloud the letters patent in the presence of the 
justices; and on one occasion it appears that the justices had themselves 
read their commissions to a full county court.; app., 28, and 367. 

^It has already been said that it was the clerk's custom to enroll at 
the beginning of his record a copy of the letter patent and also the en- 
suing writ to the sheriff; cf, s. i, p. 61, and app., 161. 

* 173, 181. Less often 18, or 12; 184, note i, 204-205. ''Knights " 
are sometimes specified; 199, in one case the reeve and four men from 
each "villa;" i6i. 



PROCEEDINGS BEFORE THE JUSTICES 67 

ally from each hundred,' who are to do whatever shall 
be enjoined upon them to do ; constables and sub-con- 
stables are frequently included in this summons.' Next, 
at the appointed day and place, in the presence of the 
justices, the sheriff replies that he has executed the writ, 
and that the jurors are present ; ^ then either the whole 
number, or in some cases twelve, are sworn by the jus- 
tices^ and charged to inquire into all cases of infringe- 
ment of the law, while the constables are charged to per- 
form the duties assigned to them by the statute.^ For 
both a day is named on which they are to make their 
presentments and render their reports, or suffer a penalty 
for neglect/ 

The actual work of the session may be said to begin 
when the constables and the juries of indictment from 
each district ^ make their presentments under oath ; usu- 
ally to the effect that such and such individuals, perhaps 
a long list, are guilty of specific offences against the stat- 
utes. It sometimes happens in the case of such indict- 
ments, most frequently perhaps in those brought by the 

* Other districts are wapentake, 161; burg, 204; city, 173; 'Willa/* 
161; "villata," 181. • 

'173; 221. 

*He is sometimes forced to distrain the jurors to appear; 221*222. 

* IQ9, and 222. 

^222. In G)rnwall the ''decenna" and the "decennarii" have the 
brunt of the task of making presentments; 150-151. 

* In one instance where the jurors fail to report on the day assigned 
they are told that the penalty of 40 s. will be inflicted if there should be 
any further delay; 222-223. 

* If the justices are holding their sessions in various places within the 
county during the same year, in each place the presentments are made 
from the neighboring hundreds or towns only; cf. e. ^., 181. In two 
of the Wiltshire rolls there is a double set of proceedings, i, e. before 
deputies and before justices; 228-229. 






68 ENFORCEMENT OF THE STATUTES OF LABOURERS 

constables, that no further process is recorded, but that 
fints ox finem fecit is entered over each name in the list.* 
Probably the lack of further details is due merely to in- 
adequate notes on the part of the clerk; it seems pos- 
sible, however, that the early procedure of the old local 
courts was still in use, and that the presentments instead 
of being traversable are treated as conclusive proof of 
guilt.* By far the more usual method is the one now to 
be described. Occasionally, without further measures on 
the part of the justices, the indicted appear of their own 
accord; 3 but normally the justices issue a writ of at- 
tachies to the sheriff, ordering him to produce the in- 
dicted on a given day.^ The sheriff then reports, often 
according to the return of the bailiff of a hundred or of 
a liberty,^ that the individuals mentioned in the list given 
to him are attached by pledges, or that they have noth- 
ing by which they can be attached.* In the first case the 
indicted when summoned are to appear in the charge of 
the sheriff, and their examination can begin ; ' if they do 
not appear when summoned, their pledges are in mercy,^ 
and the justices issue a writ of capias to the sheriff, re- 
turnable at a later day, ordering him to produce both 
this latter set of indicted, as well as those before men- 
tioned who had no property by which they could be 

» 145-148; 198; 223. 

^Cf, Pollock and Maitland, Hist. Eng. Law, ii, 652-653. There are 
equally clear cases where a constable's presentment is treated as an in- 
dictment; 201. 

"182. 

* 152; sometimes the writ is a *' venire facias," and in connection with 
offences against the weights' and measures' legislation a writ of "dis- 
tringas" is usual. 

»I53, and 175. 

•153; 175. '152; 162. 'isS. 



PROCEEDINGS BEFORE THE JUSTICES 69 

attached." The sheriff now reports that the individuals 
named are either taken and in his custody, or are not to 
be found in his bailiwick. In this second case the jus- 
tices direct the sheriflF to employ the ordinary process of 
exigend in the county court ; * if at any time before the 
outlawry period ^ the delinquent should surrender to the 
justices and finem feceriiy he can obtain from them a writ 
of supersedeas^ ordering the sheriff to stop proceedings 
against him;'* if his outlawry has been proclaimed, he 
can on his surrender obtain pardon only from the king.^ 
Returning to the point in the proceedings at which 
the indicted, either attached or taken, are ready to be ex- 
amined by the justices, in the presence, apparently, of a 
fairly large number of officials and jurors, it appears that 
very often they confess their guilt and declare themselves 
in the mercy of the king ; * still more frequently, however, 
they plead not guilty and ask for a jury trial.' Occa- 
sionally at this stage, further cross-examination elicits a 
confession of guilt,* but usually the trial takes place. 
The justices issue to the sheriff a writ of summons for 
this second jury, plainly to be distinguished from the 
jury of indictment already described;' xii liberos et 
legates homines de irisneto . , . ei qui prediUos . . . 

*i53; 175. '153-154; 176. 

'Three, four or five exactions according to the method of counting; 
Pollock and Maitland^ op. ciL, \i, 581. 

*i&; 235-238. 

^The Patent Rolls contain many examples of such pardons; cf. 239. 

•175. M52; 183. '*I75. 

*The Cornwall Roll affords clear instances of the distinction between 
the two types of juries; 152-154. In one instance the trial jury failed 
to appear, and it was shown that the bailiff of the liberty to whom the 
writ of summons had been sent by the sheriff had failed to execute it; 
therefore the sheriff has to use process of distraint to secure the presence 
of the jurors; 178-179. 



70 



ENFORCEMENT OF THE STATUTES OF LABOURERS 



nulla alfiniiate attingant ad faciendum recognicionem 
illam.^ They are chosen, proven and sworn and charged 
to give their verdict, at a time appointed for them,* 

I noted one instance where a trial jury after the per- 
formance of its duties is then charged to make inquiries 
as to offences against the statute, i. e, to act as a jury of 
presentment and to make its report at a given time ; ^ 
but in general there is, in these rolls, a sharp line drawn 
between the two forms of juries/ 

In addition to the method of presentments, there are 
far less frequent examples of suits brought by individual 
plaintiffs against defendants who had infringed various 
clauses of the statutes ; ^ the form of such actions as are 
recorded on these particular rolls follows closely the form 
of similar actions in the central courts; in those that 
have come to my notice issue is taken on a question of 
fact and a trial jury summoned. 

There are, rather to my surprise, some instances where 
the accused are acquitted by the jury, but it must be con- 
fessed that such instances are comparatively few ; * if they 

* 176-177. ' 154, and 179. 

*'*Ad inquirendum .... et ad reddendum veredictum suum ; " 
177. Cf, Pollock and Maitland, op, cit., ii, 645: ** We are right in say- 
ing 'verdicts.' The answers to the articles are often called veredicia,'* 

*The indicting jury had in the past acted as trial jury but at just this 
date a statute put a check to the practice in felony and trespass (25 
Edw. Ill, St., 5, c. 3, Staiuies). " A great deal yet remained to be done 
before that process of indictment by a * grand jury ' and trial by a 
'petty jury ' with which we are all familiar would have been established. 
The details of this process will never be known until large piles of re- 
cords have been systematically perused. This task we must leave for the 
historian of the fourteenth century." Pollock and Maitland» op, cit,, ii, 
649. 

'156-157; 185-186. 

• 152; 154. One is reminded of Wyclif, 234, Of Servants and Lords: 
" lordis wolen not mekely here a pore mannus cause & helpe hym in 
his right, but suffre sisouris of countre to distroie hem but rathere 
wytholden pore men here hire.'* Quoted by Trevelyan, Wycliffe, 217. 






PROCEEDINGS BEFORE THE JUSTICES 71 

are convicted, the last stage in the whole process is 
reached, namely, the imposition of the penally ; but before 
taking up that question it is more convenient to discover 
on what clauses of the ordinance and statute the indict- 
ments are usually based, and to what social and economic 
classes the delinquents belong. 

(3) Clauses of the ordinance and statute most fre- 
quently enforced^ — Weak as is the ordinance in arrang- 
ing efficient means by which its provisions are to be en- 
forced, the provisions themselves stand out lucidly.' 

1. All able-bodied men and women, free and bond, 
without definite means of support, are commanded to 
accept service if offered them at the rate of wages of the 
twentieth year of the reign, or of five or six years previ- 
ous to that year ; lords are to have the first right to the 
labour of their tenants. This may be called the com- 
pulsory service clause. 

2. Reapers, mowers, and other workmen or servants 
are forbidden to leave their masters within the term of 
their contracts, without reasonable cause or permission ; 
other masters are forbidden to retain servants who have 
left within the term. This may be called the contract 
clause. 

3. No one shall give or receive higher wages than are 

'The main responsibility for the regulation of wages of chaplains is 
in the hands of the ecclesiastical authorities and is not dealt with in 
this monograph ; cf, app., 3 and 11-12. Although a few instances of 
oiFences as to illegal weights and measures have been printed in the 
extracts selected for the appendix, this whole subject is scarcely touched ' 

on. I 

'App., 8-12. The editors of the Cat, of Close Rolls, ix, translate 1 

**8eruiens" by " Serjeant" both in the ordinance (87) and in the writs | 

for payment of wages to the justices of labourers (436-437). ! 

i 



I 

I 



72 



ENFORCEMENT OF THE STATUTES OF LABOURERS 



customary ; this wages clause applies first to agricultural 
labourers and servants, and second, to artisans/ 

4. Reasonable prices are to be charged for all victuals. 

5. Alms to the able-bodied are prohibited. 

The endeavor of the framers of the statute to be 
specific and to provide for all possible contingencies 
results in a rather confused medley of provisions, includ- 
ing details of administrative method, out of which it is 
not easy to distinguish the essentials. Leaving aside the 
question of penalties and of their disposition,' as well as 
the instructions to the justices for their sessions and 
their mode of procedure,^ the remaining clauses fall into 
two main groups, namely, provisions to be observed by 
the labouring classes and duties to be performed by 
existing local officials and by the justices in supervision 
of these officials. In the first group, concrete details 
are added to the corresponding provisions of the ordin- 
ance.^ 

1. Agricultural labourers are described by their occu- 
pations and their maximum legal wages specified ; their 
contract of service is to be by the year or other usual 
term and never by the day ; their service in summer must 
be in the same place as in winter, with exceptions for 
labourers of certain districts in harvest time ; they must 
all take an oath before local officials that they will obey 
these articles. 

2. Three sets of artisans are referred to; for the first 

' To the first by the context and to the second by a supplementary 
clause; in the latter case "givers" are not mentioned. App., 10. 
Unless otherwise specified the remaining references in this section are 
to pages of the appendix. 

'The nature of the penalties belongs under s. 5 of this chapter and 
their disposition under ch. iii. 

* Already treated in s. i and s. 2. * 13-15. 



PROCEEDINGS BEFORE THE JUSTICES 



n 



set specific wages are prescribed, and for the second, 
the rates of the twentieth year, both as to wages for their 
labour and as to prices for their products ; the third set 
of artisans, and all other workmen, artisans and labourers, 
and all other servants not specified are to take an oath 
before the justices that they will obey these articles ; a 
still later clause describing the powers of the justices 
mentions workmen, labourers and all other servants, and 
also hostelers, innkeepers and sellers of victuals and of 
other commodities not specified. 

In the second group it is stated that lords, seneschals, 
bailiffs and constables are to impose on agricultural 
labourers twice a year the oaths of good behavior re- 
ferred to, and to punish delinquents by stocks; the last 
three sets of officials are themselves to be sworn before 
the justices to investigate all cases of disobedience to the 
statute and to report the same at quarter sessions, and 
arc liable to punishment by the justices for neglect of 
their duties.' 

An examination of the existing rolls shows that occa- 
sionally the phraseology of the indictment is ambiguous : 
"he infringed against the statute" "or he was convicted 
in a plea of trespass,"* but more often the accusation is 
specific. A few examples must be cited under the var- 
ious clauses of the law. 

Compulsory service clause? A smith will not work for 
his neighbors but prefers the service of others at a higher 
than the legal rate ; * several men are vagabonds by night 

* 13-15- *M5 and 158. 

'For the attitude of the upper courts toward this clause » r/. pt. ii, ch. 
iii 8. 4. 

M65. 



74 ENFORCEMENT OF THE STATUTES OF LABOURERS 

and refuse to work;' a labourer refuses to work except 
at double the legal rate ; " a number of men hold only 
small portions of land and yet refuse to work.^ 

Contract clause.^ A ploughman departs within the 
term agreed upon;* after making a contract, a woman 
refuses to enter the service of her employer;* at the com- 
mand of the justices a woman is delivered to her master 
that she may serve out her term ; ' an employer eloigns 
the servant of another by the offer of higher wages ; • a 
servant departs within the term agreed upon without 
reasonable cause.^ 

A combination of these two clauses with the clause 
prohibiting departure in summer from the abode of win- 
ter results in a type of case that reminds one of the later 
law of parochial settlement. A number of labourers de- 
part a patria in the autumn ; *"* one labourer departs him- 
self a patria and persuades others to depart ; " a carpenter 
enters service extra feodum contrary to the ordinance ; *• 
a servant departs from her town in the autumn for a 
larger salary ;'5 a number of women go to another town 
in the autumn although suitable service is offered them 
in their native place ; '^ a labourer goes out of the county, 
leaving his service before the end of his term. '* 

Clause as to service by usual terms, A ploughman re- 

*I94. *i7i. 

*224. Cf. petition quoted pt. ii, ch. ii, s. 4. 

* For the attitude of the upper courts toward this clause, cf. pt. ii, ch. 
ii, s. 5. 

^ 185-186; an especially good example of an action brought at the suit 
of a plaintiff. 

•192. '214. *i96. •223, 

'• 146-147. "147. "214. "226. "198. 

"Printed Wiltshire Roll, 14. 



PROCEEDINGS BEFORE THE JUSTICES 



75 



fuses to serve except by day ; * a labourer will not serve 
by term but only by day.' 

Wages clause. A mower receives I2d. in excess, con- 
trary to the form of the statute, a carpenter similarly 
4od. ; ^ a long list of artisans, their occupations specified, 
receive wages higher than the rates previous to the 
plague or higher than those of the twentieth and twenty- 
first years ;^ household servants are also guilty of re- 
ceiving excess wages;* employers are occasionally in- 
dicted ; thus a reeve hires reapers in a public place at an 
illegal rate,* a mistress gives excess wages to her spin- 
ning women, and a rector overpays his household ser- 
vants.^ 

Price clause. Artisans are frequently indicted for tak-r 
ing excess prices for their products as well as excess 
wages ; ^ victuallers of all kinds are taking illegal prices, 

>i96. 

'224. The petition quoted pt. ii, ch. ii, s. 4, includes a complaint that 
labourers wish to serve by the day only. A passage in Gower's Vox 
Clamaniis written soon after the great revolt is so applicable that it 
belongs here {Complete Works ^ iv). 
Lib. quintus; cap. ix. 
" Sunt etenim tardi, sunt rari, sunt et auari. 
Ex minimo quod agunt praemia plura petunt: 
Nunc venit hie usus, petit en plus rusticus vnus, 
Tempore preterito quam peciere duo; 

• V • • • • 

cap. X. 

Hii sunt qui cuiquam nolunt seruire per annum, 

Hos vix si solo mense tenebit homo; 

Set conventiciis tales conduco dietis, 

Nunc hie, nunc alibi, nunc michi nuncque tibi. 

Horum de mille vix est operarius ille 

Qui tibi vult pacto fidus inesse suo.'* 

•163. *i82; 174. *2i6. 

•227. ^227. ^152. 



i 



76 ENFORCEMENT OF THE STATUTES OF LABOURERS 

as are also producers of many commodities not specified 
by the statute. ' 

It is to be observed that the statute had provided that 
the justices should exercise their discretion in fixing the 
winter wages of certain artisans." I find two noteworthy 
instances where they exercise similar powers, not com- 
ing under this clause. In one case they establish the 
rate of the yearly wages of a carter ; ^ and in another, 
they are ordered by a writ of the king and council to buy 
up all the linen cloth in their district, — pro certo ptecio 
per vos ordinate inde soluendo colore commissionis nostre, 
— and to deliver it to the clerk of the war J robe or ap- 
pear in person before the council to explain why they 
had not obeyed the writ.^ 

In turning to the remaining offences noted in the ses- 
sional records, the following are important. The oaths 
taken by labourers to observe the law are frequently 
mentioned : men who have been sworn in the presence 
of the justices, break their oaths ; ' one man, on being 
summoned into court and ordered to swear, refuses to 
do so.^ The constables report long lists of labourers who 
are rebellious and refuse to take oaths of obedience to 
the statutes ; ' their reports vary between two extremes ; 
all the labourers in their district are obeying the law, or 
all are guilty of infringements.^ In the matter of the 
supervision of the local officials, the justices are kept 

* 233-234; sec especially the printed Wiltshire roll passim, 
*I4. ^200. 

* Glaus., 31, m. 7, 22 Oct.; " De panno lineo derico magne garderobe 
Regis liberando.'' The writ is directed: **Willelmo de Surflet et 
Laurencio de Leek iusticiariis suis ad ordinacionem et statutum de 
operariis, seruientibus et artificibus in partibus de Holand de comitatu 
Lincoln' custodienda assignrtis/' 

*i7o; 171; igg. •156. ^223-224. "202; 201. 



PROCEEDINGS BEFORE THE JUSTICES 



77 



busy; the constables are very often in mercy for not 
having their presentments ready, and are often them- 
selves under indictment for concealing their knowledge 
of guilty labourers, while the tithingmen are frequently 
puniihed for their failure to provide stocks/ 

From this brief catalogue, it is noteworthy that except 
for the prohibition of almsgiving to the able-bodied, the 
justices were taking cognizance of every clause of both 
ordinance and statute ; and it is probable that just at this 
crisis employers were not very likely to be guilty of 
almsgiving. The impression conveyed by the variety of 
offences will, however, be entirely erroneous unless it is 
pointed out, with all the emphasis possible, that the nuni> 
ber of labourers presented for the receipt of excess wages 
and of excess prices is far greater than the total of all 
the other offenders taken altogether ; in the case of the 
latter, in each instance, one or two individuals are indicted 
at a given time ; while in the case of the former, the list 
of names included in a specific indictment sometimes 
runs as high as twenty or thirty; in fact, one of the 
clearest and most voluminous rolls, that for Somerset, 
contains no example of any other offence than that of the 
receipt of " excess." Undoubtedly, therefore, the main 
work of the justices of labourers must be considered to 
be their endeavor to keep down the level of wages and 
prices to the rates prevailing before the plague.' 

(4) Economic and social status of the delinquents, — 
Were it not for the phrase liberos used sometimes of the 

' 150-152. 

'In the choice of my extracts for the appendix I was guided by a de- 
sire to show examples of all tjrpes of offences of which the justices were 
taking cognizance; the complete rolls convey an impression of a far 
greater proportion of offences against the wages and price clauses than 
do the selections here printed. 



78 ENFORCEMENT OF THE STATUTES OF LABOURERS 

men eligible for jury duty,* there would be in these 
eighteen rolls scarcely a shred of evidence to show that 
the question of freedom versus villeinage was at this date 
a living issue ; " since, however, in the proceedings before 
the justices of labourers summoned into a higher court, 
the point of the case depends precisely on the fact of 
villeinage,^ the silence of these particular sessional records 
indicates not that there were no villeins among the de- 
linquents, — there must have been many, especially among 
the agricultural labourers, — but that, as far as the actions 
in quarter sessions went, the effect of the legislation on 
free and unfree was identical, and that for this reason no 
distinction between the two categories had to be made 
by the justices. 

Leaving aside for a moment the question of wages and 
prices, the sessional records show the justices enforcing 
the remaining clauses of the enactments chiefly against 
agricultural laborers and somewhat less frequently against 
artisans and household servants, but in all cases as far as 
my observation has gone against members of what are 
technically known as the labouring classes, with no vis- 
ible attempt to extend the application of the contract 
clause to other than manual labourers/ It has, how- 
ever, been already emphasized that the justices were 
mainly occupied with the task of keeping down wages 

* Cf. p. 69. 

'Unless perhaps '* extra feodum domini " (app., 214) and the frequent 
departure ''apatria'* (app., 147) refer to the relation between villeins 
and their lords; cf, also p. 81, note 2, for the meaning of ** netrix." 

^ Cf, s. 7 of this section and pt. ii, ch. ii, s. 6. It will be shown later 
that actions in the upper courts do involve the issue of villeinage ; un- 
doubtedly the justices of labourers would have found it difficult to deal 
with the complicated questions of law raised by such cases. 

* This limitation to manual laboiu*ers must be kept in mind in com- 
parison with what proves to be the attitude of the upper courts. 



I' 



PROCEEDINGS BEFORE THE JUSTICES yg 

and prices ; it is therefore the offenders against these two 
clauses who must be most carefully studied. The " givers " 
cannot always be readily identified, but fortunately there 
are several cases where they are referred to specifically ; 
e. g.j a master of a house,' a bailiff in search of agri- 
cultural hands, a reeve,* and employers of various classes 
of artisans, spinners, tailors, tanners elc, who need serv- 
ants in their crafts.^ It is with regard to the "takers" 
that these rolls furnish the most complete information ; 
the evidence given in a preceding section on the clauses 
of the legislation enforced by the ;ustices included suffi- 
cient examples to prove that the takers of excess wages 
and prices fall into the economic groups indicated by the 
ordinance and statute, and although my data are not 
enough for a statistical study, it seems desirable on the 
basis of my extracts from the sessional records,^ of the 
printed roll for Wiltshire^ and also of my extracts from 
the schedules of accounts of penalties,** and of the printed 
account roll for London,^ to present the following lists, 
incomplete though they are, in order to give a definite 
idea of the variety of crafts and occupations represented 
by the delinquents.' An asterisk indicates those that are 
specifically mentioned in either or both of the enact- 
ments. It must be remembered that the ambiguous term 
serutens is very frequent, with no clue as to the nature 

*App., 227. *App., 226-227. ' App., 155. *App., C, I. 

^C/. app., 228, for an account of this roll. * App., 332-334; 380. 

'For this roll cf. p. 86, note i. ) 

"Further lists are given in pt. ii, ch. ii, s. 4 in order to show the 
status of the offenders in the upper courts; moreover, the extracts in the 
appendix from Ancient Indictments furnish additional instances, in 
some cases, of crafts not represented in quarter sessions. It must be 
left for some future investigator to compile on the basis of all these 
sources really exhaustive statistics. 



8o ENFORCEMENT OF THE STATUTES OF LABOURERS 

of the occupation, so that a large number of the offenders 
cannot be classified. 

1. Household servants, Seruiens is sometimes ren- 
dered explicit by context; occasionally famulus and 
famula occur. 

2. Agricultural labourers. Common workmen and 
workmen are probably to be classed here, both men and 
women; also labourers and daily labourers; % carter, 
driver, % harvester, % hoer, % mower (a great variety of 
terms used to describe the nature of the task), oxherd, 
X ploughman, X reaper, X reaper of corn, X shepherd, 
X swineherd, tasker, thatcher, X thresher (a great variety 
indicated), wood-drawer. Women as well as men among 
most of these. 

3. Artisans, 

a. Building trades. X Carpenter, coverer of houses, 

dauber, lather, X maker of walls, J mason, 
paver, J plasterer, sawyer, stonelayer,*J tiler. 

b. Clothing trade. Carder, X cobbler, collar-maker, 

comber, X cordwainer, X currier of leather, 
fuller, X furrier, glover, maker of linen cloth, 
X pelterer, shapestere,' shearman, X shoemaker, 
skinner, spinner, spinner of wool, X tailor, X tan- 
ner, walker, weaver, whittawyer. There are 
many women in the spinning and weaving trade. 

c. Various. Collier, cooper, fletcher, furbisher, 

maker of baskets and brooms, maker of 
wheels for drawing water, miner, potter, 
X smith, tinker, wheelwright. 

4. Victuallers. X Baker, X brewer, J butcher, X fish- 

^Cf. index of Powell's East Anglia Rising where this term occurs; 
hit list of " Trades and callings" found in the Poll Tax lists is very 
valuable. 



PROCEEDINGS BEFORE THE JUSTICES gl 

monger, t innkeeper, miller, seller of salt, seller of oats, 
of beer, of mead, of v/ine, tapster, J sellers of victuals 
in general. There are many women among the brewers 
and bakers. 

5. Unclassified, Carrying of doors and windows, bak- 
ing of lime, carrying of iron, fisherman, huckster, lighter 
of churches and houses, pedler," seller of cartwheels, of 
coal, of lime, of iron, sellers in general. 

6. Unidentified, Aquebanilatrix, chickkyn, mele- 
maker, menbranatory netrixy^ schuppestre, seyner, sun- 
ycre, tentor,^ 

A few instances occur where the delinquents can 
hardly be classed as manual labourers, e, g,y chaplain, 
clerk, crior, merchant, but include too few individuals to 
be significant. 

It must be emphasized once again that my sources, 
both the records of the sessions and the estreats of the 
penalties, represent only a small proportion of the simi- 
lar proceedings that were going on all over England, 
and that the extracts in the appendix from which the 
larger part of the above lists have been drawn represent 
only a small part even of these sources ; this being the 
case, it is clear that the justices were dealing with prac- 
tically every variety of economic class as far as manual 
labourers were concerned, but with very few individuals 
above this class, and also that the increase in the price 
of manual service of all kinds as well as in the price of 

*This translation given in the printed Wiltshire roll, 4, as a sugges- 
tion merely , does not seem very probable. 

*Is this the feminine of "netus," a bondman, or is it connected with 
"neo," to spin? 

*I suspect that "caruce '' is understood. The printed Wiltshire roll 
presents some interesting combinations of occupations; e, g,y collar- 
niaker and mower, carpenter and fisherman, merchant and fisherman. 



82 ENFORCEMENT OF THE STATUTES OF LABOURERS 

all commodities had been well-nigh universal. The pen- 
alties inflicted for the endeavor to obtain this increase 
must now be considered. 

(5) Penalties — Of the confused and complicated sys- 
tem of penalties indicated by the enactments, a brief sum- 
mary must here be attempted.' In the first ordinance 
the following penalties for infringement are mentioned : 
compulsory service clause^ gaol until security of good 
behaviour is given ; contract clause^ imprisonment ; agri- 
cultural wages clause^ for givers and takers the forfeit of 
double what was paid, promised or received, in excess 
of the legal rate, to go to the aggrieved party or to any 
who will sue ; in the case of lords, treble ; artisans^ wages 
clause^ gaol ; victuallers^ clause^ double of what was paid 
in excess.' In the second ordinance which has to do 
only with the wages and price clauses, the forfeit of the 
** excess," i, e, of the difference between the legal and 
the actual rates, is substituted for the greater penalty of 
the first ordinance and in this case also is to go to the 
plaintiff, if any sue, and otherwise towards the subsidy.' 
In the statute, in the case of agricultural labourers, refusal 
to swear obedience to the articles and breaking of the 
oath when sworn, are to be punished by stocks or gaol 
until security of good behaviour is given ; in the case of 
artisans, the penalties for breaking of their oaths are 
fine, ransom, and imprisonment at the discretion of the 
justices. In general, infringement of any clause of the 
statute is to be punished by these three means, the im- 
prisonment to last until security for good behaviour be 

^The disposition of the penalties is merely referred to here and is 
treated at length in pt. i, ch. iii. 

'App., 9, 10 and 11. I am inclined to believe that this interpreta- 
tion of the amount forfeited is correct. 

' App., 260. For an account of this measure, cf, pt. i, ch. iii» s. i, A. 



PROCEEDINGS BEFORE THE JUSTICES 83 

provided ; it is also added that the breaking of the oath 
of obedience shall for the first offence be punished by 
prison for forty days, and for the second, for a quarter of 
a year. In the same clause it is likewise specified that 
the penalty now regularly known as " excess " shall go to 
the plaintiff if any sue and otherwise to the current sub- 
sidy as long as it runs and after its cessation to the king.' 
In order to analyze the different clauses of the legisla- 
tion and to describe somewhat in detail the status of the 
individuals who were infringing them, it proved necessary 
to interrupt the account of the procedure in sessions, 
leaving the justices face to face with groups of labourers 
convicted of their guilt.' How, out of the apparent con- 
fusion of penalties, do they proceed to deal with the de- 
linquents ? The rolls show that occasionally they employ 
imprisonment as an actual punishment : for example, an 
offender guilty for a second time of the receipt of excess 
wages is adjudged to prison for forty days ; ^ in one in- 
stance they use the equitable device of delivering to a 
master to finish out her term a maid-servant who had 
broken her contract/ There are also frequent references 
to the use of stocks, a punishment that is often inflicted 
at the discretion of the constables without the interven- 
tion of the justices.' The system employed by the latter 

*App., 14-16. Cf. Rot, Pari., ii, 227 b for a petition that corporal 
punishment shall be inflicted on delinquents instead of the hitherto in- 
effectual fines and redemptions; the statute is said to be in response to 
this petition, presumably the stocks fulfilling the requirement for cor- 
poral punishment. 

'S. 2. 'App., 184-185. *App., 214. 

'*E.g,, app., 169; see also the numerous references in the De Banco 
rolls; pt. ii, ch. ii, s. 3 and s. 4. The Patent Rolls furnish further evi- 
dence as to the use of stocks; e. g., a certain Richard de Buckeden of 
Leighton has been indicted before the justices of labourers in Hunts. 

"de CO quod ipse noctanter apud Leighton cum aliis ignotis cippos qui j 

I 



84 ENFORCEMENT OF THE STATUTES OF LABOURERS 

is much simpler than one is led to expect by the summary 
of the provisions. Their penalties fall into two main 
groups, fines and ** excess ; " the latter can, of course, 
apply only to the giving and taking of illegal wages and 
prices, and since "excess " is equivalent to the difference 
between the legal and the illegal rates, the amount to be 
assessed upon each offender is limited by the degree of 
his offence, very little room being left for the discretion 
of the justices.* The excess goes to the plaintiff if any 
sue but with the system of presentments by juries, so 
commonly used, its disposition is regulated by the statu- 
tory provision.* Fully as frequent as the penalty of 
" excess " is the finis or finem fecity applicable, of course, 
in case of the infringement of any clause of the statutes, 
including the wages and price clauses.^ It does not 
represent the modern idea of a fine but is an indefinite 
sum to be determined by the justices, all the circum- 
stances of the case being taken into consideration; it 
really means that an offender, in order to be quit of 
the consequences of his guilt, must pay whatever the 
court decides and until he can pay the amount as fixed 
he must abide in prison unless he can find security for 
such payment. Very often the offender is able to pay 
immediately, and if not, he can almost always find pledges 
acceptable to the court ; it is therefore unlikely that im- 

facti fuenint per mandatum nostrum secundum formam statuti predict! 
in predicta villa de Leigh ton ad delinquentes et culpabiles contra formam 
ordinacionis et statuti predictorum inuentos in eisdem cippis manci- 
pandos et saluo custodiendos maliciose et contra pacem nostram fregit 
et separatim illos in foueam proiecit." 30 pt. i, m. 15, 23 March, " De 
pardonacione utlagarie. ' ' 

' In later years, a petition of the commons that the amount forfeited 
shall be double this difference is refused; Rot. ParL^ ii, 296 a. 

'App., 15-16. 'App., 14s, or 230. 



PROCEEDINGS BEFORE THE JUSTICES 85 

prisonment for a long term was used to any great extent. 
The estreat rolls show that a delinquent may have to for- 
feit the excess, or that he may be forced to pay a fine, or 
that he may incur both penalties/ In the case of actions 
brought by plaintiffs there are many instances of amerce- 
ments for false actions and also for failure to continue 
the suit ; ' sometimes damages are mentioned, and in one 
instance it is stated that they are assessed by the jus- 
tices ;3 they would be the normal penalty in actions 
brought at the suit of plaintiffs on clauses other than the 
wages and price clauses. There are also many instances 
where offenders are in mercy and where it is recorded 
that they are amerced/ Fines and ''excess" are, how- 
ever, by far the most usual form of penalty, and make up 
the larger part of the issues of the sessions, described 
technically in the exchequer as *' fines, redemptions, ex- 
cess, issues and amercements," ' and belonging, accord- 
ing to mediaeval custom, to him who had the right to the 
profits of that particular court. Perhaps the best proof 
of the all-importance of the wages and price clauses is the 
relative frequency of the penalty known as excess as 
shown by the fact that in many exchequer documents 
connected with the subsidies the phrase excessus opera- 
riorum has become very common as a description of the 
money penalties imposed under the statutes of labourers.^ 
A careful study of the records of fines and of the 
security given for their payment reveals the curious fact 
that a culprit who is himself assessed to a fine, which he 
has not yet paid, and for which he has had to find security^ 

" Cf, e, g., app., 380; 338; 383. • App., 156 and 157. 

'App., 146 and 186. * App., 150. 

^ App., 2yZf sind similar documents, passim, 
* App. , 330, €t passim. 



86 ENFORCEMENT OF THE STATUTES OF LABOURERS 

is apparently allowed to serve as pledge for another 
offender in a similar plight ; ' one is led to suspect that 
the whole matter of security has become an empty form ; 
possibly the lack of sufficient prisons to hold the con- 
victed made it necessary to adopt almost any device to 
meet the emergency. 

As far as my examination has gone, the amounts of the 
penalties are normally within fairly well-defined limits, 
ranging from several shillings to several pennies, sums be- 
tween 5s. and 3d. being most usual, but occasionally rising 
as high as half a mark, 8s. or los." There is at least one 
instance where an offender was amerced £10 before the 
justices for refusal to swear obedience to the statute. It 
seems possible that the amount of this amercement was 
considered unwarrantable, for three writs were issued by 
king and council, two to the sheriffs and one to the 
barons of the exchequer,* ordering the proceedings for 
the levying of the £10 to be suspended; what the final 
outcome was I cannot say. In regard to the normal 
money penalties, it is worthy of note that in the punish- 
ment for the receipt of illegal wages, if a fine appears as 
the penalty instead of the " excess," the amount of the 
fine is apt to be exactly equal to the sum that had been 

^ App., 207, and 210; also the estreat roll for London summarized in 
the Calendar of Letter-Book G,, 11 5-1 18. 

'This statement is based not merely on the sessional records but also 
on various exchequer documents many of which appear in the app. ; see 
pt. I, ch. iii. 

'Claus., 31, m. 10 d, 30 July, **Pro Thoma Gobyon de Lcyndon;" 
"pro eo quod in quadam inquisicione coram ipsis iusticiariis (Thoma 
Tirel et sociis suis) nuper capienda iurare recusauit." Ibid,, 32, m. 
17 d, 30 May, **Pro Thoma Gobyoun de Leyndon." The county is 
Essex. 

*Mem. K. R., 35, Mich., Breu. Baron., rot. 11; "Pro Thoma Gob- 
yon," dated 26 Nov., 34th year. 



PROCEEDINGS BEFORE THE JUSTICES 



87 



taken in excess,' so that practically there is no difference 
between the two forms. It will become apparent later, 
however, that there was, from the point of view of the 
income of the exchequer, a motive for sometimes calling 
a given penalty a fine rather than "excess," and for 
sometimes doing just the reverse, a motive which can be 
understood only after a careful study of the disposition 
of the penalties.* 

After the money penalties had been named by the 
justices in session, whether fines, excess or amercements, 
and had been duly entered on the estreat roll by their 
clerk, and after the roll had been delivered to the proper 
person, collector of the subsidy or exchequer official, the 
responsibilities of the justices were over ; with the levy- 
ing of the penalties they had nothing to do. While the 
total sum of the issues of the sessions affords an excellent 
means of estimating roughly the number of convictions, 
and therefore the efficiency of the justices in performing 
their task, this total must be discussed in connection 
with the whole question of the disposition of the pen- 
alties ; but in the meantime, in order to appreciate more 
thoroughly the problems dealt with by the justices, it 
must be shown how extortionate in their demands were 
the offenders whom they were punishing. 

(6) Rates of wages and prices, — It is an accepted fact 
that immediately after the plague there was an extra- 
ordinary and unprecedented rise in wages and prices ; ' 
it is also indisputable that an upward movement had 
begun during the years just before the plague.* An ac- 

' App., 205, et seq. 'See pt. i, ch. Hi, s. i, A and s. 2, B. 

'Introduction, pp. 4-5. During the actual ravages of the plague 
prices fell, but only for a few months; Knighton, ii, 62. 

* Cunningham, Growth of Efig, Industry ^ i, 335-336: Denton, Ettg. 
in Fifteenth Century, 107, 2i7-*2]8; Petit- Dutaillis, introduction to 
R^ville's Soulivement, xxix-xxx; Rogers, Hist, of Prices ^ i, 292. 



88 ENFORCEMENT OF THE STATUTES OF LABOURERS 

curate estimate of the aims of the statutes in regard to 
the level of wages and prices will be possible only as a 
result of a detailed comparison, district by district, of the 
statutory rates with those prevailing before and after the 
cataclysm, bearing in mind that for wages the statutory 
rates were maximum, — where less was usual, less was to 
be paid,* while for prices the rate was to be " reason- 
able."' Since the money rate per se has little signifi- 
cance, such a comparison must include statements as to 
the relative purchasing power of the various rates of 
wages. Rogers' figures,^ the best that are in print, 
apply largely to the south and east of England,* and in 
view of the wide variation between rates in different 
localities are useless for other parts of the country. 
Moreover, since the publication of Rogers' tables, the 
continuous investigation of manuscript sources, the issue 
of successive official calendars and lists,^ and the in- 
creased printing of records,* have all helped to show the 
abundance of material from which statistics can be de- 
rived. 

Of the sources that I have examined, the most useful 
for this purpose are the sessional records themselves and 
the accounts of penalties ; ' but, within the limits of my 
work for this monograph, it has been impossible to make 
an exhaustive study of the rates there recorded. Further, 
full as are these two classes of documents of instances of 

*App., 13. 'App., 10. 

^Hist, of Prices already frequently quoted. 

* Wiebe, Zur Geschichte der Preisrevolutiott , 30-31. 

•App., 4* 

*Cf, e. g.y such a book as Miss Davenport's Norfolk Manor, 

^ Exceedingly valuable also are the counts in the actions brought in 
the upper courts; £:/. pt. ii, ch. ii, s. 3, and also the presentments in the 
court of king's bench recorded in Ancient Indictments; cf. app. F, i. 



PROCEEDINGS BEFORE THE JUSTICES 89 

the receipt of sums beyond the legal wages and prices, 
the manner in which the offence is entered on the roll 
often makes it impossible to ascertain the rate of increase 
over previous siims. Sometimes when the illegal rate 
per day is specified, there is not a sufficiently accurate 
description of the occupation of the offender to enable 
identification of the statutory rate ; ' sometimes there is 
only the vague phrase, "he received excessive wages," 
cepti excesstue; ^ frequently it is said that " he received so 
much, (a lump sum), in excess ;"3 this formula of course 
tells the net amount of the delinquent's gain and is un- 
doubtedly employed so frequently because it represents 
that all-important fact, the amount to be forfeited as 
penalty, but it gives no clue to the rate of the gain. 
Even, however, within the narrow limits of information 
based for the most part on the , extracts of sessional 
records printed in the appendix there are a few entries 
so explicit that it seems advisable to call attention to 
them. 

Household servants. A maid servant is given 5s. for 
half a year instead of 3s. 6d. ;* another has had 30s. a 
year ; * two men servants are paid 8s. for the winter sea- 
son, with livery and daily food;^ another man servant 
receives 6s. for half a year et vnam tuntcam cum capu- 
chioJ 

Agricultural labourers — Common labourers. The stat- 
utory rate for various agricultural work probably applies 
to this class; the following rates are all described as 

^E.g.f appM 148. Unless otherwise specified the remaining references 
in this section are to pages of the appendix. 

'205, 208; see also printed Wiltshire roll, passim, 

'234; printed Wiltshire roll, passim, 

^202. *224. •227. ' 193. 



yo ENFORCEMENT OF THE STATUTES OF LABOURERS 

excessive : i8s. for half a year, ad mensam ; 6d. per day 
in August, with food and drink; 2d. per day in winter, 
with food and drink/ 

Reapers. Statutory rate is 2d. or 3d. per day; they 
frequently receive sd. and 6d." 

Mowers of meadows. Statutory rate is sd. per acre; 
they are recorded as taking Qd., amounting to 20s. in 
excess;^ also lod. and 8d. for half an acre, and lod., I2d. 
and I4d. for an acre.* 

Hoers. Statutory rate is id. per day; a woman takes 
2d. per day, amounting to I2d. in excess.^ 

Threshing of com. Statutory rate is 2d. ob. per quar- 
ter, but in Derby even less must be usual, for it is said 
that 3d. per quarter for 20 quarters amounts to 2s. in 
excess.* 

Threshing of barley. Statutory rate is id. ob. per 
quarter ; 8d. is paid for four quarters.^ 

Artisans. — A dauber takes 3d. per day and food, in- 
stead of the previous rate of id. and food;* coverers of 
houses arc receiving double the customary rate ; ^ a serv- 
ant of a smith, having been sworn to take 8s. a year, 
received 20s. ; '** a sawyer takes sd. per day, with food, the 
statutory rate for carpenter, mason and tiler being only 
3d. per day ; " a fuller receives double the legal rate to 
the amount of 3s. 4d. ;" a weaver is paid lA. pro ulna 
instead of pro tribus ulnis ; '^ tailors take treble the cus- 
tomary wages.** 

Although a great many victuallers as well as sellers of 
other commodities are indicted, I have found peculiarly 

*I72, 267; Assize Roll, Essex, 268; m. 16. *226. *i7i. 

* Printed Wiltshire roll, 17-18. ^Ibid., 18. •162-163. 

'231. *I94. »i7i. '•170. 

" 164. " Printed Wiltshire roll, 12. » 196. »♦ 170. 



PROCEEDINGS BEFORE THE JUSTICES 91 

few instances where a direct comparison between old 
and new rates is possible ; in one case sellers of meat and 
also of wine are described as making profits beyond 
what is reasonable, and the price of their wine is men- 
tioned as 2d. per gallon;' in another case it is said that a 
gallon of beer is sold at id. ob. instead of at id. ;' and 
in still another, a potter is accused of making alias ereas 
and selling them ad triplex? It is interesting to find a 
vicar refusing to perform the marriage ceremony except 
for what is said to be an extortionate fee of 5s. or 6s.* 
The incident of the Lincolnshire ploughman really tells 
the whole story ; he refuses to serve except by the day 
and unless he has fresh meat instead of salt and finally 
leaves the town because no one dares engage him on 
these terms.5 

Although emphatically disclaiming the intention of 
presenting these few specific instances as conclusive 
proof of a given rate of increase in wages and prices, 
it is my own belief that they are indicative of the general 
trend and that the countless cases of the receipt of excess 
will bear out the high rates just quoted. For once the 

'168. •201. *i7o. 

*i7i. A contrast to Chaucer's **Frcrc" in the Prologue to the 
Canterbury Tales: 

** He hadde maad ful many a manage 
Of yonge wommen, at his owne cost." 

Verses 212^213. 

*C/. Piers Plowman, . A. Passus vii, 295-2Q9: 

" Laborers that haue no lond to lieuen on bote hcore honden, 
Deyne not to dyne a day niht-olde wortes. 
Moi no peny-ale hem paye ne no pece of bacun, 
Bote hit weore fresch flesch or elles fisch i— friyet, 
Both chaud and piuschaud for chele of heore mawe." 

C/. Oman, The Great Revolt , 9. 



92 



ENFORCEMENT OF THE STATUTES OF LABOURERS 



chroniclers do not seem to have greatly exaggerated/ 
nor does one wonder that the "malice of servants" 
appears to the employers the only appropriate phrase to 
describe the attitude of the labouring classes. 

(7) Supervision of the justices of labourers. — Omitting 
for the present the control of the justices most system- 
atically worked out at this period, namely that of the 
exchequer, which has to do entirely with the question of 
the money penalties, the other methods of control exer- 
cised by the central authorities must now be considered. 

1. The removal of individual justices and the cancelling 
of commissions by king and council. It has already been 
noted that any particularly flagrant conduct on the part 
of a given justice, if reported to the king and council, 
sometimes resulted in his prompt removal without re- 
course to the courts of law.* 

2. The issue by royal writs of special commands to the 
justices and occasionally the appointment of special com- 
missions of investigation. 

3. The ordinary mediaeval system of dealing with the 
extortion or other misdemeanors of officials. 

4. The removal to a higher court, by writ of certiorari^ 
of proceedings before the justices of labourers. 

The power of the crown over the removal of justices 
has already been treated in some detail and needs no 
comment here;' further, the interference of king and 
council with the action of the justices, by means of sup- 
plementary writs, is sometimes due to the necessity for 
an interpretation of the relation of the justices to seig- 

^ It must however be admitted that the particularly high rates men- 
tioned by Knighton do not seem to occur very often; cf. pt. ii, ch. ii» 
s. 3. 

'Cy. case of the Surrey justices; p. 96. 'Pt. i, ch. i, s. 3. 



PROCEEDINGS BEFORE THE JUSTICES 93 

norial rights of jurisdiction and to the profits of jurisdic- 
tion and can therefore be most profitably treated later in 
connection with the disposition of penalties ; ' there are, 
however, other causes for interference which belong 
here. For example, when a certain abbot complains to 
the king that at the instigation of some of his rivals the 
justices in his county had forced his tenants to serve 
other masters, although he himself had need of their 
services for the tilling of his demesne lands, the king 
issues a writ to the justices bidding them supply the 
abbot with a sufficient number of labourers/ Again, the 
urgent pleas of the Carthusians of Hinton and of Wytham 
that, owing to their peculiar situation they are utterly 
unable to secure workmen, result, in the case of the first, 
in the permission from king and council to pay wages 
fixed by contract instead of the statutory rates and in a 
command to the justices of the county not to interfere ; ^ 
and in the case of the second, in the permission to hire 
labourers from the neighboring districts in spite of the 
statutory prohibition against labourers leaving their place 
of residence/ 

It also appears that the justices, when in difficulties, 
are glad to have the aid and protection of the crown ; 
on several occasions when their sessions have been 
broken up by the violent attacks of malefactors, and they 

^Cf. pt. I, ch. iii, s. 2, B, and pt. ii, ch. i. 'App., 217-218. 

'Pat., 29, pt. 2, m. 4, 5 Oct., ** Pro priore ct fratribus de Henton, 
ordinis Cartosietisis;" quoted by Gasquet, Greai Pestilence, 1 71-172. 

*Pat., 28, pt. I, m. 20, 16 Jan., **Pro priore et fratribus de Wytham;'* 
also quoted by Gasquet, op, cit, , 170-1 71 . There is a limitation to the use 
of writs in increasing the powers of the justices; cf, 42 Lib, Ass,, pi. 12; 
the jurisdiction of the justices of labourers in a certain county had been 
extended by writ to include champarties elc, and it is decided by the 
court of king's bench that for such a purpose a writ is illegal and a 
commission necessary. 



94 ENFORCEMENT OF THE STATUTES OF LABOURERS 

themselves exposed to danger, either they or their friends 
complain to the king and council and succeed in obtain- 
ing the issue of special commissions of oyer and terminer 
to investigate the trouble and to bring the offenders to 
speedy punishment.' 

Cases of negligence, extortion, and other misdemean- 
ors on the part of officials come within the cognizance 
of the justices of the joint commissions' and of the 
justices of oyer and terminer, in accordance with the 
regular form of their commissions,^ and also in the ordi- 
nary course of law come under the jurisdiction of the 
court of king's bench. Even a cursory examination of 
these two latter classes of records has shown several in- 
stances of such cases, either in regard to justices or to 
the local officials for whom they were responsible ; for 
example, indictments against justices,* a justice's clerk,* 
a constable,^ a seneschal and bailiff.' Still more im- 

*Pat.» 25, pt. 2, tn. 13 d, 6 July, ** De audiendo et terminando rebel- 
lionem factam coram iusticiariis Regis;" summarized in Cal,, ix, 138; 
the justices of Middlesex were actually driven from their sessions at 
Tottenham. Pat., 26, pt. 2, m. 10 d» 22 Aug., *'De audiendo et ter- 
minando pro Rege;'* summarized in CaL, ix, 341; certain evildoers 
assaulted John de Claymond while he was performing his duties as 
member of the joint commission in Holland and even sought to kill 
him. Pat., 32, pt. 2, m. 30 d, 30 July, De audiendo et terminando: a 
violent attack on Lyouns, Harewedon and others while executing their 
office as justices of labourers in Nortfaants. 

* Cf, app., 23 and 25-26. 

'C/. e.£^,, Pat., 32, pt. I, m. 24 d, 18 March, ** De audiendo et ter- 
minando omnes felonias et transgressiones in comitatu Hereford' :" 
justices are appointed to inquire "de quibuscumque feloniis, transgres- 
sionibus, conspiracionibus, oppressionibus, extorsionibus, confedera- 
cionibus, alliganciis iniustis, cambipartiis, ambidextriis, forstallariis, 
falsitatibus, dampnis, grauaminibus et excessibus.'* 

* App. , 264 -266. ^ App. , 241-242. 

* App. , 242-243. ' App. , 266. 



PROCEEDINGS BEFORE THE JUSTICES 



95 



portant are the instances for this decade of the removal 
to a higher court of cases before the justices of labourers ; 
for, although not numerous, they are significant as to 
process.' Three out of the four cases involve villeinage 
as an issue ; two out of these three record picturesque 
attempts of ambitious villeins to bring actions on the 
statute of labourers against their masters. The substance 
of these cases must be dealt with again in a later section 
in connection with the relation of the labour legislation 
to villeinage ; ' at present it is the fact of an appeal to a 
higher authority that is to be considered. The case re- 
corded in the chronicle of the abbey of Meaux deserves 
careful study from the point of view of procedure.3 Some 
villeins bring suit before the justices of labourers against 
their lord the abbot on the plea that he has eloigned 
their ploughmen contrary to the statute of labourers; 
after they had been adjudged in mercy on the ground 
that the abbot is not bound to answer in an action 
brought against him by his villeins, they complain to the 
king that the justices had pronounced an unjust judg- 
ment against them and claim that they are not villeins of 
the abbot but of the crown. The king issues a writ 
summoning into chancery the records of the proceedings 
before the justices of labourers and also bids the abbot 
appear in person before him to answer the plea as to 
ownership ; the chronicler goes on to say that the abbot 

'The issue from chancery of writs of certiorari demanding from the 
justices the records of processes of outlawry that had been carried out 
by their orders. need not be discussed here; it is the regular course of 
events before a pardon of outlawry can be obtained from the king. Cf. 
Fltzherbert, New Natura Brevium; 554, and app., 239 and F, 2. 

'Pt. ii, ch. ii, s. 6. 

^CAron. de Melsa, Rolls Series, iii, 127-142; quoted by Savine in 
"Bondmen under the Tudors" in Trans. Royal Hist, Sac, xvii, 254, 
and by Petit-Dutaillis in introduction to R£ville's Soulh/ement, xxxvii. 



ge ENFORCEMENT OF THE STATUTES OF LABOURERS 

by means of presents to the chancellor and in spite of 
the hostile attitude of others of the council obtains per- 
mission to appear by attorney; the question of the 
ownership of the villeins was finally tried before the jus- 
tices of assize and was settled in favor of the abbot. 

The two other villein cases are found among the County 
Placita. In the first, a writ of certiorari had bidden the 
justices of labourers in Bedfordshire send into chancery a 
copy of certain proceedings held before them ; ' the docu- 
ment is endorsed by David de Woll[ore],' who was at this 
date keeper of the chancery rolls, at the instance of John 
de Herlyng,3 (usher of the kings' chamber), but I have 
no clue as to the outcome. In the second, there had been 
a similar writ to the Surrey justices of labourers ; the 
endorsement of the transcript of the proceedings is " to 
the chancellor of our lord the king " * and possibly indi- 
cates that the final decision was left to the chancellor. 
It is to be noted that in all these cases judgment had 
been given by the justices of labourers before the issue 
of the writs of certiorari. 

The fourth case has been mentioned several times ; it 
is that of the two Surrey justices, de Roulegh and atte 
Wode by name. After they had been removed from their 
commission, as a result of complaints to the council,^ 
their former colleagues in their sessions proceed to bring 
indictments against them for their misdemeanors as 
justices ; but before a judgment or a verdict is reached, 
the court of king's bench issues to the acting justices a 
writ of certiorari^ summoning before it all the records in 
the case, and after lengthy proceedings, finally acquits 
atte Wode, but convicts de Roulegh of the offence for 

*App., 244-248. ^Cf, Cal, Close Rolls, ix, index. 

^Ibid., loc, cit, *App., 248-250. *See pp. 30-32. 



PROCEEDINGS BEFORE THE JUSTICES 



97 



which he had been indicted in quarter sessions, and fines 
him heavily. ' 

The Coram Rege Rolls during the latter years of the 
reign contain many instances of proceedings before the 
joint commissioners of the peace and for labourers, sum- 
moned into chancery by writ of certiorari and then sent 
by a mittimus into the court of king's bench ; * undoubt- 
edly with the better organization of the justices of the 
peace, this method of control of their action became 
more usual.^ It is characteristic of the English system 
that no administrative control was provided by the stat- 
ute of labourers for the justices who were to enforce it ; * 
and equally characteristic that on the whole the super- 
vision of the justices by the central government was 
very steadily exercised ; in turning to the subject of the 
disposition of the penalties, the thoroughness of the 
control exercised by the exchequer is still more striking. 

' App., 211-213; also p. 41. 

'Strangely enough in 41 Lib, Ass, pi. 22, the use of the writ of cer^ 
tiarari is limited to its issue by chancery; cf,y however, Fitzherbert, 
op, cit., 554: ** The writ of certiorari is an original Writ, and issueth 
sometimes out of the Chancery, and sometimes out of the King's 
Bench. 

*Cf, Beard, op, cit,, 154. I print in the appendix one such appealed 
case although it is of a later date than the decade under consideration. 

*Cf. Beard, op. cit., 151: '* In English practice, no special institutions 
were ever constituted for administrative control or to provide remedies 
against officers as such." 



CHAPTER III 

THE DISPOSITION OF THE MONEY PENALTIES ^ UNDER THE 

STATUTES OF LABOURERS 

That the profits of justice are the essential element in the 
mediaeval system of law * is clearly illustrated in the per- 
sistent contest to establish a right to the money penalties 
under the statutes of labourers, a contest carried on by means 
of every possible legal technicality.* Normally the issues 
of courts under the jurisdiction of justices appointed by the 
central government belonged to the crown, with special pri- 
vileges for the owners of certain franchises ; but in the case 
of these penalties, the taxpayers made a notable attempt to 
assert their right against the crown, while the crown in its 
turn strove to lessen the share obtained by the lords of 
franchises. 

From the point of view of the disposition of these penal- 
ties, the decade undef consideration may be divided roughly 
into two periods of about equal length:* 1349-1354, and 
1354-1359, with the first of which the present section deals. 

*Thc term **fine" used in my article in the E. H, jR, is not suffi- 
ciently accurate from the mediaeval standpoint, especially in view of 
the important distinction made by the exchequer between " fines ** and 
other forms of money penalties. 

' Cf, Maitland, Domesday Book and Beyond , 277-278. 

'The contest was not confined to legal means; the instances of mis- 
appropriation are numerous. 

^ Since the first triennial runs through Easter, 1351, while the second 
does not begin till Easter, 1352, there is, strictly speaking, a year which 
must be classed with the second period. 
98 



DISPOSITION OF THE PENALTIES gy 

1. Period of the triennial grants of 1348 and 1352; the 

claims of the taxpayers 

The immediate economic effects of the plague, the fall in 
rents, the rise in wages, and in prices,^ injured chiefly the 
taxpayers, who were, for the most part, the owners of land 
and the employers of labour, and rendered still heavier their 
burden of taxation already grievous enough because of the 
costliness of the French war.^ In view of continuous diffi- 
culties in the collection of the full amount of the taxes, the 
experiment was tried of applying in aid of the current sub- 
sidy the money penalties under the statutes of labourers, 
which, in by far the largest number of cases, must have 
come from the pockets of the wage-earners.* To the em- 
ployers of labour there undoubtedly seemed a peculiar fit- 
ness in the ingenious device to secure contributions from 
the one class in the community the economic condition of 
which had been improved by the plague. The scheme was 
used twice, first in relation to the grant of 1348, and 
secondly to the grant of 1352; but while the latter measure 
has attracted some attention, the former has been almost 
ignored * and must now be described in detail. 

A. The tenth and fifteenth of 1348 

In the spring of 1348, a tenth and fifteenth were granted 
by the commons to be paid at Michaelmas and Easter for 

'See pp. 4-5, 87-92. Gasquet, The Great Pestilence, 197-198, even 
claims that the king issued the ordinance for the express purpose of 
preventing the landowners from making the high wages extorted from 
them an excuse for their failure to pay their taxes. 

*Rot. ParL, ii, 227a; the destruction by the plague of all the inhab- 
itants of certain towns rendered still heavier the pressure of taxation on 
the survivors in other districts. 

'C/. pt. I, ch. ii, ss. 3, 4 and 5. 

* For a brief reference to this earlier attempt, see my article in B, H. 
^•. S19-521. 



lOO ENFORCEMENT OF THE STATUTES OF LABOURERS 

three successive years,* in the manner that had become cus- 
tomary since 1334.^ The writs appointing the three sets 
of collectors are identical in form with those of preceding 
years," but shortly after the issue in the summer of 1349 
of the writs for the second year, important supplementary 
instructions are given to the collectors. The ordinance of 
labourers framed by the king's council had been proclaimed 
in June ; in November, as a result of complaints from mem- 
bers of the community * that the excessive wages extorted 
from them by labourers, contrary to the ordinance, pre- 
vented them from paying their share of the subsidy, letters 
patent were issued to all the collectors * directing them to 
assess upon labourers the sums received by them in excess 
of the legal wages or prices, and to levy the same in aid 
of the subsidy ; • the collectors and their deputies, also 
bailiffs and constables, (there is no mention of justices) are 
empowered to imprison obstinate offenders until they re- 
fund the " excess " and give security for good behaviour. 
The collectors, when necessary, are to obtain evidence by 

^J^oi. Pari., ii, 200 201; first year, Mich., 1348, and Easter, 134Q, 
previous to the ordinance; second year, Mich., 1349, and Easter, 1350, 
subsequent to the ordinance; third year, Mich., 1350, and Easter, 1351, 
the last collection being subsequent to the statute. 

•Dowell, Hisi. of Taxation, i, 97; by this time a fixed sum appor- 
tioned definitely throughout the country. 

•Orig., 22, m. 53, Anglia; 23, ms. 52-54. 16 July; 24, m. 22, 20 July. 

^*' Ex popular i conquestione;" doubtless expressed through petitions 
to king and council. 

•App., 258 261. The Cal, of Letter -Book F, 199-200, contains the 
enrollment of the writ for London, '* Qiod operarii capiant stipendia ut 
solebant et non ultra," and also of a writ to the sheriffs ordering the 
proclamation of the ordinance of June. 

* C/. p. 82 for an analysis of the difference between the penalty here 
ordained and that of the more famous ordinance; Harrington, Observa- 
tions upon the Statutes, 207, considers that this *' improper " distribu- 
tion of the penalties possibly caused the neglect of the measure. 



btSPOSITION OF THE PENALTIES loi 

sworn inquest and are to have the assistance of the sheriff 
in enforcing obedience. With the cessation of this tenth 
and fifteenth, the said " excess " is to be levied in aid of the 
king per illos quos ad hoc duxerimus assignandos. In- 
ternal evidence shows that these instructions were drawn 
up by the king's council * and that they can properly be 
described as secunda ordinacio.^ It is clear that by this 
renunciation of what would normally be a source of profit 
to the crown, the council hoped to conciliate the discon- 
tented taxpayers; the sequel shows, however, that it had 
determined to interpret the concession in its narrowest and 
most literal sense. 

The writs of July, 1350, for the collection of the third 
year of the subsidy," were followed by a repetition of the 
provisions as to the " excess," addressed as before to the 
collectors throughout England.* It is, therefore, somewhat 

* Since there appears in the beginning of the writ, ' ' cum . . . . de 
consilioprelatorum, nobilium, aliorumque peritorum nobis assistencium, 
ordinatterimus," followed by a clause of the ordinance of 18 June, and 
then *'ex deliberacione dicti consilii nostri, adiciendo duximus ordi- 
nandum," followed by the provisions for the application of the excess, 
it is evident that the same council was responsible for both measures, 
and it has already been said (p. 2) that the ordinance of labourers was 
the work of the king's council. 

"* Dictam primam ordinacionem *' is the phrase in the above writ 
applied to the June ordinance; ** second ordinance" is therefore prefer- 
able for the writ, rather than the "conclusion of the ordinance," the 
title nsed in the Statutes of the Realm, i, 309, for an undated document, 
printed from MS. Reg. 19 A, xiv, British Museum, and almost iden- 
tical with the writ under consideration. The former is in the third per- 
son while the writ is, of course, in the first, and has a longer preamble 
as well as some additional paragraphs at the end, important for pro- 
cedure. In the Museum manuscript the "conclusion" follows con- 
secutively after the last clause of the June ordinance and includes the 
instructions to the bishops etc, which really belong only to the earlier 
measure. 

^ Supra, p. 100, note 3. 

^Orig., 24, m. 13, 1 Oct.; " Dedecima et quintadecima de operariis." 



1 02 ENFORCEMENT OF THE ST A TUTES OF LABO URERS 

surprising that an examination of the accounts of the last 
two years of this subsidy, as well as of the numerous pro- 
cesses on the Memoranda Rolls against delinquent col- 
lectors, has failed to reveal for the period previous to the 
enactment of the statute a single reference to the " excess ;" 
from other sources, however, it is clear that the council's 
measure was not entirely ineffective. Special difficulties 
in certain counties, evidently reported to king and council,^ 
made requisite more specific instructions : early in January, 
1350, information of the obstinate refusal of some labourers 
in Hampshire to pay the sums assessed upon them resulted 
in a mandate to the collectors to imprison the delinquents 
in Winchester castle; a similar writ was directed to the col- 
lectors of Essex. ^ The collectors of the latter county were 
apparently accused of over-zeal, and a few months later, it 
became necessary to check their proceedings against those 
labourers who had already spent their illegal gains, and 
were therefore actually incapable of refunding the "excess ;'* 
imprisonment only made them poorer and deprived the 
community of their services at the very time when there 
was such a dire scarcity of labourers. The collectors of 
Somerset and of Middlesex were similarly restrained but 
were also empowered to imprison bailiffs, constables, sub- 
collectors and jurors who had proved remiss in assisting 
them.' Difficulties in Essex were continuous, while Nor- 
folk and Stafford are added to the list of troublesome 
counties.* The over-zeal of the Essex collectors was not 

**' Ac iam intelleximus " is usually the reason alleged for the addi- 
tional mandate. 

'Pat., 23, pt. 3, m. 10 d, 2 Jan.; ** De capiendo seruitores qui solucre 
recusant quintamdecimam." The first portion merely summarizes the 
second ordinance; cf. CaL, viii, 456-457. 

'App., 261-262. 

*Orig., 24, m. 16, " De decimaetquintadecimaprooperariis;" Essex, 
8 Nov.; Norfolk, 18 Dec; Stafford, 20 Dec. 



DISPOSITION OF THE PENALTIES 



103 



entirely disinterested; when the court of king's bench 
met at Chelmsford in the autumn of 135 1, Edmund de 
Northtoft, referred to as collector ^ and also as jtistice sur 
laborers^ was indicted for extorting from labourers during 
the year 1350 large sums which he had appropriated to his 
own use instead of paying in aid of the subsidy.^ A similar 
charge is brought and substantiated against de Sutton, 
described as appointed to collect the subsidy and to inquire 
into the matter of illegal wages.* This explicit statement 
of the double set of duties belonging to the collectors shows 
how inevitable must have been the conflicts between them 
and the justices of labourers, in the counties where the 
latter were acting.* Examples occur in Northampton and 
Leicester; in June, 1350, on complaint of the taxpayers," 
the justices appointed to enforce the ordinance of labourers, 
are accused of planning to send directly into the exchequer 
both the " excess " and the fines levied on labourers con- 
victed before them, instead of turning over the " excess " 
to the subcollectors according to agreement." A writ to 
the justices orders the distinction to be observed; the " ex- 
cess " is to go in aid of the subsidy, but the fines directly 
to the crown, ut est justum.'' As late as 1357, there is 
evidence that the crown is still trying to collect " fines, issues 
and amercements " before justices of labourers in Dorset 
for the 24th year, " excess " being distinctly omitted and 
presumably having already gone to the subsidy.* The few 

*He was collector for Essex in 1349 and 1350; cf. references to Orig., 
p. 100, note 3, supra. 

» App. , 265-268. ' App. . 264-265. 

* Either under a joint commission of the peace and for labourers or 
under a separate commission for labourers; see pt. i, ch. i, s. i. 

*•* Sicut ex populari conquestione nobis datur intelligi." 

*" Concordiam supradictam," i. ^., as stated in the second ordinance. 

*For the reference, cf, p. 11, note 5. 

' For the reference, cf. p. 11, note 3. 



1 04 ENFORCEMENT OF THE STATUTES OF LABO URERS 

commissions for enforcing the ordinance of labourers that 
are enrolled for this period all contain some reference to the 
application of the excess to the subsidy ; * in the separate 
commissions for labourers issued for Lindsey and Suffolk, 
a careful line is drawn between the powers of the justices 
of labourers and those of the collectors, while in the other 
cases the justices are empowered to inquire as to whether 
the collectors have carried out their instructions for the 
assessment and collection of the " excess." 

From this evidence certain definite conclusions may be 
drawn : it is clear that for nine counties, at least, there was 
a vigorous attempt to apply the " excess " in aid of the 
subsidy; and since no provisions are recorded as to methods 
of accounting it is probably a fair inference that in other 
cases also the total tax included such " excess ;" but it is, of 
course, impossible to make any estimate as to the amount. 
It is to be recalled that the number of appointments of 
justices of labourers for this period is too few to explain 
the statement in the preamble to the statute that commis- 
sions were issued for each county ; since the collectors were 
to assess as well as to levy the penalties technically known 
as the " excess " it is more than probable that the statement 
applies to them and that the council intended that they 
should have a large part of the burden of the enforcement 
of the wages and price clauses of the ordinance of labourers 
and that the justices should be responsible to the crown for 
all other forms of penalties, amercements, fines etc, imposed 
under the ordinance.^ The clumsy division of power be- 
tween the two sets of officials, the lack of specific provisions 
as to their relation, the absence of definite instructions as 

^ Pages 10-13. From this statement the commission for Durham 
must be excepted. 

* Page 13. 



DISPOSITION OF THE PENALTIES iqc 

to accounting and, finally, the determination of the crown 
to insist on the differentiation in the money penalties, are 
striking elements of weakness in the measure, and show that 
the second ordinance, like the first, was inadequate on the 
administrative side. 

The re-enactment of the substance of the council's scheme 
by the statute of February, 1351, when there was only one 
more pa)mient of the grant to be made, represents a belated 
attempt to remedy these administrative defects and also 
embodies, at the urgent petition of the commons, a further 
concession of revenue by the crown : it is now specified that 
fines as well as " excess " shall go in aid of the sub- 
sidy; that all the penalties are to be assessed by justices to 
be appointed under the act, that the estreats shall be de- 
livered by them to the collectors by a system of indentures, 
so that the latter may be called to account at the exchequer ; 
the penalties are to be levied by the collectors and are to go 
in aid of the districts in which they were imposed, but if in 
any place the total exceeds the tax, the surplus is to go to 
the next poorest district; with the cessation of this sub- 
sidy, the penalties are to go to the king and be accounted for 
by the sheriff.* At the eleventh hour of the grant, it is 
not surprising that the more carefully worked out scheme 
failed to have much result; the subsidy accounts are still 
silent, but on the Memoranda Rolls there are two important 
actions brought against the collectors of Surrey,' and of 
Gloucester,* on the ground of failure to distribute the 

'App., 16. The form of the commission in the full list issued as a 
result of the statute (app., 23) still includes the same clause as to the 
relations between justices and collectors that had appeared in the com- 
missions of the first period; one would have expected some modifica- 
tion of it. 

'App., 26a-264. 

'Mem. L. T. R., 32, Mich., Fines, rot. 2, Gloucester; on 30 March 



Io6 ENFORCEMENT OF THE STATUTES OF LABOURERS 

penalties; in both instances the distribution is finally com- 
pleted. The charges against de Northtoft previously re- 
ferred to include also indictments for the year 1351 ; * he 
is accused in several districts in Essex of exacting penalties 
from labourers and, nevertheless, of levying the total amount 
of the subsidy, evidently not giving the taxpayer the benefit 
of the " allowances." 

Although only a partial measure of success can be attrib- 
uted to the council's attempt to lessen the pressure of taxa- 
tion, the experiment had at least shown the commons where 
hope of relief lay. When the next opportunity came, fore- 
warned by the previous difficulties, they were ready to re- 
peat the experiment, with a completeness as to details which 
left little room for failure. 

B. The tenth and fifteenth of 1352 

Within a few months the opportunity came. In the 
second parliament of the 25th year, which met on 13 Janu- 
ary, 1352,^ the chief -justice, on the ground of the war with 
France, asked for another siAsidy; in response, the com- 
mons complained of their great impoverishment owing to 
the late deadly pestilence and to the weight of past taxes,' 

(therefore after the enactment of the statute) the collectors against 
whom this charge is brought had received the now familiar additional 
instructions of the second ordinance : * ' Quod excessus salariorum 
seruientum leuetur ad opus Regis/' enrolled in Orig., 25, m. 3. The 
list of collectors here referred to is slightly different from that of the 
previous summer; see supra , p. 100, note 3. 

' App. , 267. The long process against him in the exchequer for failure 
to account as collector contains no reference to the subject of the '* ex- 



cess." 



'The session lasted till 11 Feb., thus running into the 26th year, see 
list in app., 8. 

•/?£>/. Pari,, ii, 237; Jessopp, Coming of the Friars, 255-257, writes: 
' ' The Commons were quite equal to making the most of any calamity 
that occurred.*' 






DISPOSITION OF THE PENALTIES 107 

but in view of the king's necessity they granted him a trien- 
nial tenth and fifteenth to be paid at Easter and Michaelmas, 
^352, 53» ^^d 54/ making the stipulation, however, that all 
forms of money penalties under the statutes of labourers, 
fines, " excess," issues and amercements, including those al- 
ready collected, should be allowed them in aid of the tax.^ 
The king agreed to the condition for the period of the 
grant but in modification of the provision in the statute that 
the penalties should go to the districts where they had been 
imposed, he insisted that they should be distributed among 
the districts according to their relative needs.' 

The abundance of data in existence as to the result of 
this second experiment makes possible a detailed account, 
and furnishes a vast amount of information on the relation 
of the statutes of labourers to the life of the times.* 

^Hot. Pari., ii, 237b: '* Et puis apres longe trcte et deliberation eues 
par les Communes ove la Communalte, et Tavis d'ascuns des Grantz a 
eux envoiez, ... si vindrent les dites Communes devant notre Seignur 
le Roi et touz les Grantz en Parlement . . . ." 

•/W//., 238a: **C'este la forme du Grante de trois Dismes et Quin- 
zismes grantees a notre Seignur le Roi ore en cest present Parlement 
par les Grantz du Roialme et par tote la Commune . . . sur la Condi- 
tion que ensuyt . . . ." 

The commission to the collectors (app., 269) refers to the application 
of the penalties as granted by the king, "ad requisicionem eiusdem 
communitatis de assensu prelatorum, ducum, comitum, et baronum.'* 
Many years later, the grant is described as made by the king, '"par 
avisement de son bone Counseill " (Rot. Pari., ii, 409b); the first state- 
ment is probably nearer the truth. 

^Rot, Pari., ii, 238a: '' II plest a notre Seignur le Roi & a les Grantz 
de la terre que la Commune eit touz les fyns, amerciements, & issues, 
forfaitz des ditz laborers & artificers, contenuz en TEstatut fait au dar- 
rein Parlement, en eide de lour Disme et Quinzisme durant le temps 
des dites Dismes et Quinzismes triennales; sauves a chescun Seignur 
lour fraunchises sanz nulle emblemissement. Et I'entent notre Seignur 
le Roi & de son Conseil est, que ceste Eide soit en oeps des Povres des 
Villes & lieux gastes, et autres qi plus de meister en ont, par avis des 
Justices a ceo assignez." 

* For an account of the manuscript sources, see app., 255-258; 312-314. 



1 08 ENFORCEMENT OF THE ST A TUTES OF LABO URERS 

(a) System of collection and distribution of the penal- 
ties. — Not only have the commons been explicit in their de- 
mands that all possible penalties under the statutes should 
be granted to them, — in contradistinction to the council's 
former limitation to the " excess," — but they are resolved 
that the officials concerned in carrying out the measure shall 
have specific instructions as to ways and means. There- 
fore, during the same session of parliament, the commons 
drew up, in the guise of a petition to the king and the mag- 
nates, comprehensive and detailed directions for the actual 
collection and distribution of the penalties.* This petition 
is granted and a copy^ is sent to the collectors in each 
county, together with their commission; the latter now in- 
cludes a reference to the concession as to the penalties and 
states that they are to be levied iuxta formam nobis in dicto 
parliamento per dictam communitatem liberatam et per nos 
acceptatam quam vobis mittimus.^ The method prescribed 

^Including a request for the appointment in parliament of separate 
commissions for labourers; cf, p. 27. 

•The petition is not given in Rot, Part,, but appears in Statutes of 
the Realm as a statute of the 25th year printed from a British Museum 
manuscript. A copy or perhaps the original draft, exists on a detached 
membrane among Miscellanea of the Exchequer, 4/39, and the docu- 
ment is likewise enrolled on the Memoranda Rolls, L. T. R., imme- 
diately following the enrollment of the commission to the collectors; 
app., 271. In the Colchester case referred to, p. 130, it is spoken of as 
" ordinacionem . . . per consilium Regis factam." 

'For the commission of the first year, see app., 268-271, and also 
Orig., 26, m. 27, 25 Feb.; Anglia, **Dc decima et quintadecima per 
laicos concessis." For the second and third years, cf, ibid,, 27, m. 25, 
26 Jan., and 28, m. 29, 26 Jan. 

Gasquet, The Great Pestilence, 197, referring to the Originalia enroll- 
ment of the 26th year, conveys the impression that this document is the 
grant of the penalties instead of making clear that it is merely the com- 
mission issued as a result of the grant. His two other references to 
the Originalia, on the disregard of the ordinance, 26, m. 25 (on p. 198), 
and the inability of the justices to levy the penalties, 27, m. 19 (on p. 



DISPOSITION OF THE PENALTIES 109 

in the " form " is as follows: the justices of labourers in 
each county, at the end of the session, in the presence of the 
collectors and of the most distinguished knights and Ser- 
jeants of the county, shall certify to the total sum of the pro- 
ceeds of the session; representatives from each himdred 
shall be chosen to mc^e sworn reports as to the relative 
impoverishment of each district; on the basis of these re- 
ports, the joint committee, composed of all the above, shall 
apportion this total in such a manner that each district 
according to its needs shall be " allowed " a share ; the 
collectors shall then receive the estreats from the justices 
by a system of indented receipts and shall proceed to levy 
the penalties as scheduled, and to collect in each district the 
difference between the amount of the tax as originally as- 
sessed and the amount " allowed " to it in penalties by the 
committee of apportionment. In accordance with the re- 
troactive clause of the measure, it is specified that arrears 
of penalties not already paid in aid of the grant of 1348, 
and also all penalties imposed during the gap between the 
two grants, shall go towards the present subsidy ; * and 
that any estreats already received at the exchequer shall 
be now delivered to the collectors.* 

197), I have been unable to find. As my book goes to the press Gras- 
quet's new edition reaches me but proves to contain the same errors. 
It is to be remembered that in the earlier experiment the commis- 
sions to collectors had not mentioned the statutes of labourers but had 
been followed by a supplementary series of writs; cf. p. 100. 

'"Tut le Profit provenant des fyns, issues, amerciments et excesses 
Icvez, et a levers " {/^ot. Pari., ii, 238a) becomes in the ** form " ** toutz 
]es fjrnes • • . que sount ou serount leuez ou prises des laborers . . • 
de la feste du Pasche drayne passe tanques a dreyn terme du payement 
des dismes et quinzismes susditz " and is then followed by the provision 
for arrears. It is to be remembered that the triennial of 1348 had ex- 
pired at Easter, 1351. 

'After the end of the grant of 1348, process had been begun by the 



I lo ENFORCEMENT OF THE STATUTES OF LABOURERS 

In spite of the care exercised by the commons to provide 
for every contingency, there are two instances where 
further general instructions prove necessary. As a result 
of complaints to the court of exchequer of embezzlement 
of the penalties per diuersos ntinistros Regis, it is provided 
that the justices of labourers, in addition to the delivery of 
their estreats to the collectors, shall send duplicates to the 
exchequer and it is explicitly declared that the collectors 
must account at the exchequer for levying the penalties in 
aid of the communities in accordance with the estreats ; but 
they are reminded that whatever has not been levied at the 
time of the expiration of the subsidy shall go directly to the 
king.* It is to be noted that this additional safeguard for 
accounting is offered as an amendment to the provision of 
the statute of labourers for the disposition of the penalties, 
instead of to the provision of the grant of 1352; it is, there- 
fore, clear that the clause in the statute, while apparently 
intended only for the subsidy of 1348, was held to a^ply to 
the new subsidy also ; the significance of this fact lies i hiefly 
in the method of dealing with arrears, as will be seen later. 

exchequer against the justices of labourers for the delivery of their es- 
treats {cf. pp. 44, 132); but on 9 Feb., 1352 the treasurer reported the 
new grant to the barons and stopped the execution of the writs against 
the justices. Cf. Mem. L. T. R., 26, Hill., Communia, rot. 5, 
Anglia; ** De non distringendo iusticiarios pro liberacione extractarum 
de seruitoribus:" ** Memorandum quod Rex ad peticionem communi- 
tatis regni in instanti parliamento concessit eidem communitati quod 
omnes denarios etc." The estreats for Essex, already delivered, are 
sent from the exchequer to the collectors in accordance with a writ of 
the great seal dated 2 March addressed to the treasurer and barons, and 
enrolled in Mem. K. R., 26, Pasch., Breu. Baron., rot. i; " Pro Leone 
de Bradenham et lohanne de Depeden." Similarly, the estreats for 
Dorset are sent to the collectors; Mem. K. R.. 26, Hill., Breu. Baron. » 
rot. 28, "Pro communitate comitatus Dorset." 

^App., 273-275. An action was brought against the Derby justices 
for the delivery of their duplicate estreats; app., 281-287. 



DISPOSITION OF THE PENALTIES 1 1 1 

The other instance to be considered is a question of the 
interpretation of the terms of the grant. The exchequer had 
refused to permit the collectors in Buckinghamshire to in- 
clude in their allowances to that county the penalties under 
the statutes of labourers imposed by the justices of the court 
of king's bench; on complaint of the collectors, the king 
issued a writ to the treasurer and barons informing them 
that penalties under the statutes of labourers imposed by 
all justices, whatever the court, belonged to the conununi- 
ties in aid of the subsidy.* 

From this summary of the specific instructions gfiven to 
the officials concerned with this grant, it is easy to see that 
the second experiment has remedied all the obvious elements 
of weakness of the council's measure,^ and, by greater ex- 
plicitness as to the administrative details, marks an advance 
also over the provisions of the statute of labourers. Leav- 
ing for a later section the discussion of cases of actual mis- 
appropriation by officials and also of the relation of the 
amount of the penalties to the amount of the tax, the prac- 
tical working of the scheme must now be examined as it is 
revealed in the original accounts of collectors and justices 
and in documents connected with these accounts, and also in 
the various exchequer enrollments.* 

The normal sequence of events in each county is as fol- 
lows : the total amount of the profits arising from the ses- 
sions of the justices of labourers is ascertained,* and then 

' App., 275-276; 328-329. The exceedingly large amount of the pen- 
alties in this county is perhaps explained by this decision. It is to be 
noted that arrears are included; the list goes back to Easter term, 1349, 
evidently an error, as the ordinance was not proclaimed until June of 
that year. 

'See preceding section, pp. 104-105. 

'See S4>p., 255-258; 312-314, for an account of these documents. 

^To this total must be added the sum of the penalties from the two 
iQiper courts. 



• 



1 1 2 ENFORCEMENT OF THE STATUTES OF LABO URERS 

before the joint committee can proceed to make the appor- 
tionment, the sum due as salaries to the justices is sub- 
tracted from this total/ in accordance with writs under the 
great seal to the collectors bidding them pay these salaries 
at a specified rate per day.* The collectors receive receipts 
from the justices which they show when rendering their ac- 
count at the exchequer." In cases where the total penalties 
are only just enough for the salaries,* or do not even cover 
these,** the communities can, of course, receive nothing; 
when, however, there is a surplus beyond the salaries, the 
apportionment is made on the oath of the collectors and 
twenty-five or thirty elected representatives from the county, 
and with the advice or the assent of the justices,* acting on 
the reported needs of the various districts. The resulting 
schedule states the exact amount that each district is to re- 
ceive in penalties and is turned over to the collectors to- 

^See app., 325-326, and also p. 45. 

'Only the first series of these writs appear on the Close Rolls; for an 
account of them, see p. 18, note 2, and p. 46. The original writs to 
the collectors and their receipts from the justices exist for Derby and 
for Herts.; app., 276-277, and Lay Subs., 120/31 and 120/32, Herts. 

*E. g.y Mem. L. T. R., 29, Hill., Status ct visus compotorum, rot. i, 
Essex: *' . . . de quibus [i, e.y the total penalties) dicunt se soluisse 
iusticiariis pro vadiis suis de dicto tercio anno xl li. per breuia super 
hunc visum ostensa . . . ." Cf, also ''pro feodis suis per duo breuia 
Regis et duas acquietancias ipsorum iusticiariorum separatim de recep- 
cione;" app., 303. 

* Derby, third collection; app., 335; Rutland, third collection; no ac- 
count of penalties ''eo quod nichil excedit vltra vadia iusticiariorum, 
sicut continetur in compoto suo de huiusmodi finibus;" Enrolled 
Subs., 14. 

'Holland (Line), third collection, ''denarii in extractis predictis col- 
lectoribus per iusticiarios huiusmodi servientium liberatis non sufficiunt 
ad vadia iusticiariorum solvenda;'' Enrolled Subs., 14; iind,^ Surrey, 
first collection, the same excuse, but for further information on this 
case, cf. pp. 123-124. 

•See app., 323-326; 356-358* for examples. 



DISPOSITION OF THE PENALTIES 113 

gcther with a copy of the estreats for which they give re- 
ceipts to the justices, while a duplicate copy is sent by 
the latter to the exchequer. The collectors now pass on 
to the subcoUectors in each district (who are often the con- 
stables), the estreats of the penalties imposed in that dis- 
trict, together with the memorandum of the amount " al- 
lowed " it in penalties by the committee of apportionment. 
It is evident that each district might receive as an allow- 
ance the exact sum to be levied on it in penalties; in this 
case, the subcoUectors' task is to collect the penalties and 
the difference between their amount and that of the tax, so 
that the total to be raised by them is no greater than ac- 
cording to the original assessment ; but it is equally evident 
that with the plan of giving most aid to the neediest dis- 
tricts, the subcoUectors, while sometimes receiving a larger 
sum of penalties than they had been forced to collect, might 
also have to levy a larger sum than would be " allowed " 
their district, and thus would have additional labour with 
no corresponding benefit. The Colchester case, which will 
be referred to later, is an excellent example of the friction 
naturally arising from such a situation.^ 

The existence of several of the original schedules of pen- 
alties imposed by the justices ^ (probably the duplicates 
called for by the exchequer) makes possible a direct com- 
parison with the memoranda of apportionment and seems 
to warrant the inference that the simpler method of the 
statute was the more usual ; that is, the " allowance " to 
each district normally equalled the sum imposed in penalties 
within that district. 

After receiving from the subcoUectors the quota due 
from them, the collectors make up their accounts in vari- 
ous ways. Very often they give the amount of the tax, 

*Scc p. 130. *App., 332-334; 338; 361. 



1 



114 



ENFORCEMENT OF THE STATUTES OF LABOURERS 



district by district, and then, after the total, add a formula 
which varies in details, but is substantially as follows : infra 
quas summas continentur .... (figures) de finibus, exitibus 
et amerciamentis seruientium et operariorum, sicut memor- 
atur in quodam rotulo rotulis de particulis huius compoti 
consuto.^ The additional rotulus, when in existence (it 
has often disappeared), shows the share of penalties re- 
ceived by each district, and is either in the form of the ori- 
ginal memorandum of apportionment » or of a schedule of 
the amount of the estreats delivered to each set of sub- 
collectors ; " sometimes the two sets of figures, tax and 
penalties, appear on consecutive membranes, with no dis- 
tinct rotulus,^ Very commonly, however, on the mem- 
brane containing the tax account, the collectors add, op- 
posite to the amount of the tax for each district, a formula 
somewhat as follows: inde de Xma et XVfna .... 
(figures), de excessu laborariorum . . . (figures).* In 
accounting at the exchequer for the tax and for the penal- 
ties the collectors must show receipts from the justices for 
payment of their salaries and also from the subcoUectors 
for the distribution of the penalties ; several bundles of both 
types of receipts are in existence.' Thus, an action is 
brought against the collectors of the West Riding, because 
in accounting for the distribution of large sums of penalties, 
they had shown no acquittances ; they finally produce in court 
449 receipts signed by constables and various others, which 

* In collectors' accounts, both original and enrolled, passim. 

*App., 323-324; 355- 'App., 322-323; 347-348. 

*App., 340-342. 

'App., 349. In one case the following system is used: sum of the 
penalties, 6d.; sum of the tax, 24s.; "et sic deficiunt'' 23s. 6d. Cf. 
app., 361. 

•For the first, cf. p. 112, note 2, and for the second, see app., 334- 
335. and 342-343. 



DISPOSITION OF THE PENALTIES 115 

are not accepted as valid until investigated by a commission 
of the exchequer/ If the collectors are not able to an- 
swer for the penalties, they add at the end of their accounts 
a sworn statement as to the reason; the justices had failed 
to make the apportionment,* or had held no sessions,' or 
had delivered the estreats too late,* or very frequently had 
not delivered them at all* It will appear later that the 
collectors must often be accused of perjury; but occasion- 
ally it is the justices who, on being summoned before the 
exchequer, admit that they have been the delinquents.* 

'See p. 119, note i, for reference. 

*Lay Subs., 77/20, Bucks., third collection: the justices ''sessionem 
snam super ordinacione et avisamento inter eos (i, e,, collectors) et 
alios de communitate eiusdem comitatus ad distribuendum particulariter 
per villatas, civitates et burgos comitatus predicti iuxta formam, vim et 
effectum statuti inde editi in auxilium xv*^ et x"* predictarum nondum 
fccemnt in comitatu predicto, vt dicunt super sacramentum suum." 

'Lay Subs., 90/16, Cumberland, first collection: " lusticiarii dehuius- 
modi servientibus, operariis et artificibus in comitatu predicto non sed- 
erunt* 

^Enrolled Subs., 14, Worcester, first collection: ** Extracte iusticiar- 
iorum huiusmodi operariorum, seruientium et artificum eis die Lune 
proximo post festum Purificacionis beate Marie anno xxvii' per iusticiar- 
ios liberate fuerunt quod propter breuitatem temporis nichil inde leuare 
potaerunt, vt dicit per sacramentum suum." 

^Lay Subs., 103/27, Dorset, first collection: " Infra quas summas non 
respondent de aliquibus denariis provenientibus de finibus, amercia- 
mentis operariorum pro excessu eo quod iusticiarii Regis in hoc comi- 
tatu nullas extractas dictis coUectoribus inde liberauerunt nee iidem col- 
lectores quicquam leuauerunt, ut dicunt per sacramentum suum." 

•Mem. L. T. R., 28, Hill., Recorda, rot. 3, **De coUectoribus se« 
cundi anni solucionis xv"** et x°** in Northrydyng allocutis de finibus 
operariorum;" the justice admits that he had failed to deliver the es- 
treats. Ilnd,, 28, Hill., Presentaciones, rot. 2 d, Lindsey (Line), 
De die dato; Skipwith "presens hie in curia" admits that he and his 
companions had not delivered the estreats to the collectors; therefore 
the latter are **sine die." Ilnd., 29, Trin., Recorda, rot. 8 d, New- 
castle-on-Tyne; the same statement is made. For the case of London, 
cf. pp. 136-137. 



1 



1 16 ENFORCEMENT OF THE STATUTES OP LABOURERS 

Their duplicate estreats, too, are not always forthcoming- 
and are sometimes obtained only as the result of exchequer 
action extending over a number of years.* 

Even if the collectors were zealous in the performance 
of their duties, it is easy to see that a system involving the 
ready cooperation of so many different sets of officials, 
would not always work smoothly. Possible reasons for lax- 
ity on the part of subcollectors have already been mentioned ; 
the justices of labourers have sometimes proved remiss in 
holding their sessions or in delivering their estreats ; and in 
several cases the collectors' excuse for not levying the 
penalties is that the sheriff and his subordinates had not as- 
sisted them.^ In view of all these difficulties, and also of 
the fact that the payment of the full amotmt of the tax 
could not, of course, be delayed, it is evident that, even not 
including cases of actual embezzlement by the collectors, 
there would be frequent instances of arrears of penalties. 

Without here raising the question as to whether the ar- 
rears are due to actual dishonesty on the part of any official, 
the exchequer method of dealing with them must now be 
examined, first of all during the period when the subsidy 
was still running. If, for a given collection, the justices 
have been dilatory as to their estreats, they are ordered by 

' App., 281-287, referred to on p. no, note i, supra, 

'Mem. L. T. R., 28, Mich., Breu. Ret., d, Hunts.; the coroners are 
ordered to distrain the sheriff on the ground that ' ' vicecomes et minis- 
tri sui non sunt intendentes eisdem coUectoribus ' ' in levying the pen- 
alties. Ibid,y 28, Pasch., Recorda, rot. 8; De quadam summonicione 
restituta per collectores secundi anni solucionis x*"* in comitatu Dors'; 
and ibid,t 29, Pascb., Breu. Ret., rot. 2 d, Dorset; the coroners are 
ordered to distrain the sheriff, John de Palton, on the ground that he 
had not done his duty in levying the penalties. lUd,^ 29, Mich., Breu. 
Ret., Shropshire; the king's serjeant-at-arms is ordered to attach the 
collectors because the sheriff had failed to return the writ. Cf, also p. 
117, note 7 for another instance of a delinquent sheriff and p. 137. 



DISPOSITION OF THE PENALTIES 1 17 

writ of the treasurer (sometimes at the urgent request of 
the collectors themselves) * to deliver them to the collectors 
of the following year ; * if the collectors in accounting prove 
to have estreats which they confess not to have levied, these 
estreats are sent (also by writ of the treasurer) to the next 
set of collectors, who are instructed to levy the penalties in 
aid of their year of the tax ; * if the collectors admit having 
in their possession some portion of the penalties which they 
had levied but not distributed,* two writs are issued by the 
treasurer, one to the aforesaid collectors ordering them to 
deliver the money to the collectors of the following year, 
and the other to the latter bidding them receive and distri- 
bute it* 

The arrears of the third year belong to the period when 
the subsidy had ceased to run; for a few months after 
Michaelmas, 1354,* there are instances when the collectors 
are ordered to levy the penalties according to the estreats 
and distribute them among the needy districts,^ but the 

*App., 287. *App., 278. •App.,279. 

'In sttch a case the subcollectors must have been persuaded to levy 
penalties which were not going to be of any direct benefit in lessening 
their labours, as they had already collected the total amount of the tax. 

^ App., 279. In the instance here given the first order is merely re- 
ferred to. 

*26th year; but Michaelmas, 29th year, in the exchequer. Cf. app., 
256. 

^C/. Mem. L. T. R., 29, Trin., Status et visus compotorum, rot. 13 d, 
Somerset; the collectors at this date, clearly after the cessation of the 
subsidy, make the following statement under oath: " debent xli s. ii d. 
qui adhuc restant leuandi et distribuendi inter pauperes villatas dictt 

comitatus. 

■ ....••*. 

Ideo de precepto curie prestitenmt sacramentum de leuando pre- 
dictos xli 8. ii d. et eos distribuendo inter villatas predictas iuxta formam 
statnti etc., cum ea celeritate qua etc." Finally, in the spring of 1359 
indentures are delivered to the exchequer by one of the collectors, con- 
taining the correct amount; but the process is continued against the 



m8 enforcement of the statutes of labourers 

specification is also made that this is to include only such 
estreats as had been delivered to the collectors previous to 
Michaelmas, 1354; * now if the tax had been already paid, 
this is a " rebate ** and not an " allowance " system.* 
There is, however, little evidence to show that this practice 
of dealing with the arrears was usual; on the contrary, it 
was plainly to the advantage of the crown to interpret rigidly 
the terms of the grant of the penalties, durant le temps des 
dites Dismes et Quinzismes; * and, as has been said, it was 
found possible to rule that the clause of the statute of 
labourers applied to this subsidy. Hence, normally any 
estreats in the possession of collectors after Michaelmas, 
1354, were to be levied for the use of the crown.* If money 
had been levied in penalties previous to Michaelmas, 1354, 
but was still in the collectors' hands, it was claimed by the 
crown with the statement that the community had an action 
of damages against the collectors.' In doubtful cases it 
had to be proved that the money had been " allowed " to 
the community, previous to the rendering of the final ac- 

other collectors until the spring of 1363 and only ceases then because of 
a new enactment on the subject of the penalties. It appears that the 
sheriff had been guilty of not having distrained the collectors to answer 
for the penalties: *'Idem vicecomes (John de Ralegh) presens hie 
allocutus et examinatus non dedicit quin inuenisse potuit predictos 
... in comitatu predicto post recepcionem dicti breuis et ante diem 
return! eiusdem et inde submittit se gracie curie." Mem. L. T. R., 
34, Mich., Recorda, rot. 2; ** De vicecomite amerciato." 

' App., 280. 

•C/. the case quoted supra, note 7 and also Mem. L. T. R., 29, 
Pasch., Status et visus compotorum, rot. 5, Worcester; the distribution 
of ;^40 of penalties is ordered in aid of the tax of the years 26, 27 and 
28. Mr. Willard tells me that the rebate system is employed in the 
grant of the 31st year. 

' Cf, supra, p. 107, note 3. 

^ App., 288-289, and p. no. 'App., 310. 



DISPOSITION OF THE PENALTIES ng 

count of the tax ; ^ although apparently it was permissible 
for the receipts from the constables and subcollectors to be 
signed later,* This interpretation, of course, means that 
all estreats not delivered to the collectors were claimed by 
the crown. Perhaps the most noteworthy instance of the 
stringency with which the exchequer interpreted the statute 
to the advantage of the revenue of the crown is a case in- 
volving deceit on the part of the collectors, where it is finally 
shown that the community of the county in question had re- 
nounced its rights to a share of the penalties in favor of 
extra payments to certain individuals who had been zealous 
in helping the collectors levy the tax; it is decided that 
since these individuals had not received their bonus till 
2 January of the 28th year, after the end of the subsidy, 
they must refund it to the crown.* 

The Memoranda Rolls are full of actions against collec- 
tors to compel them to levy ad opus Regis the estreats in 
their possession, and likewise of suits against justices of 
labourers to force them to send into the exchequer back 
estreats that had not been delivered to the collectors, in or- 
der that they might be levied by the sheriff. Owing partly 
to frequent laxities on the part of sheriffs in executing the 
exchequer's writs of attachment and distraint,* many of 
these cases drag on for a number of years, particularly 
those involving actual misappropriation by collectors. The 
annoyance to the exchequer must have been cumulative as 
the years went by, and the profit to the crown was prob- 
ably not great; it is, therefore, not surprising that in 1362,* 
the crown resigned its claim to arrears, in favor of the 
communities. 

^Mcm. L. T. R., 31, Trin., Recordi, rot. 6; York, W. R. 
*Md, 'App., 303-305. *Cf. p. 116, note 2. 

^Statutes, 36 Edw. Ill, st. i, c. 14; the immediate cause for the 
change will be touched on in the next section. 



I20 ENFORCEMENT OF THE STATUTES OF LABOURERS 

Having thus outlined the main features of the working 
of the commons' scheme to lessen the pressure of taxa- 
tion, it is necessary to examine the attempts made by the 
collectors to defraud the taxpayers of the relief held out to 
them, and then to endeavor to form an estimate of the net 
gains accruing to the community in the shape of allowances. 

(b) Embezzlement by collectors, — Owing to the asser- 
tion by the crown of its rights to the arrears of penalties, 
the communities, as has been shown,* were often deprived 
of their share of allowances by mere remissness on the part 
of some official or by delays that, from the nature of the 
case, were inevitable; it will now appear that they also suf- 
fered considerable losses from peculation on the part of the 
collectors. The justices, having to do only with estreats, 
had few opportunities for misappropriation,* but the col- 
lectors, through whose hands the money actually passed, 
tried various methods of keeping it for their own uses. In 
view of the thorough system for checking the accounts of 
the penalties, it is strange that they should have expected to 
escape detection; it seems almost as if they reasoned that, 
with the prompt payment of the full amount of the tax, the 
crown's income from the subsidy would not be diminished 
by the embezzlement of the penalties and that, therefore, 
the exchequer would not consider it worth while to bring 
actions against them. They had, however, failed to count 
on the eagerness of the taxpayers to secure their quota of 
allowances, and on the determination of the exchequer to 
claim all penalties not actually turned over to the commimi- 
ties during the running of the subsidy.* 

^See p. ii6. 

'For a few instances on the part of the justices, cf, pt. i, ch. ii, s. 7; 
in comparison with the large number of justices appointed only a small 
number have been proved corrupt, but of course there may have been 
undetected offenses. 

•See pp. 118-119. 



DISPOSITION OF THE PENALTIES 121 

It has been said that the collectors were often guilty of 
perjury and the accusation must be made good.* Among 
the sworn statements made by the collectors at the foot of 
the tax accounts as excuses for not answering for the penal- 
ties, and repeated under oath at the exchequer at the time 
of the rendering of the accounts, by far the most common 
is the non-delivery of the estreats by the justices.* Unfor- 
tunately for the reputation of the collectors, the system of 
accounting devised by the commons and by the exchequer 
prevented such an assertion from passing unchallenged. It 
is proved again and again that these unscrupulous officials 
had received the estreats and levied the penalties but had 
appropriated the money to themselves, and under cover of 
the formula " no estreats " had then raised from each dis- 
trict the full quota of the tax, without giving the commun- 
ity the benefit of an allowance.* Detection comes in vari- 
ous ways : the justices in delivering their duplicates to the 

'See p. 115. 

'See p. 115 and table in app., 315-321; cf. also Mem. L. T. R., 28, 
Mich. , Commnnia, Fines, rot. 4 d, Leyc' : ' ' Manucapcio collectonim xv* 
incomitatu Leyc';" they had hoped for more estreats. Ibid,, 28, Hill., 
Presentaciones, rot. 3 d, De die dato, Glouc. ; they had received the 
estreats too late to levy the penalties, but when given more time they 
are still delinquent. 

'A statistical study should be made of such cases; I am merely indi- 
cating some typical examples. Mem. K. R., 27, Mich., Status et visus, 
Warwick; the collectors first say that they had received no estreats, but 
finally admit that they had them in their possession. Mem. L. T. R., 
aB, Mich., Recorda, rot. 26, Suff* **De collectoribus xv™ et x"* com- 
missis prisone pro transgressionibus etc." (a case very much like that 
for Southampton, given in app., 289-293); the justices of labourers in 
court accuse the collectors of falsehood, /did,, 28, Mich., Presentaciones, 
rot. 13 d, Surrey, De die dato; the collectors at first deny the receipt of 
the estreats, but finally admit that they had lied and account. I&id,, 
Sussex, De die dato; exactly the same course of events takes place. An 
important case in Northampton will be discussed later in this section, 
pp. 125-126. 



1 22 ENFORCEMENT OF THE ST A TUTES OF LABOURERS 

exchequer often mention that they have given the other 
copy to the collectors some months ago ; ^ sometimes they 
call the attention of the exchequer to the discrepancy be- 
tween this fact and the sworn statement in the collectors' 
accounts ; ^ and sometimes they flatly accuse the collectors 
of having levied and kept the penalties.* Often it is not 
apparent whence has originated the doubt as to the collec- 
tor's good faith : suspicato is the phrase in one case,* result- 
ing in a cross-examination of the collectors under oath 
which elicits a confession of their guilt; in another, iam 
accepimtiSy followed by a writ to the justices asking them 
to certify as to the fact of the delivery or non-delivery of 
their estreats.* In one instance, the collectors keep up the 
pretence of the dilatoriness of the justices to the extent of 
asking for a writ against them to compel the delivery of their 
estreats and yet when confronted by them in court immedi- 
ately weaken and admit that they themselves had lied.' 
The justices on being summoned before the exchequer have 
so little hesitation in giving the lie to the collectors that it is 
easy to imagine that when the two sets of officials met on a 
joint committee of apportionment their relations were not 
of the pleasantest. 

It is also a matter of common occurrence for the collec- 
tors, on being challenged for not having distributed the 
penalties, to admit that although they had received the es- 
treats they had not levied the penalties ; ' while, of course, 
it is not clear that in all such cases they had hoped after 

^E.g,, in the Bucks, case given in app., 301, and in the Northants. 
case analyzed pp. 125-126. 

'In the Northants. case. 'App., 292. * App.» 290. 

*App., 293. 'App., 287-288. 

'C/. e,g,, Mem. L. T. R., 29, Mich., Presentaciones, rot. 8, Lind- 
sey (Line); prison and fines were efficacious in forcing the collectors 
to account. 



DISPOSITION OF THE PENALTIES 123 

the full payment of the tax quietly to levy the penalties and 
pocket them, there is frequently evidence pointing in that 
direction. A more elaborate method of concealing their 
misdoings is as follows: after levying and appropriating 
the penalties they would fabricate a detailed memorandum 
of their distribution, district by district, and this memoran- 
dum they would turn into the exchequer when rendering 
their account of the tax.* The weakness of this scheme, 
if suspicion of their conduct arises, lies in their inability to 
produce the receipts of the subcoUectors or of the constables 
for the allowances itemized in their falsified accounts. The 
energetic desire of the taxpayers to obtain their share of 
relief goes as far as petitions to the king, and results in the 
appointment of commissions of investigation; but even if 
the findings are against the collectors, the taxpayers do not 
get much satisfaction ; for it usually happens that the whole 
matter is not settled until after the end of the subsidy, and 
under these circumstances the defaulting collectors are forced 
to make restitution not to the communities but to the crown, 
though it is added that the former have an action for dam- 
ages against the collectors.* 

Recourse is sometimes had to the court of king's bench 
in order to check the iniquities of the collectors. In one 
instance a justice of labourers brings action against the 
collectors in order to obtain his salary; the latter are 
convicted of having embezzled the penalties, under cloak 
of the phrase " not even enough for the salaries of the 

* Cf. Mem. L. T. R., 31, Trin., Recorda, rot. 6, Ebor*, " Decollector- 
ibns XV* et x* triennalium de secundo anno solucionis earundem in West- 
rithyng attachiatis ad recitandum compptum inde*/' the collectors are 
"sine die." In an exactly similar case against the collectors of the 
third year in the same county (app., 306-312) the latter are imprisoned 
and fined. 

*App., 310. 



1 24 ENFORCEMENT OF THE ST A TUTES OF LABO URERS 

justices," and are fined heavily.^ Many commissions, re- 
corded usually on the Memoranda Rolls, but occasionally 
on the Patent Rolls,* were appointed to investigate the 
misdeeds of the collectors. Frequently as a result of the 
findings of such commissions and of subsequent imprison- 
ment of the delinquent collectors, the latter eventually 
pay large fines and also account to the exchequer for 
the penalties; but much more often, as has been pointed 
out in the preceding section, the actions against them drag 
on year after year, involving much effort and time on the 
part of the exchequer and last so long that the collectors 
themselves have died and their innocent heirs and executors 
find themselves involved in bothersome suits. In such cases, 
it is likely that the final profit to the exchequer is small, and 
it seems probable that one especially flagrant example of 

^ Coram Rege, 27, Trin., Shareshull, 49, Surrey, Henry de Bek> 
well vs, the collectors; ''de placito quare cum eisdem collectoribus 
pluries mandauerat Rex quod prefato Henrico . . . quinque solidos per 
diem pro vadiis . . . soluerent vel causam Regi significarent quare 
mandato Regis alias eis inde directo minime paruerunt, iidem . . . 
spretis mandatis Regis predictis vt accepit Rex, predicto Henrico vadia 
sua predicta soluere . . . non curarunt." Ilnd,, 27, Mich., Shareshull, 
Adhuc de finibus; two of the collectors are fined ''pro retencione de< 
nariorum de laboratoribus receptorum." Cf. Enrolled Subs., 14, Surrey, 
first collection. In a case in Lib. Ass., 27 Mich., pi. 15, not yet iden- 
tified on the Coram Rege Rolls, certain collectors are accused of having 
levied large sums of penalties for which they had not accounted. Cf. 
also Ancient Indictments, no. 19, Dorset, m. i [32nd year]: "luratores 
dicunt per sacramentum suum quod Yvo de Childecome, collector x** 
et xv™* annis xxviii"* et xxix"® cepit ad vsum suum proprium de amer- 
ciamentis laborariorum et vitellariorum quinquaginta marcas in decep- 
cione Regis et ad graue dampnum communis populi . . . ." 

*£.£"., Pat., 30, pt. 2, m. 20 d, 6 June, " De inquirendo de summis 
leuatis per collectores x* et xv* de excessibus operariorum etc.;" in the 
county of Wilts, find., m. 3 d, 3 Oct., " De inquirendo de finibus de 
operariis receptis;" in the counties of Surrey and Sussex, apparently. 
In both cases the phrase is " ac iam ex graui querela hominum (of the 
counties named) intelleximus. " 



DISPOSITION OF THE PENALTIES 125 

such delay resulted in the statutory change made in the 
disposition of the penalties.* Two sets of collectors for 
Northampton had failed to account for the penalties, in one 
case, on the plea of " no estreats," and in the other, with 
no excuse for the omission; but Henry Grene, the justice of 
labourers, appears in court with the duplicates, and says 
that all the collectors had lied. The process dragged on 
until most of the collectors had died, and their heirs and 
executors, several of them women, were finally distrained to 
appear to answer for the penalties, their property having 
been seized by the sheriff. Finally, in Hilary term of the 
36th year they come into court and seek delay on the ex- 
cuse that memoranda et munimenta sua premissa tangencia 
sunt in partibus suis sine quibus in premissis respondere non 
possunt et petunt diem vlterius etc, vt interim munimenta 
ilia perscrutari possint. Not until Michaelmas of the same 
year did they appear w'th a writ of supersedeas issued by 
the king on 26 November, on the ground of the new statute 
passed in the parliament that had just sat, giving arrears 
of penalties to the communities and compelling collectors to 
account to the keepers of the peace instead of at the ex- 
chequer.* A petition to the council printed in the parlia- 
ment rolls seems to indicate that during these six months 
the defendants had done something more than examine their 



'Mem. L. T. R., 31, Hill., Recorda, rot. 5, Norht'; **Dc collector- 
ibus XV* et X* triennalium attachiatis pro compoto et concclamento." 

* Statutes, 36 Edw. III» st. i, c. 14. The session of parliament re- 
sponsible for this measure lasted 13 Oct. to 17 Nov.; Parry, Parlia- 
ments, Ivi. The statute embodies almost the exact words of a petition: 
'* Item, Pur ce que Tentent des Seignurs et de la Commune est declaree 
en cest present Parlement, Qe les Communaltez de chescunes Villes 
du Roialme eient les Fins & Amercimentz, & touz autres Proiitz, des 
Artificers, Servantz et autres Laborers, queconques fuissent paiez as 

Coillours de la Quinzisme triennale, autrefoitz grante au Roi " 

Rot, Pari,, ii, 273a. 



1 26 ENFORCEMENT OF THE ST A TUTES OF LA BO URERS 

records. The petition is from the community of North- 
ampton,* — one suspects at their instigation, — and makes the 
plea that the collectors had turned in the penalties together 
with the tax, but had omitted mentioning them in their ac- 
counts, — an exactly contradictory statement from that re- 
corded in the case of one set of collectors. Perhaps the 
council did not in this instance compare notes carefully with 
the exchequer, and it is, of course, possible that the ori- 
ginal collectors were not guilty though appearances are 
certainly against them. In any case it seems likely that the 
inconvenience suffered by these particular heirs had a de- 
cisive effect after so many years of similar difficulties, and 
that the crown decided to relinquish the chance of obtaining 
the penalties, and thus to bring to an end all the numerous 
processes still pending. 

After this date, all processes of the exchequer for arrears 
of penalties lapse, and letters patent appointing the joint 
commissions of the peace and for labourers, now include the 
power to compel the collectors to account.* Nominally, 
therefore, by 1362, the communities have asserted their right 
to the arrears of penalties against the claims of the crown, 
but I am inclined to suspect that the crown yielded only be- 
cause it had found it impossible to obtain such arrears, and 
that when the sources for this later period are examined, it 
will turn out that the communities had obtained merely an 
empty privilege. 

Without a statistical study of the actions against the col- 
lectors, it is impossible to ascertain the exact amount of the 
penalties that through remissness or dishonesty of officials 

^/dot. Parl.y ii, 40Ql>-4ioa; the editors print this without a date, evi- 
dently by an error, for the original is endorsed: ** Cotyngham, Bille de 
parliamento anno xxxvi.'* (Ancient Petitions, File 17, no. 814.) 

•C7. e, g,, Pat., 36, pt. 2, m. 7 d, 20 Nov.; ** De pace conseruanda. ' ' 



DISPOSITION OF THE PENALTIES 



127 



failed to go to the communities, but the fact that so many y 

of the collectors thought it worth while to try to evade the 
elaborate system of accounting and that, until 1362, the ex- 
chequer continued its efforts with persistent energy, shows 
clearly that the sums were considered important 

(c) ^ comparison of the amount of the penalties with that 
of the tax. — In studying the subsidy of 1348, it was dis- 
appointing to find no way of discovering the amounts of the 
penalties that were actually allowed toward the tax,* but 
in the case of the subsidy of 1352, there is fortunately de- 
finite information. Although the lack of knowledge of the 
sum of arrears * prevents an absolutely accurate estimate of 
the total amount of penalties imposed under the statutes 
during this period, there are in existence sufficient data for 
a fairly correct calculation as to the sums actually distri- 
buted to the communities as allowances, and it is possible, 
therefore, to gauge the measure of success of the scheme 
from the point of view of the taxpayers. The authoritative 
figures for the total sum of allowances obtained by each 
county are recorded in the enrolled subsidy accounts,* and 
can, therefore, be compared directly with the total tax. The 
table in the appendix * gives the result of this comparison, 
but it is to be borne in mind that occasionally such accounts 
have been falsified, notably in the cases of Yorkshire and 
of Surrey, where by the ruling as to the arrears, the penal- 
ties would go not to the communities but to the crown.* 

The tax was levied in 45 districts: in 37 counties, — 
Yorkshire and Lincolnshire with three divisions each, — and 

^Pa^e 104. 

'C/. two preceding sections, p. 119 and pp. 126-127. 

'Penalties not accounted for in time to appear on the enrolled ac- 
counts of the final year of the subsidy must be classed as arrears. 

*3iS-32i. *C/. pp. 123-124. 



1 28 ENFORCEMENT OF THE ST A TUTES OF LA BO URERS 

in the Isle of Wight, London, Newcastle-on-Tyne and the 
city of York; for each of these there were, of course, three 
collections, so that the penalties should appear in 135 in- 
stances. The facts are as follows : in 13 cases, there is no 
mention whatever of penalties; in 8 cases, varying excuses 
such as "no sessions" or "no apportionment;" in 46 cases, 
"no estreats ;" but in 68 cases, just half, a definite sum is re- 
ported; of these, in two cases the sum was only just enough 
for the justices' salaries, and in two others not even enough 
for this purpose, leaving 64 cases where the communities 
received their quota of the penalties. With the exception 
of London, Northumberland, Rutland, Shropshire, Sussex, 
Westmoreland and York, all the districts benefited by these 
allowances. The total of the tax for the three years is 
£114,767 5s. 2d., and the total of the penalties £7,747 14s. 2d. 
ob. q.,* so that the net gains of the whole body of taxpayers 
amounted to only about 6% of their total burden. The pres- 
sure on the wage-earners, however, must be estimated at a 
somewhat higher figure, while the relation between tax and 
allowances, county by county, proves to be much more 
significant than the relation between totals. As to the first 
point, it is to be remembered that before the apportion- 
ments could be made, about £20* annually were paid as 
salaries to the justices of labourers in each county ; a rough 
estimate would make the total of such payments about £800 ; 
further there are the arrears which can scarcely be reckoned 
as much less than a third of the total allowances, possibly 
in round numbers £2000; therefore something over £10,000 

^For a single year the tax is /'j8»255 15s. ob. Cf. Stubbs, Const. 
Hist., ii, 579-580: •* Of the produce of a vote of tenths and fifteenths 
we have no computation after the reign of Henry III that is trust- 
worthy." He goes on to name £4,0,000 as the sum of the lay tenth 
and fifteenth under Edward III. 

'See pt. I, ch. i, s. 6. 



DISPOSITION OF THE PENALTIES 129 

would probably cover the total of the penalties imposed 
under the statutes and levied for the most part from the 
wage-earning class. As to the second point, it is worth 
while to quote a few figures from the table; in two cases, 
the penalties actually equal half the tax, and in seven cases 
they equal a third, while in others they amount to a quarter 
or a sixth or a seventh. In the cases where for small dis- 
tricts within the county there is a basis of comparison be- 
tween tax and allowances, the results are equally significant. 
Out of the 135 possible instances, there are 28 in which the 
double set of figures are in existence, covering 21 counties 
and divisions of counties, or nearly half of the tax dis- 
tricts. The limitations of space have forced me to select 
at random for the appendix only a few districts within the 
counties; but even these few give some striking results: 
for example, the village of Bradefeld, Essex, is rated to the 
15th at 44s. 3d. ob. q., but 40s. is allowed it in penalties, 
though the estreats to be levied in it amounted to only 
29s. lod. ; ^ Hatton, in Lindsey, is rated to the loth at 
23s. 2d., and its allowance is 12s. ; ^ Ravensrod in the East 
Riding, is rated at iocs, to the 15th and receives 60s. in al- 
lowances.* In the original documents (which deserve to 
be printed in full) such examples can be multiplied inde- 
finitely, and show clearly that a given small group of tax- 
payers, who had perhaps been forced to pay exceptionally 
high wages, might receive full compensation through the 
lessening of their share of the subsidy. The opportunity 
was tempting and the utmost advantage was taken of it; 
for example, the inhabitants of Kingston-on-HuU had ap- 
parently made out a strong case for their peculiar destitu- 
tion, for the council allows them the full benefit of all the 
penalties under the statutes imposed within the limits of the 

' App. , 337-338. * App. , 350. » App. , 359. 



1 30 ENFORCEMENT OF THE ST A TUTES OF LABO URERS 

town, and, in order that none of these penahies should be 
distributed elsewhere in the county, forbids any interference 
from the justices or collectors of the rest of Yorkshire.^ The 
case of Colchester is one of the most striking that has come 
to my notice; the loth amounts to £26 2s. gd., but the sub- 
collectors are ordered to collect £84 7s. yd. in penalties, 
the difference evidently to go in accordance with the statute 
to the next poorest town; the subcoUectors, however, raise 
the third of the total penalties, sufficient to cover their own 
tax and then refuse to concern themselves with the re- 
mainder which would, of course, not benefit Colchester.* 
Such a combination of circumstances must have occurred 
fairly often; for, in the spring of 1354, when there was 
only one more collection of the subsidy, the commons peti- 
tion that a surplus of penalties over the tax in a given dis- 
trict be distributed at large throughout the county instead 
of going to the next poorest town.* This request is re- 
fused, but the fact that it was made is in itself indicative 
of the importance attaching to the penalties. That in a 
given county the labourers can be made to pay half or a 
third of the total tax, even though this is true but rarely, 

' Pat., 27 1 pt. I, m. 18, 10 March; '* Pro hominibus ville de Kyngeston- 
Sttpcr-Hull." Cf. CaLy ix, 417. Gasquet» The Great Pestilence^ 155, 
grives a full summary but fails to make clear that the point of the issue 
of these letters patent was merely to prevent the possibility of a com- 
mittee of apportionment deciding that some other district in Yorkshire 
had even a better claim to the penalties imposed in Kingston than had 
Kingston. 

'Mem. K. R., 27, Mich.» Recorda, Essex, *'De balliuis Colecestr' 
occasionatis." The bailiffs are accused of having let out of prison the 
disobedient subcoUectors, contrary to the orders of the collectors. The 
two sets of figures, that of the tax and that of the penalties, given in 
this most interesting process, are corroborated with only slight differ- 
ences, by the subsidy account and by the justices' estreats; see app., 

337-339. 
^Hot, Pari,, ii, 258a. 



DISPOSITION OF THE PENALTIES 131 

shows how prosperous is their economic condition ; and also 
makes plain how much the communities had to gain by the 
enforcement of the labour legislation. It seems probable 
that the pressure brought to bear by the taxpayers on the 
justices and collectors was an efficient cause for the great 
regularity with which sessions were held throughout Eng- 
land during the running of the triennial and resulted in per- 
haps a more thorough administration of the statutes than 
was ever again achieved/ With the grant of the next 
triennial, that of the 31st year, another set of penalties in 
the place of these was given to the communities.* The 
reasons for the abandonment of the scheme are still to be 
sought, but a possible explanation lies in the attitude of the 
lords of franchises; their claims and those of the crown 
deserve full attention. 

2, Period after the cessation of the triennial grants of 1348 

and 1352 

A. The rights of the crown: Easter, 1351 to Easter, 
1352; Michaelmas, 1354, to November, 1359^ — ^At the end 
of each of the above triennials, the penalties under the 
statutes went to the crown,* subject only to the claims of the 
lords of franchises, and were levied by the sheriff in the 
same manner as were the penalties in other courts of the 

' My view is thus the very opposite from that expressed by Barring- 
ton, quoted p. 100, note 6. 

'The escapes and chattels of thieves and felons convicted before the 
keepers of the peace and the justices in esrre; Statutes ^ 31, st. i, c. 13. 
Mr. J. F. Willard has examined the manuscript sources for this grant 
and has acquired much information which it is to be hoped will soon 
appear in print. The penalties under the labour statutes were never 
again thus used. 

'This had been specified by the statute and by the grant of the sub- 
sidy, but would have been assumed even without such a specification. 



1 32 ENFORCEMENT OF THE STATUTES OF LABOURERS 

king.* Leaving to a later section the claims of the lords, 
the normal method of dealing with the estreats will now be 
described. 

Even during the triennial of 1348, the crown had made 
good its right to that portion of the penalties not coming 
under the technical head of " excess " * and soon after its 
cessation in Easter, 1351, steps were taken by the exchequer 
to secure this new source of revenue. In July, instructions 
were issued to the sheriffs to levy the penalties and to pay 
out of them the wages of the justices of labourers; ■ by the 
autumn, it was found necessary in the case of a long list of 
counties to order the sheriffs to distrain the justices for the 
delivery of their estreats,* but scarcely was the machinery 
set in motion, voluminous rolls for Essex and Dorset hav- 
ing been already delivered into the exchequer ' with speedy 
prospects of rolls for Southampton,* when parliament met. 

*The exchequer process brought in 1357 against the sheriff of Somer- 
set and Dorset, resulting in his imprisonment, quoted p. 11, note 3, 
illustrates clearly the variety of estreats for which the sheriff was re- 
sponsible: estreats of the keepers of the peace and justices of labourers 
for the 24th year; of the justices of labourers for the 27th and 28th years; 
of the justices of assize for the 28th and 29th years; of the chancellor 
for the 29th year; of justices of oyer and terminer for the 28th year; of 
the barons of the exchequer for the 29th year; of the court of common 
pleas for the 28th year, Trin. and Mich, terms, and for the 29th year. 
Hill, and Pasch. terms elc; through a long list. Cf, p. 137, note 7. 

*Cf. pp. 103-105. 

*See p. 18, note i, and p. 44* According to these instructions the 
justices are to deliver their estreats directly to the sheriffs, but in prac- 
tice it became the custom to deliver the estreats into the exchequer and 
then to re-issue them to the sheriffs. 

*Mem. L. T. R., 26, Mich., Breu. Ret., rot. 11, Kane', 18 Oct.; by 
this writ of the treasurer the estreats are called for at the exchequer. 
It is to be remembered that Mich., 26th year of the exchequer is really 
only Mich., 25th year of Edward's reign; cf. app., 256. 

^ For an account of these see p. 109, note 2. 

• Cf. p. 62 and note 3. 



DISPOSITION OF THE PENALTIES 133 

The result of the session has been already told ; the change 
in the disposition of the penalties relieved the exchequer and 
the sheriflfs from direct responsibilities for levying the es- 
treats, and called forth writs of supersedeas stopping the 
processes against the justices of labourers.* There is no 
record that during these few months any payments had 
been made as salaries to the justices.' With the expiration 
of the second triennial at Michaelmas, 1354, the crown 
recovered its rights to all penalties under the statutes of 
labourers, and although it was forced later to part with 
a portion of the penalties, it never again completely sur- 
rendered its rights. These rights have been shown to ex- 
tend to arrears of penalties not already allowed to the tax- 
payers. If the estreats have reached the collectors, the ex- 
chequer brings action against them by a process already de- 
scribed, but if the estreats are still in the hands of the jus- 
tices of labourers, up to 1362 the exchequer deals with them 
exactly as it does with current estreats.* In both cases 
writs are issued by the treasurer to the justices bidding 
them deliver their estreats into the exchequer ; * they are 
then turned over to the sheriff who is responsible for levy- 
ing them and for accounting for them.* The system by 

' Page 109 and note 2. 

'See p. 44. As early as 12 July, 1351, the date of the issue of the 
first series of writs for payment of the justices' salaries, complaints to 
the council of embezzlement of the penalties by "sheriffs, lords of lib- 
erties and towns, marshalls of justices, keepers of prisons, bailiffs of 
liberties, market towns and boroughs and their agents," had resulted 
in the appointment of a number of commissions of investigation; Pat., 
35, pt. 2, m. II d.; *' De summis ab operatoribus et seruitoribus extorsis 
ad opus Regis leuandis." CaL, ix, 160. It seems probable that in view 
of the change in the disposition of the penalties, these commissions 
were allowed to lapse. 

•See p. 119. * App., 363-365- 

* For the sources that contain the accounts of the penalties both origi- 



134 



ENFORCEMENT OF THE STATUTES OF LABOURERS 



which the justices of labourers received their salaries is now 
thoroughly worked out and is worthy of note as indicating 
perhaps the most valuable source for showing the fre- 
quency with which the justices were acting. The first step 
in the process is occasionally a writ of the gjeat seal to the 
treasurer and barons bidding them order the sheriff to make 
the payment/ but is more usually a writ to the sheriff him- 
self in the form of a letter close ordering him to pay the 
justices at a specified rate per day or per year out of the 
issues of their sessions for the days during which they have 
actually sat.^ In rendering his itemized account at the ex- 
chequer, the sheriff states that in accordance with the writs 
of the great seal he has paid to each justice the amount due 
him, showing in each case the justice's receipt; ' then fol- 

nal and enrolled, see app., 256-258. In the course of the next reign the 
more direct method of dealing with the estreats is adopted, like that in 
use during the subsidy in relation to the collectors; one copy is given 
by the justices to the sherifTs and the duplicate is sent into the ex- 
chequer; see oath of office taken by the justices of the peace, printed in 
Rot. Pari,, iii, 85, quoted p. 42. 

*Sec app., 368-371, for an example of the successive steps in the 
whole process. 

' For the references to the enrollments, cf. p. 46, note 3. The series 
does not begin until the 30th year, since it has been shown that during 
the subsidy the collectors had paid these salaries; cf. p. 112. In cases 
where the allowances to the tax had not been duly made the sheriff 
becomes responsible for the back salaries of the justices; cf. e.g,, Mem. 
L. T. R., 31, Mich., Breu. Irret., Shropshire, where the sheriff is 
ordered to pay wages to justices of labourers for the 26th year. 

'Memoranda Rolls, K. R. and L. T. R., passim; unfortunately in 
the series for Somerset selected for the app., 368-371, 1 was unable to find 
the desired entry under ** Status et visus;" therefore I add here a sim- 
ilar entry for another county. Mem. K. R., 31, Mich., Status et visus, 
Lincoln'; "Facto visu compoti Thome de Fulnetby, vicecomitis, de 
vltimo dimidio anno xxx . . . . £t viii li. vi s. viii d. quos soluit 
lohanni Busshe, vni iusticiariorum ad transgressiones operariorum. 
seruientum et artificum in partibus de Kesteuen in comitatu predicto 
puniendas assignatorum, pro vadiis suis pro tempore quo fuit intendens 
sessioni iusticiarie predicte, per breue Reg^s et literas acquietancie ipsius 
lohannis de recepcione . For example of an original receipt, cf. app . , 277. 



DISPOSITION OF THE PENALTIES 135 

lows another writ of the great seal to the treasurer and 
barons bidding them examine the sheriff's writs and receipts 
and, if they prove satisfactory, make him due allowance in 
his account ; * this allowance is then finally noted on the 
Pipe Roll, the last entry in the whole process. These en- 
tries, therefore, give statistical evidence of the number of 
days of sessions in each county, as well as of the amounts 
of the penalties.* 

The system of levying estreats does not, by any means, 
work with clock-like regularity; delays occur at all points, 
necessitating monotonous repetition of the issue by the 
exchequer of writs of distraint against the justices for 
the delivery of their estreats ; ■ the actions against the 
justices often drag on interminably, in one instance for 
over eighteen years.* It is clearly a fact of decisive prac- 

'The Memoranda Rolls, K. R., seem literally full of such writs. 

' An excellent study could be made on the basis of these Pipe Roll 
entries. 

* Memoranda Rolls, passifn. The cases are very similar to those 
occurring during the subsidy; cf. e, g,, app., 299. 

^Mem. L. T. R., 30, Trin., Recorda, rot. i, Staff'; **De comite 
Staff' et aliis attachiatis pro extractis laborariorum liberandis." One 
after another of the nine justices involved appear before the exchequer 
with various excuses which are readily accepted; e. g,: " Et predicti 
comes et lohannes de Delues pro se ipsis dicunt vt prius quod huius- 
modi extractas non habent penes se liberandas. Dicunt enim quod 
nulla commissio de iusticiaria predicta deuenit ad manus ipsorum com- 
itis et lohannis vel eorum alter ius nee ipsi vel eorum alter inde aliquo 
se intromiserunt. 

Et predictus Thomas de Swynnerton venit similiter ad dictum cras- 
tinum et dicit pro se quod quandoque fecit sessionem suam cum dictis 
iusticiariis circa punicionem operariorum predictorum, set dicit quod 
nulle extracte de aliquibus finibus, exitibus vel amerciamentis inde 
emergentibus deuenerunt ad manus ipsius Thome." Finally, seven of 
the nine are ** sine die," and in the meantime one justice dies, but pro- 
cess is continued against the executors of the latter and against the one 
remaining justice and is apparently not concluded as late as Michaelmas 
term of the 49th year. 



1 36 ENFORCEMENT OF THE ST A TUTES OF LABO URERS 

tical importance that the excuse of a justice that the letter 
patent had never reached him or that he had not taken 
part in the session is accepted as valid ; * provided that 
the barons can secure sufficient estreats properly arraiatas,^ 
it is a matter of indifference to them as to who of the com- 
mission had acted. When, however, as in the case of Nor- 
thumberland, no estreats at all are forthcoming,* it is then 
necessary that cause shall be shown for failure to execute 
the letters patent. The episode of Norihumberland has 
been already related ; after the cancelling of the second set 
of letters patent, it did not receive another commission for 
over a year. The case of London deserves special attention. 
The ordinance and statute had been promptly enrolled on 
the Letter-Books,* and one of the two earliest recorded 
commissions is directed to the mayor and sheriflfs, as far 
back as 1349; ^ the next information comes from complaints 
made in the parliament of the spring of 1354 of the ex- 
ceedingly high price of provisions in London, followed by 
suggestions for elaborate administrative remedies, with no 
mention of justices of labourers/ Then, in Hilary term 
1355, at the time of settling up the accounts of the subsidy, 
it appears on inquiry by the exchequer that, in spite of the 
parliamentary discussion of a few months previous, no one, 
not even the mayor and sheriffs, knew whether or not there 
were any justices of labourers.^ The result is first, a writ 

' See the quotation from the Stafford case supra; and cf, p. 35. 

' Sec p. 62 for instances where the entreats are returned for correc- 
tion; cf, also Mem. K. R., 26, Hill., Recorda, Somerset, where a bag: 
of estreats belonging to Lovell, a justice serving on the joint commis- 
sion, is returned as containing estreats ** minus sufHcientes." 

•See p. 35, and app., 366-368. * App., 8, note 3, and 12, note i. 

*Cy. p. 10, note 4. */^oL Parl.y ii, 258b-259a. 

'Mem. L. T. R., 29, Hill., Presentaciones, rot. i, London', De die 
dato. The collectors say that they had received no estreats; "ideo 
... ad presens inde sine die." 



DISPOSITION OF THE PENALTIES 137 

to the above officials to enforce the statute/ and second, two 
years later, an enactment that the statute should extend to 
London,* followed by the issue of a commission.* The full 
estreats in Letter-Book G show the efficacy of these at- 
tempts.* From a study of the actions for estreats one 
gathers the impression that the sheriff is a decidedly over- 
worked official, and one is not surprised to find that he is 
often delinquent; a justice brings suit against him for his 
wages ; • the coroners are ordered to distrain him for fail- 
ure to return writs,* and there are numerous instances when 
his plea non vacate potuit is not accepted and he is im- 
prisoned and fined by the exchequer.^ 

' Cai, Letter-Book G, 37; dated 13 Feb,, 29 Edw. III. 

'App., 18; this enactment seems superfluous in view of the final 
clause of the statute of 135 1. 

* Dated i Aug., 1357; cf. app., 42, and Cat. Letter-Book G, 115. 

*Cy. »*«/., loc, cit.y for the enrollment of the writ of supersedeas of 
4 Nov., I35Q, and of the following writ, of 5 Nov., ** Breue ad mitten- 
dum omnia rotulos et recorda de operariis in Cancellariam," and also 
of the estreats of the penalties from i Aug., 1357, to Mich., I359; 
these latter are particularly valuable because the occupations of the 
offenders are given. 

*Mem., L. T. R., 32, Hill., Presentaciones, rot. 4, De attornato. 
Staff': "lohannes de Sutton, chiualer, vnus iusticiariorum domini 
Regis tarn de pace quam de operariis in comitatu Staff' de annis xxix*, 
XXX* ct xxxi* ponit loco suo Robertum de Sekynton vel Henricum de 
Puys ad prosequendum pro vadiis suis super compotum vicecomitis eius- 
dem comitatus. In pleno scaccario." 

•C/*. e, g., Mem. K. R., 31, Trin., Recorda, Salop', ** De vicecomite 
attachiato pro debitis Regis non leuatis et variacione in responsione 
sua;" also Mem. L. T. R., 32, Trin., Breu. Ret., Salop'; John de 
Burton, the subsheriff of Richard, ear! of Arundell, sheriff, is here the 
offender. 

'There seem to be serious difficulties connected with the office of 
sheriff of Somerset and Dorset; John de Palton and John de Ralegh 
have both been accused of delinquencies (pp. 116-117, notes 2 and 7); also 
John de Sancto Lando, the guilty sheriff in the process quoted p. 132, note 



1 38 ENFORCEMENT OF THE ST A TUTES OF LABO URERS 

The only changes during this period made in the disposi- 
tion of the penalties under the statutes of labourers arise as 
a result of the claims of the owners of franchises ; to obtain 
a clear picture of the whole process, these claims must be 
examined in detail. 

B. The claims of the lords of franchises. — In discussing 
the relation of the lords of franchises to the enforcement of 
the statutes of labourers, the familiar distinction between 
jurisdiction and the profits of jurisdiction must again be 
emphasized. In a later section * the attempt must be made 
to describe the conflict of jurisdiction arising between the 
newly created courts held by the crown-appointed justices 

I , of j this section. His excuse for his long list of arrears is as follows: 
* ' Dicit enim quod in tantum occui>atus fuit circa leuacionem alioruin 
debitorum Regis et expedicionem arduorum negociorum Regis quod 
tempus sufficiens sibi non vacabat pro leuacione etc., per x menses pre- 
dictos. Et visis summonicionibus illis, habitaque deliberacione super 
premissis, quia liquet curie per cognicionem dicti vicecomitis quod hab- 
uit tempus sufficiens infra quod leuasse potuit debita contenta in sum- 
monicionibus predictis, et quod idem vicecomes quasi mercede conductus 
supersedit leuacioni debitorum predictorum contra debitum sacramenti 
stii et in dampnum Regis, consideratum est quod idem vicecomes, vide- 
licet, lohannes de Sancto Lando, adeat prisonam, et committitur prisone 
de Flete. Postea fecit finem cum Rege per c. s. (Finis c. s.) pro trans- 
gressione predicta." 

In List of Sheriffs^ he appears as John de Sancto Laudo. Cf. also 
Mem. L. T. R., 33, Mich., Recorda, rot. 19 d, Somerset', "De vice- 
comite ad indicium eo quod non leuauit debita per quandam sommon- 
icionem leuabilia.'' Turbervill's excuse for not levying the estreats sent 
him by the justices of labourers is as follows: '*quod oneratus fuit de 
aliis debitis leuandis per diuersas alias summoniciones sibi directas et de 
aliis execucionibus faciendis pro Rege, causa diuersarum sessionum ius- 
ticiariorum ... a tempore quo recepit summonicionem predictam quod 
circa leuacionem debitorum . . . vacare non potuit. £t quesito ab 
eodem vicecomite quo die recepit summonicionem predictam, dicit quod 
earn recepit apud Somerton duobus annis iam elapsis et amplius." The 
court decided that the time was sufficient if he had wished to perform 
his duty. 

*Pt. ii, ch. i. 



DISPOSITION OF THE PENALTIES 



139 



of labourers, and the seignorial courts of the manor and of 
the hundred, especially those that include the view of frank- 
pledge; the desire for fiscal profit undoubtedly being the 
main motive in the desire for jurisdiction. Here, however, 
it is the claim of the lords to the profits of jurisdiction that 
are to be discussed as distinguished from their claims to 
jurisdiction. Madox dismisses with a brief paragraph this 
whole question : " Divers Lords of Seigneuries were, by 
Charter from the King, entituled to have to theire own 
Use the Amerciaments that arose within their Seigneurie. 
However, the Lords were to claim the same at the Ex- 
chequer. William de Burne and others belonging to the 
Bishop of Bathe's Fees were amerced for a Disseisin; and 
that Amerciament was admeasured by the King's Precept; 
and was set-over to the Bishop of Bathe by Virtue of his 
Franchise. This is a Thing frequently done at this Day; 
and is so well known, that it needeth no Explanation." ^ 
It chances, however, that the claim to this special class of 
penalties, i. e. those under the statutes of labourers, involves 
some technical problems in the interpretation of the sys- 
tem that are interesting as showing mediaeval methods, as 
well as indicating the importance attaching to the enforce^ 
ment of the statutes ; these two reasons serve as my excuse 
for presenting a somewhat detailed account of the various 
stages in the claims made by the lords. 

The first reference to the relation of the lords to the pen- 
alties under the statutes is the specification of the commons 

* Hist, and Antiq. of the Exchequer, i, 540*541 • ^^« a^so Pollock and 
Maitland, Hist, Enfc. Law, i, 583. Among the more exalted seignorial 
powers of jurisdiction are included: ** Amerciamenta hominum. The 
lord has a right to the amercements of his men, even though those 
amercements are inflicted in the king's court. The amercements are 
{laid into the royal exchequer, and then the lord petitions that they may 
be paid out to him/' 



I40 ENFORCEMENT OF THE STATUTES OF LABOURERS 

that the application of these penalties in aid of the triennial 
of 1352, shall include those to be levied si bien deins Fraun- 
chises come dehors; although the king's answer includes the 
proviso sauves a chescun Seignur lour fraunchises sans nulle 
emblemissement,^ a study of the tax accounts (already de- 
scribed in detail) has shown no evidence that the lords ob- 
tained any portion of the penalties. Further, the king's 
answer to a petition as to the distribution of the penalties, 
presented just when the subsidy was about to expire, ends as 
follows : Et si Hnera le terme du grant du dit excesse al Seint 
Michel proschein a venir, apres queu terme eit chescun Seig- 
nur sa Fraunchise tiele come il avoit devant,^ From the 
evidence just presented, it seems a fair inference that the 
lords were considered by the crown to have certain claims 
to these penalties as well as to others; that these claims 
were, however, not recognized during the running of the 
two subsidies, and that the short gap between the two 
was not sufficiently long for the matter to come up, but 
that, after Michaelmas, 1354, the question would have to 
be dealt with by the exchequer. Since a clause in the 
charters granted to the conspicuous franchise holders in- 
cluded the right to levy through their own agents and for 
their own use the various forms of penalties imposed on 
delinquents proved to be " their men and tenants," it was 
naturally assumed that such a clause would include the 
penalties under discussion, the importance of which had 
been made thoroughly clear during their application to the 
subsidies. That the lords were not slow to perceive the 
possibility of advantage to themselves is proved by the ap- 
pointment, undoubtedly at their instigation, of special jus- 
tices of labourers to act within their liberties as distinct 

^/^ot. Pari, J ii, 238a; cf. p. 107, and notes 2 and 3. 
*/^ot. Pari., ii, 258a; rf, p. 130. 



DISPOSITION OF THE PENALTIES 141 

from the county at large/ — obviously a great gain to the 
owners of the liberties who could thus levy the penalties 
with much less effort than if the estreats relating to their 
own tenants were to be mixed up with those for the county. 
For 1354, just before the end of the subsidy, there are five 
such commissions, for 1355, three, and then between March 
and November of 1356, eighteen, nearly half of the total 
of forty-two commissions for that year.^ For the first 
twelve or eighteen months after the end of the subsidy the 
exchequer was fully occupied in collecting the arrears of 
penalties, none of which belonged to the lords, but toward 
the end of 1356, traces of this new disposition of the penal- 
ties would naturally appear. The sudden increase during 
the spring and simimer in the number of the special com- 
missions, is perhaps the result of the crown's acceptance of 
the rights of the lords ; these rights are certainly implied in 
the phraseology of the writs for payment of wages to the 
justices of labourers, issued the previous February, 1356: 
de fintbus, redempcionibtis et exitibus tarn ad magnates et 
alios virtute libertatum eis per nos et progenitores nostras 
concessarum .... quam ad nos pertinentibus.^ It is note- 
worthy in view of the later discussions that excessus is 
omitted. A few months later, however, just at the time 
of the greatest increase in the number of special commis- 
sions, a test case comes up in the exchequer so important in 
its results that its history must be given.* 

The archbishop of Canterbury, relying on a royal 
charter bestowing on his predecessors and their succes- 

' Cf. pp. 37-40. ' App., 36-41, and p. 20. 

' App., 368. During this same winter when Edward, duke of Corn- 
wall, claims the penalties imposed on his tenants before Bray, justice of 
labourers in Middlesex, the court adjourns for consideration; Mem. L. 
T. R., 31, Mich., Precepta, rot. i, Lond. and Midd. 

• See app., 373-379, for a complete series of documents relating to 
this claim. 



142 ENFORCEMENT OF THE STATUTES OF LABOURERS 

sors the familiar right to penalties imposed on their 
" men and tenants," even though in the king's courts, 
had, according to custom, claimed these penalties at the ex- 
chequer, and had been met with a refusal on the part 
of the barons to allow him those imposed before the 
justices of labourers. The archbishop complained to 
the king and succeeded in obtaining a writ of the great seal 
directed to the treasurer and barons, dated i8 October, 1356, 
bidding them either make the allowances or send to the king 
immediately a certified statement as to their reason for re- 
fusal. The barons chose the latter alternative and quoted 
the clause of the statute of labourers to the effect that after 
the end of the subsidy the penalties including excessus were 
to be levied ad opus Regis and that this clause precluded 
the possibility of any other disposition of the penalties. 
The matter evidently caused considerable discussion in the 
king's council and was too important to be settled instantly 
by that body ; therefore, on 28 October, another writ is is- 
sued to the barons bidding them delay proceedings until the 
meeting of the next parliament, still some months off, in 
order that the whole question can be there more thoroughly 
discussed. As a matter of fact, during the interval, the 
agitation must have continued, for on 8 February, a writ 
of the privy seal directs that all the special commissions of 
labourers shall be repealed on the ground that from them 
tout plein des mals et erreurs sont auenuZy — perhaps a refer- 
ence to these difficulties in the interpretation of the law.* 
The substance of the writ appears in the conclusion of the 
new form of the commissions and the list of justices of 
labourers issued during the same month omits private juris- 
dictions.* The rolls for the parliament of 10 April-i6 May 

»App., 31. 

•App., 25-27; 41. These commissions arc dated three days earlier 
than the writ of privy seal, presumably by a clerical error. In a note 



DISPOSITION OF THE PENALTIES 



145 



1357 are, most unfortunately, lost, so that no echo of the 
fuller discussion reaches us, although its positive results 
remain in the form of two statutes : the first grants a trien- 
nial tenth and fifteenth but specifies that this time an en- 
tirely different set of penalties is to go to the communities 
in aid of the tax ; * the second adds to the clause in the 
statute of labourers, quoted by the barons, the amendment 
that lords whose charters give them fines, issues and amerce- 
ments shall henceforth, as is their legal right, have fines, 
issues and amercements under the statutes of labourers, pro- 
vided that they contribute their share to the salaries of the 
justices.' The series of documents for the payment of jus- 
tices' wages now include this proviso.* The barons, there- 
fore, while forced to admit the legality of the lords' claims, 
succeeded in diminishing their profits to this extent, and as 
will appear, made use of a technicality for still further di- 
minishing them. It seems more than probable that during 
the subsidy the value of these special penalties had been 
forcibly realized by the lords, and that by a successful as- 

to the introduction of Slaie Trials of Edw. /, xlv, the editors quote 
Hengham's statement as to such errors: ** quia in canceliaria et alibi in 
unoet eodem die unus clericus ponat unam datam et alius aliam." 

*Siaiui€S, 31 Edw. Ill, st. i, c. 13; cf, p. 131, and note 2. 

*App., 18. 

*E,g.j Qaus., 33, m. 8, II Nov.; a writ to the sheriff to pay the 
wages of two justices of labourers in Oxfordshire runs as follows: '* Pro- 
niso quod domini libertatum qui proficuum de finibus, redempcionibus 
et amerciamentis predictis iuxta libertates suas percipiunt, vadiis illis 
pro rata proficui per ipsos inde percepti contribuant, iuxta for mam sta- 
tnti inde prouisi." The same phrase appears also in the writ to the 
barons to allow this payment in the sheriff's account; Mem. K. R., 
34, Mich., Breu. Baron., rot. 15 d. Evidently the lords often failed to 
pay their share; e, g,, the sheriff of Staffordshire accuses the duke of 
Lancaster of neglect of his duty, and the duke pleads guilty and promises 
to pay; Placita de Scaccario, 34 Pasch. Similar instances occur passim 
throughout this roll. 



144 ENFORCEMENT OF THE STATUTES OF LABOURERS 

sertion of their claims to a portion of them, they prevented 
a third grant to the communities. 

The procedure is now as follows: a given claimant 
obtains from the king a writ to the treasurer and 
barons ordering them, in view of a royal charter and 
in accordance with the new statute, to make from 
time to time such allowances as are due. The claim- 
ant, having previously received from the justices of 
labourers the estreats of the penalties imposed on his 
tenants, sends into the exchequer the schedule of names and 
amounts, and appears yearly in person or through his bailiflf 
or attorney at the time that the sheriff is rendering his ac- 
count,^ and claims that he has a right to levy for his own use 
and through his own agents the sums noted in the schedules.* 
When the claimant has demanded a specific amount, three 
points must now be proved to the satisfaction of the ex- 
chequer before it can make the due allowance in the sheriff's 
account: i. the delinquents named must be shown to be 
tenants of the claimant; 2. the penalties must be shown to 
have been imposed subsequently to the opening of the par- 
liament in which the new statute had been made; 3. the 
penalties must be shown to be fines, issues, and amerce- 
ments but not " excess ;" for it is asserted by the barons that 
" excess," not being mentioned in the charters, goes to the 
crown direct.* It is worth remembering that on a previous 



« 



*App., 378-379; 382-383. *-/ 

*Cf. Mem. K. R., 33, Pasch., Breu. Baron., rot. 6 d, 11 May, Pro 
coRiite Richemund', for an order to the barons to bid the justices of 
labourers deliver to the bailiff of the earl the estreats of certain penal- 
ties under the statutes; also idid,y 33, Mich., Recorda, Anglia, 20 Oct., 
for a similar order to the barons. Later it appears that both the barons 
and the earl's bailiflf had begun to levy these penalties; therefore a writ 
of supersedeas stops the proceedings of the former; Mem. K. R., 35, 
Mich., Breu. Baron., rot. 20, 13 Nov. Cf. p. 147, note 5. 

•Mem. L. T. R., 33, Mich., Precepta, rot. 2; an examination of the 



DISPOSITION OF THE PENALTIES 



145 



occasion the exchequer's insistance on this distinction in 
just the reverse way had served the purpose of increasing 
the income of the crown.* As to the first of the three points 
mentioned, the sheriff must report under oath to the barons/ 
but in the case of the last two, the claimant must obtain a 
royal writ, addressed this time to the justices of labourers, 
bidding them send into the chancery certified statements as 
to the date of the penalties ' and th^ separation of fines from 
excess ; * these certificates are then sent to the barons with 
still another writ of the king, ordering them to act as the 
law demands.*^ The data are now all before them, and 
they proceed to make the allowances or not, according to the 
circumstances of the case, the final outcome, of course, be- 
ing recorded on the Pipe Roll.* If a given claimant has an 
adverse decision or if he fails to prosecute his claim within 
the limit of time assigned, he is liable to be sued by the ex- 
chequer for the amount claimed tanqaam de claro debitoJ 

charter granted by king Henry shows that the abbot of Westminster 
and his successors "habeant omnes fines propriorum hominum suorum 
ex quacumque causa venerint et coram quibuscumque iusticiariis facti 
fuerint. In qua quidem carta nulla fit mencio de aliquibus excessubus 
• • . • 

* Page 103. ' App. , 383-384. 

' App., 386; see also writ attached to the Warwick roll, app., 216-217. 

* App., 384-386; the purpose of the writ to the justices quoted p. 64, note 
3, was to order them to make this distinction between fines and excess. 

•App., 386. 'App., 387^388. 

^Mem. L. T. R., 34, Trin., Precepta, De summis balliuorum, Surr' 
Sussex. In regard to the claim of the archbishop of Canterbury to cer- 
tain penalties before the justices of labourers he is ordered to obtain the 
usual certificate from the justices: ' * Iniunctumque est eidem archiepis- 
copo quod interim lequatur quod certificacionem dictorum iusticiariorum 
babeat hie ad dictas octabas alioquin tunc fit execucio versus ipsum 
archiepiscopum de predictis xi li. xviii d. tanquam de claro debito." 
Cf, also Mem. L. T. R., 35, Mich., Precepta, rot. 8 d, in regard to a 
similar claim of the abbot of Westminster: '* Ad quern diem predictus 
abbas non prosequitur allocacionem de predictis xii li. xiii s. vi d. de 
quibus oneratus est . . . Ideo fiat execucio ad opus Regis de predictis 
xii li. xiii s. vi d '' Cf, also app., 384. 






1 46 ENFORCEMENT OF THE ST A TUTES OF LABO URERS 

Although the test case as to the primate had resulted in 
a statute admitting that de ju/re these penalties belonged to 
the lords, it is to be noted that the exchequer succeeded in 
the contention that the penalties for the period between the 
end of the subsidy and the enactment of the amending 
statute belonged to the crown. Instances occur when lords 
who, during this interval had levied the penalties for their 
own use, — tmdoubtedly acting in good faith, especially in re- 
gard to those imposed by the special justices serving within 
their liberties, — were obliged to refund the amount to the 
crown. The case of the duke of Cornwall is to the point ; 
he acknowledges that he had levied the penalties in Oxford- 
shire and Berkshire during the years just before the new 
statute and is charged with the amount ; * a similar con- 
fession for the county of Northampton has similar results.* 
The sheriff of Bedfordshire and Buckinghamshire says that 
he ought to have levied the penalties for several years past 
within the liberties of the duke in the honour of Walling- 
ford and Berkhamsted but has not done so because the duke 
had already levied them. The duke admits the truth of the 
statement and is charged with the amount.* A brief refer- 
ence has been already made to the unusually large number 
of claims to penalties made by the magnates of the counties 
of Warwick and Leicester, after the statute of 1357, and 
to their impatience at the necessity of separating fines from 
excess as well as separating estreats of sessions of the peace 
from those of sessions for labourers ; it seems probable that 
these complaints were the decisive factor in bringing about 
the consolidation of the two commissions.* 

*Mem. L. T. R., 32, Mich., Prcccpta, rot. 7, Oxford and Berks. 
'App., 379-382. 

'Mem. L. T. R., 32, Hill., Precepta, rot. 6 d, Bedf. and Bucks.; 
special justices were appointed within this liberty of the duke on 26- 
March, 1356; app., 140. 

* Pages 23-24. 



DISPOSITION OF THE PENALTIES 147 

In addition to the claimants who have based their claims 
on charters including the right to amerciamenta hominum, 
there is also a small group, which, lacking any such general 
franchise, receives from the king during this decade, for 
either a limited or an indefinite period, specific grants of the 
penalties under the statutes ; to this group belong the king's 
two sons, Edmund ^ and John,' and the Carthusians of 
Henton and of Witham,* the latter obtaining their privi- 
leges as a result of complaints to the king of their peculiar 
difficulties. It is interesting to see that within the palatinate 
of Chester the prince of Wales makes an exactly similar 
grant of the penalties to an abbot* The legal aspect of this 
type of claims involves no special problems and the pro- 
cedure is the same as that already described ; ^ but it is signi- 
ficant that even here the " excess " is not included. 

To obtain accurate knowledge of the exact number 
of the claimants and of the amounts they finally re- 
ceived, and of the relation of these amounts to the total 

*Pat., 32, pt. I, m. 3, 23 June, **Pro Edmundo de Langele, filio 
Regis;" also idid.^ m. 2, on the same date. The grant is in aid of the 
re|>airs on his castle of Coningsburg and other buildings. 

*Pat., 32, pt. I, m. 4, 27 June, ** Pro comite Richemundie;" the fines 
are in aid of repairs on his castle of Richmond and other buildings: 
" habenda, leuanda et percipienda per manus balliuonim seu ministrorum 
dicti comitis per extractas iusticiariorum predictorum eisdem balliuis seu 
ministris liberandas, quamdiu nobis placuerit absque aliquo nobis inde 
reddendo." Cf. also Writs of Privy Seal, Chancery, Series I, File 374, 
no. 23, 870, 27 June, 32 Edw. III. 

•App., 389-390. 

^Chester Recognizance Rolls, no. 41, m. 2, 18 Dec, 32 Edw. Ill; 
*' Carta abbatis de Valle Regali de finibus et amerciamentis operariorum 
et artificum." The grant is said to be ** de gracia nostra speciali et in 
opere caritatis." 

*See e. g,, Mem. L. T. R., 35, Pasch., Recorda, rot. 10, Norflfolchia, 
" De lohanne comite Richemund' de clameo finium et amerciamentorum 
operariorum." Cf, p. 144, note 2. The letters patent are of course en- 
rolled in the course of the process. 



I 



1 48 ENFORCEMENT OF THE ST A TUTES OF LABO URERS 

revenue from these penalties, a careful statistical study 
should be made of the cases on the Memoranda Rolls and 
of the corresponding entries on the Pipe Rolls. Some thir- 
teen claimants by charters have come under my observation, 
ecclesiastics and the king's immediate family dividing between 
them the gains resulting from the statutes : ^ the former 
include the primate,* five abbots,' and three bishops,* while 
Edward, as duke of Cornwall and as prince of Wales * 
figures almost as frequently as his cousin, Henry of Lan- 
caster; • the two queens make up the list/ Even through 
the medium of this imperfect study of the claims of the 
lords of franchises it is possible to see the importance at- 
tached by them as well as by the crown, to the penalties 
under the statutes of labourers. 

In coming to the end of the subject of the penalties, there 

' There is in the Record Office a manuscript list which I neglected to 
examine in which is recorded an abstract of the claims of the lords to 
fines in general; cf. Scarg^ll-Bird, Guide, 330. My list may easily not 
be complete; and I give merely a few references to the processes on the 
Memoranda Rolls, in order to show the procedure in use. 

*App., 378-379; special justices had been appointed within his liber- 
ties; app., 140. 

* Peterborough, Mem. L. T. R., 33, Mich., Recorda, rot. 14; Fecamp, 
app., 382-388; Ramsey, Mem. L. T. R., 33, Mich., Recorda, rot. 2 d; 
Reading, ibid,, 34, Mich., Precepta, rot. 5, Oxford et Berks.; West- 
minster, p. 145, note 7. Of these only the first and the fourth had ob- 
tained special justices; cf, app., 139. 

*CarlisIe, Mem. L. T, R., 33, Mich., Recorda, rot. 15 d; Winchester, 
ibid,, 34, Mich., Precepta, rot. s d, Oxford and Berks.; Worcester, 
ibid,, 34, Hill., Precepta, rot. 6, Warwick and Leicester. None of 
these had special justices. 

*Mem. L. T. R., 33, Mich., Recorda, rot. 16, Lincoln'. 

^ Ibid,, rot. 15, Lincoln'. 

Isabel, Mem. L. T. R., 31, Hill., Precepta, rot. 6, Notts, and 
Derby; Philippa, ibid., 34, Pasch., Precepta, Kent. These last four 
had special justices; app., 140-141. 



DISPOSITION OF THE PENALTIES 149 

are two aspects that need special emphasis: first, that the 
exchequer maintained a persistent control over the proceed- 
ings of the justices of labourers through its determination 
to secure the penalties ; and second, that the king and coun- 
cil were acting steadily in close connection with the ex- 
chequer and in supervision of it. Frequently it has ap- 
peared that royal writs stopped exchequer action in a given 
case; and it is, of course, to be remembered that the treas- 
urer was a member of the council/ The figures of the 
amounts of the penalties as far as they have been ascer- 
tained and the eagerness to establish a right to the penal- 
ties shown by the taxpayers in relation to the subsidies, by 
the lords in their claims and by the exchequer at every 
stage, give a vivid impression of the importance of the 
statutes in the eyes of the community and afford conclusive 
proof that they were not at this time dead letters. The 
justices of labourers who were clearly doing their work 
with effectiveness and with an honesty not below the gen- 
eral standard of contemporary official morality, must be 
regarded as an important factor in local administration. 

* Cf. e. g,, Mem. L. T. R., 33, Hill., Brcu. Ret., Norf, a writ to the 
justices of labourers ordering them to deliver their estreats into the ex- 
chequer, "vt execucio pro leuacione finium . . . fieri valeat," signed 
"per ipsum thesaurarium et alios de consilio." Also Mem. K. R., 24, 
Trin., Commissiones, etc., York, W. R. and N. R., a writ to the 
barons bidding them see that the collectors account, signed "per ipsum 
thesaurarium et consilium." 



.»• 



CHAPTER I 

THE OLD LOCAL COURTS : COMMUNAL COURTS OF THE COUNTY 
AND OF THE HUNDRED; SEIGNORIAL COURTS, FEUDAL 

AND franchise; municipal courts 

From the point of view of the administration of law, the 
most striking phenomenon of the fourteenth and fifteenth 
centuries is the development of the justices of the peace, and 
the gradual transfer to these crown-appointed and crown- 
controlled officials of all the more important powers of the 
old local courts of the county, the hundred, and the manor/ 
As part of the same movement of concentration in the hands 
of the central government of control over questions form- 
erly left to local authorities, must be regarded the short- 
lived experiment of the establishment of a separate set of 
crown-appointed officials for the regulation of economic mat- 
ters. An account has already been given of the process by 
which the justices of labourers were finally merged in the 
justices of the peace and the enforcement of the economic 
legislation became a permanent part of the duties of the 
latter.* The long transition period, lasting at least a hun- 
dred and fifty years, during which the two series of courts, 
quarter sessions and the old local courts, existed side by 
side, must contain many instances of duplication of ma- 
chinery and of conflict of jurisdiction, involving exactly 

* Beard, Justice of the Peace, 16-17. The decay of the old local courts 
included a decrease of the judicial and police functions of the sheriff; cf. 
Medley, Eng. Const, Hist., 39>-393. 

'Pt. I, ch. i, ss. I and 2, 

153 



154 



ENFORCEMENT OF THE STATUTES OF LABOURERS 



the same problems that arise within the first ten years after 
the Black Death. During this limited period and for the 
present subject it is the relation between the old courts and 
the separate sessions of the justices of labourers that is 
especially important, since the joint commissions of the 
peace and for labourers were in force for only a small part 
of this period. 

In dealing with this problem there are two specific points 
to be settled. First, what portion of the substance of the 
ordinance and the statute was already, previous to 1349, 
being enforced by the local authorities? Second, did this 
national legislation come within the competence of the old 
local courts ? The material for an exhaustive discussion of 
these two points exists in abundance and deserves the full- 
est examination; my conclusions are unfortunately based 
on a very insufficient study of the sources, and must be 
regarded merely as tentative and indicative of the direction 
that future research should take.^ 

The provisions of the ordinance and statute fall naturally 
into three main groups: the restrictions on wages and 
prices; the interference with the mobility of the labourer; 
the enforcement of the contract between employer and 
employee.* The first of these, as related to the whole 
mediaeval theory of reasonable price, has attracted the great- 
est share of attention from economic historians. In their 
endeavor to connect these provisions with earlier ones of 

^ For the sake of illustrating as completely as possible all phases of the 
relation of the statutes to the community, it seems wise to undertake 
this inadequate survey of the subject. The account of the sources is 
necessarily so slight that it is presented in the footnotes instead of in 
the appendix. 

' The prohibition of alms to able-bodied beggars is omitted from this 
discussion. For a more detailed analysis of the measures, cf, pt. i, ch. 
ii, s. 3. 



THE OLD LOCAL COURTS 155 

a similar type they usually lay stress on the assizes of bread 
and ale as examples of economic regulations made by the 
central government and applied to the kingdom as a whole/ 
although enforced in the local courts/ the sheriff's turn,' 
and the leet, either seignorial,* or borough/ Still more 
direct antecedents of the wages and price clauses of the 
ordinance and statute are the regulations of the craft gilds 
and of the municipal authorities.* The earliest limitation 
of wages that I have seen was issued by the London 
authorities in the twelfth century or even before, and af- 
fects various artisans in the building trades/ During the 
next century and a half, regulations either drawn up by 
members of trades and approved by the London municipal 
authorities, or originating with the latter, follow each other 
in quick succession.* They include prices of victuals, and 

' Introduction, p. 3, note 2. 

'Among the presentments in the leets and turns there are *' those 
never ceasing breaches of the assizes of bread and beer." Pollock and 
Maitland, Hist. Eng, Law, ii, 519-520. 

^Ibid,, i, 558-560. 

* By prescription or by special grant certain lords claimed the view of 
frankpledge and the right to hold a court co-ordinate with the sheriff's 
turn. " The lord who has the view usually has the assize of beer, more 
rarely the assize of bread also." Ibid., i, 580-582. 

^/did.t i, 657 658; cf. also /Records of the Borough of Nottingham and 
Leet Jurisdiction in Norwich. 

•For an account of this subject, see Gross, Sources of Eng. Hist., 
under Boroughs, Gilds and Municipal records in index; also his Bib. 
of Municipal Hist. In a recent monograph on the Eng. Craft Gilds 
and the Government, Miss Kramer maintains that the municipal author- 
ities authorized and approved the gild ordinances. 

^"De conditione operariorum;" printed by Cunningham, Growth of 
JSng. Industry and Commerce, i, 567-568. 

•Easily available in the Calendars of the Letter-Books of the city, ed- 
ited by Sharpe, and in the volumes edited by Riley, Memorials of Lond. 
and Munimenta Gildhallae, including Liber Albus, Liber Custumarum 
and Liber Horn. Lib. Cust,, in Mun. Gildhallae, ii, 86, contains an 



156 ENFORCEMENT OF THE STATUTES OF LABOURERS 

wages in many crafts, the givers as well as the takers of 
excess rates being liable for penalties. The point to be 
emphasized is the striking similarity between the phrase- 
ology of these local regulations and that of the national en- 
actments. It is especially noticeable in the regulations for 
glovers of January, 1349, which refer in general terms to 
the rates prevailing a few years ago, and were, as the date 
shows, issued but five months before the great ordinance.* 
Similarly, the specifications of 1350 of rates of wages for 
carpenters, masons etc.,^ might easily be inferred to have 
served as models for the corresponding specifications in the 
statute of labourers. Although the prices of victuals seem 
to have been constantly supervised in the leets, both borough 
and seignorial, and in the sheriffs' turns, specific rates of 
wages were established and enforced only by the gilds and 
by the town authorities, and therefore concerned artisans 
alone. Previous to the ordinance, wages of agricultural 
labourers were apparently regulated by custom only, and 
no instance has come to my notice of the promulgation of 
a definite rate.* 

The interference with the mobility of the labourer result- 
ing from the new legislation consists partly in the actual 

ordinance as to wages issued as early as 121 2. Toward the end of the 
same century a royal writ orders the observance of the prices and wages 
ordained by the common council of the city; Lid. Albus^ in Mun, Gild- 
hallaey \, 251, 289 and 334; CaL Letter-Book A^nu 

^Cal, Letter-Book Fj 200; translated and printed in Memorials of 
Lond.y 245-247. Denton, Eng, in Fifteenth Century, 311, refers to an 
ordinance of Fitz Ailwine, mayor of London, as the origin of the ordi- 
nance of labourers of 1349. He may have meant the regulations of I2i2» 
given in Lib, Cust. (cf. supra , note 8), but I see no evidence for Den- 
ton's theory. 

•Ca/. Letter-Book F, 212; printed in Memorials of Lond,y 253-258. 

'The wording of the ordinance of 1349 shows clearly, however, that 
previous to the plague certain customary rates had been generally ac- 
cepted as normal. 



THE OLD LOCAL COURTS 157 

prohibition of departure in summer from the residence of 
winter, and partly in the implication of the compulsory ser- 
vice clause, which insisted on the acceptance by a labourer 
of work, if offered at the legal rate, and thus forbade his 
going forth in search of higher wages. Of the practical 
results of villein status none is more obvious than the fact 
that a villein is adscriptus glebae and has no right to leave 
the manor.* The enforcement of the lord's authority in 
this matter was within the competence of the manorial 
courts, and their rolls are full of instances of the flight of 
villeins, of orders to attach the fugitives, and of records 
of pa)rment of chivage for license to live outside the manor. ^ 
It is worthy of note that previous to 1349, restrictions on 
the mobility of the free labourer, whether working in agri- 
culture or in handicraft, or on his right to be an idle vagrant 
if he chose, had not been imposed in any court; in fact, 
one of his most essential privileges had been that he could 
go whither he liked," provided of course that he was not 
breaking a contract. This brings up at once the question 
of the provision of the ordinance for the enforcement of 
contracts between employer and employee, a provision that 
has been strangely neglected by commentators. 

At this date unwritten contracts could not be enforced 

* VinogradofT, Villainag^e in England, 77, 143, 157-158; Page, End 
of Villainage, 10-12. 

' Vinogradoff, op. cil,, 157; Page, op, cit,, 1^13. CL also Vinogra- 
doff's review of Page in E. H. R,y xv, and Davenport, Norfolk Manor , 

73. 

* Vinogradoff, op, cii,, 77, 79, especially note 3, and 143. It is not 
within the scope of this monograph to discuss the problem of the ex- 
tent to which the process of commutation of services at this date had 
gone, or the question of the existence of the free agricultural labourer; 
cf. Page, op. cit.y passim, for the whole subject. The provisions of the 
ordinance and of the statute certainly imply a widespread system of 
money wages. 



1 58 ENFORCEMENT OF THE STATUTES OF LABOURERS 

in the courts o£ king's bench and of common pleas ; it re- 
mained for the fifteenth century gradually to evolve the 
action of assumpsit as a common-law remedy in such cases. ^ 
There is, however, abundant evidence to show that con- 
tracts of this tjrpe came under the jurisdiction of the old 
local courts, of the manor, of the hundred,^ and of the 
borough. A few instances must be quoted that are di- 
rectly concerned with the covenant between employer and 
employee. In 1275, in the abbot of Ramsey's court in the 
Fair of St. Ives, a servant who admits breach of contract 
with his master, is ordered by the court to complete his term 
of service; ' in 1301, in the court of the manor of the lord 
of Ruthin, actions are brought, under the head of breach 
of contract, against a servant for departure within the term 
agreed upon, and against a master for enticing the servant 

' Pollock and Maitland, op. cit.y ii, 196, 219-222. I am not attempting 
to present an account of the complex subject of contract in English law, 
nor do I touch on the jurisdiction of the church and of the court of chan- 
cery, but will merely refer to some available sources: the chapter on 
** Contract" in v. ii of the work quoted supra; Principles of Contract 
by Pollock; also ** Contracts in Early Eng. Law" in Harvard Law 
Review, vi, by the same author; "Assumpsit" and "Parol Contracts" 
by Ames, ibid.^ ii and viii; " Early Eng. Equity" by Holmes in Law 
Quarterly Review, i; " Hist, of Contract" by Salmond., ibid., iii. 

* I must express my sincere thanks to Mr. G. J. Turner for having 
called my attention to the importance of the enforcement of unwritten 
contracts in the courts of the manor and of the hundred. The most em- 
phatic statement in print is by Maitland in his introduction to the Little- 
port court roll: " It is hard to believe that these Littleport villans, who 
dared not send their children to school without their lord's leave, were 
very ready with the pen, or that when they made agreements about 
their petty affairs, they procured parchment and ink and wax and 
a clerk. . . . The old * folk law * may have required forms enough; but 
there seems no absurdity in the supposition that at the beginning of the 
fourteenth century, the local courts were already enforcing formless 
agreements." Court Baron, ii^-w^. 

^Select Pleas in Manorial Courts, 156-157. " Conuencio " or "pac- 
tum" is the term. 



THE OLD LOCAL COURTS 



15*^ 



from the service of the plaintiff; ^ in 13 18, in the bishop of 
Ely's court at Littleport, actions for breach of contract 
against a seamstress,* and against a carrier of sedge,* both 
result in damages for the plaintiffs. The evidence from 
boroughs is equally conclusive; custumals of the twelfth 
and the thirteenth centuries discuss breach of covenant on 
the part of a nurse, also of a weaver,* and forbid the hiring 
of servants who are in the service of another/ It is clear 
that these conuenciones were not in writing or under seal ; 
in fact, in one of the above instances witnesses to the en- 
gaging of the servant are advised in order that there should 
be no difficulty in proving the contract. • The London 
regulations as to wages usually include the prohibition of 

^Jiuthin Court Rolls, edited for the Cymmrodorion society, 47. I am 
indebted to Mr. Turner for this reference. 

^ Court Baron t 11$. ^ Ibid,, 12$. 

* Borough Customs, cd. M. Bateson, i, 215. ^Ibid., i, 215-217. 

*Ibid., i, 217. Cf, also ibid., ii, introduction, Ixxx: **The special 
characteristic of the borough law of agreement, as contrasted with the 
common law of the fourteenth century, was its acceptance of the valid- 
ity of the ' fides facta ' as sufficient to bind a bargain and give an action 
for breach of covenant in the borough court. The contract was formal, 
though a once elaborate ceremonial had been gradually reduced to the 
simplest of forms, a mere grasp of hands. The burgess who could 
' affy,' if he could not find a gage or pledge, who gave his faith on the 
bailiff's rod, who in Lent offered aflidation in lieu of the oath, could 
pledge himself by the hand-clasp, an act visible, audible, that could be 
witnessed of sight and hearing; and if a party to the agreement sought 
remedy, the borough court, and perhaps some other of the local cotuts, 
gave the action for breach of covenant. . . . All this was contrary to 
the doctrines which the royal courts were laying down at the end of the 
thirteenth century, when they limited the sphere of the action of cov- 
enant to the case in which a deed could be produced." 

It is to be observed that this ''formal contract" is somewhat differ- 
ent from the ''formless agreements" described by Maitland; cf. supra. 
p. 158, note 2. Miss Bateson, while her introduction was still in pro- 
cess of writing, expressed her own belief that the enforcement of 
unwritten contracts had originated in the borough courts and that the 
practice had spread thence to the other local courts. 



I I- 



V 






l6o ENFORCEMENT OF THE STATUTES OF LABOURERS 

the employment of a servant who is bound by agreement to 
another master/ The frequency with which in actual prac- 
tice unwritten contracts between master and servant were 
enforced in the local courts can be determined only by a 
thorough examination of the manuscript sources,* but the 
fact that such contracts could be enforced in these courts is 
proved beyond doubt. 

The conclusion, therefore, in regard to the first of the 
two points under discussion is that except for the specific 
limitation of agricultural wages, and for the interference 
with the mobility of the free labourer, provisions similar in 
character to the new legislation were already being carried 
out in the local courts ; but with a marked difference. Un- 
der the old scheme, a few of the regulations, notably the 
assizes of bread and ale, were framed by the central govern- 
ment, and were put into effect by the existing local authori- 
ties, but by far the greater number of the provisions were 
devised as well as enforced by the local authorities and 
thus varied in different localities ; whereas the enactments of 
1349 and 135 1, as has long been recognized, emanated from 
the central government, applied uniformly to the whole 
country, and were administered chiefly by officials both ap- 
pointed and supervised directly by the crown. This dis- 
tinction between the old method and the new at once brings 
up the second point. Did these national enactments come 
within the competence of the old local courts? 

The ordinance, so strangely neglectful of assigning duties 

*Page 155, note 8, supra. An entry in Lib, Aldus, in Mun. Gild- 
hallae, i, 214, is to the point: **Item, accouns de dette sount mayn- 
tenables par usages des simples grauntz, et dassignementz, et de 
plegiage, et de covenaunt, simplement sauncz especialtee." 

' Professor Maitland told me that it was his impression that the en- 
forcement of the contract between master and servant was not very 
common in the courts of the manor and of the hundred. 



THE OLD LOCAL COURTS igj 

to the special justices responsible for its enforcement,^ states 
that actions against takers and givers of excess wages are to 
be brought in the court of the lord of the place in which the 
offence occurred, and that lords if guilty of infringement of 
the ordinance, are to be sued in the court of the county, 
wapentake, or trithing, or in any other of the king's courts. 
Proof of refusal to serve for legal wages is to be made be- 
fore two witnesses in the presence bf the sheriff, bailiff, 
lord or constable; mayors and bailiffs of towns are bound 
to enforce the victuallers' clause.* The net result of 
these rather confused administrative provisions certainly 
pves the impression that the old local courts were to deal 
with the ordinance; in the case of the statute, however, 
there is no warrant for any such assumption, since no 
courts are mentioned save quarter sessions. As far as my 
limited investigation goes,* the facts of the case are as fol- 
lows. The one county court record for this decade that I 

'See p. 10. *App., g-ii. 

' Rolls of the communal courts, that is of the old county courts, and 
of hundred courts not in private hands are rare; cf. Select PUas in 
Manorial Courts^ introduction, xv. Rolls of seignorial courts, how- 
ever, exist in great abundance, both of the ordinary feudal courts of the 
manor and of the hundred, and of franchise courts; and are to be found 
in all the great repositories, e, g,, the British Museum, the Bodleian, 
the Cambridge University library, and the Public Record Office, as well 
as in many private collections. (For these latter, cf. the reports of the 
Hist. MSS. G>mm.) For an account of printed rolls, see Gross, 
Sources of Eng, Hist., s. 57, "Local Records and Local Annals;" 
also Davenport, Classified List of Printed Court Rolls. The number 
in print is being steadily increased each year. 

The group in the Record Office though including some hundreds of 
rolls (see List of Court Rolls, Lists and Indexes, no. vi) is small in 
comparison with the total number in existence. As it was impossible 
for me to make an exhaustive study of even this group, still less to ex- 
amine rolls in other archives, I endeavored merely to gain an impres- 
sion of the attitude of these courts toward the statutes. For this pur- 
pose I went through some 50 rolls for the decade 134^1359, selected 



l62 ENFORCEMENT OF THE STATUTES OF LABOURERS 

have discovered, contains many indictments for the giving 
and taking of excess wages " contrary to the statute;" ^ a 
fair proportion of the rolls that I have examined, of the 
hundred courts and of the ordinary manorial courts (not 
counting the court leets) include among a relatively larger 
number of the usual entries, scattered instances ^ of offences 
against the new legislation, usually for the receipt of ex- 
cess wages and for breach of contract by the eloigning of 
servants already in service. In the case of the latter class 
of actions it is exceedingly difficult to determine whether 
they are based on the ordinance, or whether they are simply 
the old actions of covenant that have already been in use 
in the local courts. A comparison of the form of the action 
for breach of contract brought on the ordinance of labourers 
in the Hereford quarter sessions,* with a similar action 
brought in the Ruthin manorial court at a date previous to 
1349,* reveals exactly the same phraseology in both cases, 
with the addition in the former of contra statutum after 
de placito conuencionis. In the manorial courts after 1349 

quite at random, and in these I noted all instances of offences against 
the labour legislation; cf, app., £. The results of such a limited in- 
vestigation have value only if these few rolls are typical of hundreds of 
others; my own belief is that they may be so considered, but it is, of 
course, possible that some future investigation will prove that this belief 
was ill-founded. 

' While examining Chester Assize Rolls (List of Plea Rolls, no. iv) 
in my search for sessional records, by accident I stumbled across a roll 
of a county court from which I print extracts in the appendix, (591-392) , 
inasmuch as so few county court records have as yet been discovered. 
Mr. Turner, however, who is preparing for the Selden society a volume 
on the old county court, warns me that it is not safe to infer the action 
of a court of a normal county from that of a county palatine. 

'The courts of Ruyton are an exception and are dealing with an un- 
usually large proportion of offences against the statutes; cf. app., 397- 

399- 
•App., 185. ^Ruthin Court Rolls, 47; cf, pp. 158-159. 



THE OLD LOCAL COURTS 163 

the entry is sometimes de placito conuencionis simply,* and 
sometimes noui statuti is added f but it seems perfectly pos- 
sible that this latter phrase is often omitted through care- 
lessness or that it is not considered essential. The records 
of the borough court of Nottingham contain for the decade 
1349-1359 several cases dealing with unwritten contracts 
between master and servant ; * but curiously enough it is the 
master who is being sued for breaking an agreement to em- 
ploy the servant, not a usual occurrence at this date. Al- 
though these cases are subsequent to the enactment of the 
ordinance, there is no indication that they are based on it; 
it is more than probable that they are examples of the 
validity of parol contracts in borough law. 

In answering the question as to the competence of the old 
local courts to deal with the new labour laws it must be 
confessed that the phrase noui statuti so frequently found 
may conceivably in contemporary usage refer to the ordin- 
ance only; so that my inadequate researches do not prove 
beyond doubt that the measure of 135 1 as well as that of 
1349 was being enforced. Fortunately, however, a case re- 
corded a few years later affords conclusive evidence that 
the statute, not the ordinance, is the enactment on which the 
action is brought * and, therefore, establishes the fact that 
the jurisdiction of these courts extended to the national 

' App. , 394'a95- ' App. , 394. 

* Records of the Borough of Nottingham, cd. Stevenson, i, 158-159, 
166-167. C/. Maitland, introduction to Littleport court roll, Court 
BaroHy 118. For bibliography of material on boroughs, see supra, p. 155, 
note 6; for parol contracts in borough courts, cf. supra, p. 159, note 6. 

^ An entry on the court roll of Fomcett records the withdrawing of a 
labourer from the vill and from the lord's domain contrary to the statute 
and to the prohibition of the steward. Davenport, Norfolk Manor, 73, 
and note 3. Professor Page wrote me in March, 1904, that he had seen 
many cases in the court records dating both before and after the rising 
of 1381, in which fines were imposed for violation of the statutes. 



l64 ENFORCEMENT OF THE STATUTES OF LABOURERS 

legislation in its entirety.^ The regularity with which the 
jurisdiction was exercised can be learned only by an ex- 
tensive study of the sources, but it seems unlikely that this 
phase of the enforcement of the statutes was important in 
comparison with the vigorous administration effected by the 
special justices appointed for the purpose.* 

Even if the local courts made use of their rights spas- 
modically, there must have been some instances of conflicts 
of jurisdiction and some occasions on which a given in- 
dividual ran the risk of being punished twice for the same 
offence. My only definite information on this point is in re- 
gard, not to the communal courts or the ordinary feudal 
courts, but to seignorial courts that were the result of a 
special franchise and therefore included the right to enforce 
the assizes of bread and ale. In Warwickshire,' a long list 
of such franchise-holders complain to king and council that 
their tenants are being punished by the justices of labourers 
for the infraction of these two assizes, even when they have 
already been fined for this offence in the seignorial court. 
The petitioners succeed in obtaining royal writs addressed 
to the justices quoting the clause in the supplementary 
statute of victuallers as to the rights of the holders of 
franchises,* and ordering the justices to cease proceedings 
against delinquents who had been already fined in the lords* 
courts. Exactly the same course of events takes place in 

' This is contrary to the view expressed by Professor Beard in Justice 
of the Peace t 56: " Unless specially mentioned the statutes did not fall 
within the competency of private jurisdictions." 

' Creighton's theory that the act applied especially to fugitive villeins 
and would have been inoperative except on the basis of the manorial 
court as the unit of government is certainly wide of the mark. Hist, 
of Epidemics^ i, 183. 

'App., 219-221. 

*App., 220. 



THE OLD LOCAL COURTS 165 

Herefordshire/ whereas in Wiltshire,* where a large part 
of the work of quarter sessions is concerned with the pun- 
ishment of offending brewers and bakers, there is no trace 
of any protest on the part of the franchise-holders. It is 
more than probable that the solution of what might other- 
wise have proved a serious difficulty lay in the fact that the 
profits of jurisdiction were deemed more important than the 
jurisdiction itself. The owners of franchises had been suc- 
cessful in their contention that to them belonged the penal- 
ties imposed in quarter sessions on their tenants for in- 
fringement of all clauses of the statutes of labourers ; it was 
natural, therefore, that they should prefer to leave to the 
justices of labourers the troublesome task of convicting of- 
fenders while they themselves with very little effort secured 
the pecuniary advantage of such convictions. • 

'Assize Rolls, Hereford, 313; see app., 189-192, for a portion of this 
roll. The entry just quoted is too illegible for transcription. 

•App., 228-234. 

'If my explanation is correct, it is clear that Mr. Savine presents a 
somewhat exaggerated account of the situation when he writes: "The 
agents of the King and of the common law, the justices of assize and 
the justices of peace, entered into the sacred precinct of the manor in 
order to control the relations between the lord and his villeins.'* 
"Bondmen under the Tudors," in Trans, Royal Hist, Soc, xvii, 254. 



CHAPTER II 

CENTRAL courts: COURT OF KING's BENCH AND COURT OF 

COMMON PLEAS, I349-I377 

It has already been shown that actions on the statutes 
of labourers, brought in the first instance before the justices 
of labourers, were occasionally removed to a higher court, 
that of the king and council, of the chancellor, or of the 
king's bench ; ^ it remains necessary to ascertain the extent 
of the original jurisdiction over the statutes exercised by 
both the court of king's bench and the court of common 
pleas. 

(i) The treatment of the sources, — The choice of the 
most effective method of dealing with the great mass of 
material in existence has been a difficult one.* On the one 

'Pt. I, ch. ii, s. 7 and app., 239-241. 

' The exigencies of this portion of my subject have led me here as in 
pt. ii, ch. i, to depart from my plan of describing the sources in the ap- 
pendix, and, instead, to discuss them in the text and in the footnotes. 
The brief summary of oiHcial records given in this note will be followed 
by further analysis in the remaining sections of this chapter. 

Court of common pleas. 

De Banco Rolls. Classified by regnal year and law term, and so 
listed in List of Plea Rolls; they are unindexed and there is no guide 
to their contents except the name of the county on the margin of each 
action. Normally there is one roll for each term, consisting of from 
about 400 to 600 membranes, each membrane being about three feet 
long and about nine inches wide, closely written on both sides. 

Court of king's bench. 

Coram Rege Rolls. The same description applies, except that the 
number of membranes in each roll is considerably less than in the De 
Banco rolls, varying between 200 and 300. 

Ancient Indictments. For an account of these, see app., 143. The 
series is made up largely of Coram Rege indictments. 

Coroners* Rolls. See List of Plea Rolls y Select Cases from Coroners* 
166 



CENTRAL COURTS 167 

hand, from the point of view of the vigor of the attempt 
to enforce the statutes during the years 1349- 13 59, the es- 
sential requirement is an enumeration of all the actions on 
the Plea Rolls of both courts for the whole decade, supple- 
mented by information derived from the Controlment Rolls, 
Coroners' Rolls, and Ancient Indictments. A limitation, 
however, to these official records and to this short period 
would preclude the possibility of using the unofficial evi- 
dence contained in the Year Books, since the majority of 
reported cases on the statutes belongs to the latter part of 
the reign; and n^Iect of the reports would mean failure 
to present a sufficient account of the legal issues involved 
in the interpretation of the statutes by the upper courts. 
On the other hand, from the point of view of law, an ex- 
haustive treatise (Fitzherbert's is by no means adequate) 
can be written only on the basis of a study of all the re- 
ports dealing with the statutes, down to the reign of Henry 
VIII, as well as of the corresponding records ; such a study 
should also include the Registrum Brevium, Novae Nar- 
rationes, Fitzherbert's commentary in his New Natura 
Brevium, his abridgment, and those of Statham and 
Brooke.^ For this purpose the printed Year Books will 
not answer. The editions of Mr. Pike have not yet reached 
the Black Death;* while the old editions omit the years 

Jdolls, ed. Gross, and app., 413. Among the Coroners' Rolls proper 
there are a few rolls of exigends of offenders convicted in the two upper 
courts with cross-references to the Plea Rolls. Pardons for outlawry are 
recorded on the Patent Rolls. 

Controlment Rolls and Gaol Delivery Rolls have neither of them 
been included in my search; for the former, see ScargiIl>Bird, Guide to 
the Public Recordiy 168, and for the latter, ibid,, 170, and List of Plea 
i^olls. 

' For exact titles and dates of publication, see my bibliography. 

' Published in the Rolls series. The Selden Society editions are for 
the reign of Edw. II. 



l68 ENFORCEMENT OF THE STATUTES OF LABOURERS 

31-37 Edw. Ill/ and the entire reign of Richard II,* and 
are frequently erroneous or misleading. It would there- 
fore be necessary to establish authoritative versions of the 
text by an examination and collation of all the manuscript 
Year Books, — a task evidently beyond the scope of the 
present work." 

The course adopted for my investigation is a compromise 
and as such has no claim to completeness. I extended my 
period to the death of Edw. Ill, and using the seventeenth- 
century edition of the Year Books, I noted for 1349-1377 
all the reports of cases on the statutes or involving the 
statutes, a total of 33, distributed between the two courts.* 
An examination of the three great abridgments* showed 
that Fitzherbert had discovered 10 additional reports, two 
of which are for the date for which there are no printed 
Year Books.* A search through the manuscript Year 
Books in the British Museum and in the libraries of Cam- 
bridge University, of Lincoln's Inn, and of the Temple, had 
chiefly negative results ; the 33 reports appeared in approxi- 

^ This is equally true of the edition of 1678-1680, and of the numerous 
sixteenth-century editions. 

'Bellewe's compilation to some extent supplies the reports of the 
reign of Richard. 

' It is scarcely necessary to add that Professor Maitland's incompar- 
able editions ior the Selden Society will ever remain the ideal to which 
future editors will strive to approximate, and that his introductions are 
invaluable for the whole subject of reports and records. 

^ A comparison of this edition of 1678-1680 with the various sixteenth- 
century editions in the Boston Public library, the Harvard Law library 
and in the Library of Congress, did not increase this total. The cases 
in the earlier editions are not only the same as those in the later, but 
identical in form and phraseology. Cf. Pike, in introduction to the 
Year Books of 12 and 13 Edw. Ill, xxxii, and also Soule, '* Year Book 
Bibliography," in Harvard Law Review ^ xiv, 568. 

'The abridgments of Statham and Brooke give many of the same 
cases but add no new ones. 



CENTRAL COURTS i^ 

mately the same form as in the printed editions; only one 
more report was found ^ and not a single one of Fitz- 
herbert's additional ten cases. His sources are therefore 
still to be sought.* 

Fortunately these 44 reports are fairly intelligible even 
in their present versions and touch on nearly all the im- 
portant points of law arising from the enforcement of the 
statutes, but need of course to be corroborated and inter- 
preted by the records. In turning to the Plea Rolls, my first 
object was to discover the reported cases ; ' while looking 
for these, I took brief notes on all actions on the statutes 
or involving the statutes (whether reported or not) that 
had reached at least the stage of an attachment,* and in 
some rolls I made a count of all such actions that were 
merely begun. Since my search was necessarily rapid, it 

*App., 419-420. 

'Professor Maitland was interested in the problem of finding the 
sources used by Fitzherbert, and was good enough to aid me in my 
search in Cambridge. 

'Unless possessed of technical legal knowledge, one scarcely dares 
venture into the realm of Plea Rolls, without a special apology to Mr. 
Pike, so earnestly has he sought to deter the layman from such an 
attempt. See his "Action at Law in the Reign of Edw. Ill: the Re- 
port and the Record," in Harvard Law Review, vii, 267-268. Both he 
and Professor Maitland, however, have done far too much to show the 
value of Plea Rolls to make it possible to leave them untouched. 

With only limited time at my disposal, the main diiHculty in finding 
the records of the Year Book cases lay in the fact that the mistakes as 
to year and term in the reports dealing with the statutes exceeded even 
the usual number of such errors; also that there was often no clue as to 
court, and that in some of the reports, notably in those given only by 
Fitzherbert, too few details of the actions appeared to render identifica- 
tion certain. The form of the actions on the statutes, however, made 
them comparatively easy to pick out, even in a rapid glance at a mem- 
brane; moreover, I was fortunate in having much patient help and 
many useful suggestions from Mr. G. J. Turner, whose knowledge of 
the Plea Rolls is unrivalled. 

* Including of course all that reached further stages. 



I70 ENFORCEMENT OF THE STATUTES OF LABOURERS 

is possible that occasionally a case was overlooked, and 
since only about a quarter of the total number of Plea Rolls 
was examined, the resulting information does not allow 
absolutely dogmatic statements as to the working of the 
statutes; it is, however, based on the study of a suffi- 
ciently large proportion of the facts to warrant definite 
conclusions as to the attitude of the courts and as to the 
general trend of legal interpretation. 

My method of treatment has therefore taken the follow- 
ing form. First: in the appendix, I give a list of the 44 
reports with cross references to the abridgments and to the 
Plea Rolls, and examples of writs from the Registrum 
BrezAum; I also print thirteen typical reports and the cor- 
responding records (when possible), and a few extracts 
from Coroners' Rolls and Ancient Indictments. Second : in 
my text, on the basis of the data obtained from the Plea 
Rolls, I have compiled a few statistics ^ as to the frequency 
of actions on the statutes, the status of the offenders, the 
nature of the verdicts etc. ; and further, I discuss from all 
the above sources the most important questions of law con- 
nected with the statutes. 

(2) Numerical account of the actions on the statutes of 
labourers, — As far as could be ascertained from the Year 
Books, the distribution of the 44 reported cases between 
the two upper courts was as follows:* king's bench, 4; 
common pleas, 24 certainly, and 7 probably;* no clue to 
court, 9. The preponderance of reports for the court of 
common pleas established a presumption that the majority 
of the 16 doubtful cases would belong to it rather than to 

' A caution has just been given as to the nature of these statistics. 
•App., 416-419. 

' Fitzherbert's extra cases; 3 of the 10 were clearly in the common 
pleas. 



r 



I 



CENTRAL COURTS jyi 

the court of king's bench,* and resulted in an examination 
of a larger number of De Banco than of Coram Rege Rolls. ^ 
The following account will show the extent of my re- 
searches in these two series. For the period extending 
from the beginning of the twenty-fifth year of Edw. Ill to 
the end of his reign, assuming one roll for each law term, 
there should be 107 rolls in existence for each court/ Of 
the De Banco Rolls I made a complete examination of 41, 
— ^between a half and a third of the total number, — ^as well 
as a partial examination of 6.* Counting only those ac- 
tions on the statutes or involving the statutes that are fin- 
ished, or that are argued out to an issue of law or of fact, 
or that have at least reached the stage of an attachment of 
the defendant, it appears that the 41 rolls contain 270 cases, 
and the 6 rolls, 18, an average of 6J/2 cases per roll or 
per term.* If this average be maintained through the 
remaining 60 terms, — there seems no reason to doubt that 
it will be, — there will be for the whole reign about 700 
cases. Further, on each roll there are many instances where 
it is recorded that the plaintiff has brought a writ, but 
where there is no indication that the defendant has ever 
been produced, or that any subsequent process ever takes 

' The form of writs in the J^egistrum is given for both courts; cf, p. 175, 
note I , for references. 

' It has already been emphasized that my primary object was the iden- 
tification of the reported cases; cf, s. i . 

* There are in reality not quite so many. Of the De Banco Rolls six 
are missing, while the 37th year has two rolls for the Easter term, a 
total of 102; the compiler of the List of Plea RollSy in numbering these 
rolls consecutively, has by a slight error omitted the number '*385." 
Of the G>ram Rege Rolls two are missing, leaving a total of 105. 

* In each of these, the reported case chanced to occur early in the roll, 
thus obviating the necessity of reading all the membranes. 

^The two may be considered as synonymous, since there is only one 
exception. 



172 



ENFORCEMENT OF THE STATUTES OF LABOURERS 



place in court. ^ A conservative estimate of the ratio be- 
tween the number of records of this type and the number 
of those first described is about eleven to one, showing that 
there were, roughly speaking, 7700 actions that never went 
beyond the initial stage. The addition to these figures of 
the 700 cases already referred to results in a total of about 
8400 suits brought in the court of common pleas between 
1 35 1 and 1377. 

For the king's bench, my investigation was unfortunately 
less extensive, and my results therefore less conclusive. 
Only 12 Coram Rege Rolls were examined; they contain 
24 cases, varying from 4 to i per roll or per term, an aver- 
age of 2. Assuming this average to hold for the remaining 
95 terms, there will be a little over 200 cases for the whole 
reign, corresponding to the 700 in the other court. It is 
also to be noted that one of the rolls contains an important 
record consisting of proceedings begun before a joint com- 
mission of the peace and for labourers, and removed into 
the court of king's bench. Undoubtedly there are more 
such cases, not originating in this court, and therefore not 
to be included in the present discussion.^ The ratio be- 
tween the number of actions in which only the plaintiff 
appears and the number of those in which further stages are 
recorded, differs in degree from the corresponding ratio in 
the other court, being only about 3 to 2. 300, therefore, 
will represent the number of these unfinished actions, and 
500 the total number of suits brought in the court of king's 
bench during this period of twenty-six years. Since the 
bulk of the De Banco Rolls exceeds that of the Coram Rege 

'I do not know what happened in such cases; cf, p. 207, note i, for 
an explanation of the blanks on the rolls in actions that had reached 
later stages. 

*App., 250-254 and p. 97. 



r 



CENTRAL COURTS 173 

Rolls, averaging perhaps three times as great,^ the smaller 
total of cases in the king's bench dealing with the statutes 
bears approximately the same relation to the number of ac- 
tions on all other subjects in this court as does the larger 
total of cases on the statutes in the common pleas to all 
other actions recorded on its rolls. 

' In accordance with the estimates just given the combined 
figures for the two courts are : 900 for the first type of re- 
cords, and 8000 for the second, a total of nearly 9000. With- 
out statistics as to the frequency of the other common forms 
of actions, covenant, debt, trespass vi et armis etc., an ac- 
curate appreciation of the relative numerical importance of 
the actions on the statutes is impossible, but the conclusion 
is certainly warranted that the upper courts were a valuable 
factor in the enforcement of the labour legislation. More- 
over, it is clear that, as indicative of widespread economic 
disturbance, the actions that are only begun are precisely as 
significant as those that are argued out, and that for a 
period of twenty-six years and in a population of about two 
millions and a half,* nearly 9000 cases, involving from two 
to five or six individuals each, represent a considerable 
amount of litigation. 

Apart from this attempt to calculate the probable total 
number of actions, my investigation of the work of the 
upper courts is based chiefly on a detailed analysis, from 
various points of view, of the 288 De Banco cases and the 
24 Coram Rege cases that reached the stage where both 
plaintiff and defendant made their appearance. The dis- 
tribution of these 312 cases according to the county in 
which the action is brought is as follows : London, 48 ; Nor- 
folk, 21; York, 19; Cambridge, 18; Northampton, 16; Kent, 
15; Suffolk, 14; Lincoln, 12; Buckingham, 11 ; Essex, Dor- 

* Cf. p. 166, note 2. » Cf. pp. i-a. 



174 ENFORCEMENT OF THE STATUTES OF LABOURERS 

set and Leicester, lo each; Surrey, 9; Middlesex, South- 
ampton, Warwick and Wiltshire, 8 each ; Hertford, 7 ; Bed- 
ford, Berkshire and Oxford, 6 each; Devon, Gloucester, 
Somerset and Sussex, 5 each ; Huntingdon, 4 ; Rutland and 
Stafford, 2 each; Derby, Northumberland, Nottingham, 
Westmoreland and Worcester, i each; name of county 
illegible, 9. The three counties palatine are, of course, 
omitted, but except for Cornwall, Cumberland, Hereford 
and Shropshire, all the other counties are represented.* 
London, with nearly a sixth of the whole number of cases, 
has more than its share, possibly because of its propinquity 
to the seat of the court of common pleas ; but on the whole, 
it may be said that the enforcement of the statutes of 
labourers by the upper courts was not sectional but was 
fairly imiform throughout the kingdom. 

(3) Clauses of the ordinance and of the statute on which 
the actions are brought, — It has been already shown that 
the justices of labourers in their sessions, while occasionally 
dealing with all clauses of the legislation, gave the fullest 
measure of their energies to the pimishment of the receipt 
of excess wages and excess prices ; * precisely the same 
statement is true in regard to the juries that were making 
presentments before the king's bench for offences against 
the ordinance and the statute, as recorded in the series of 
documents known as Ancient Indictments.* Further pro- 
cess as to these presentments should be sought on the Coram 
Rege Rolls of corresponding years and terms ; my researches 
in this direction were but slight and did not solve the prob- 
lem of the ultimate fate of such indictments or of their con- 
nection with the work of the court of king's bench.* The 

' It is more than probable that these counties will appear on the re- 
maining rolls. 'Ft. I, ch. ii, ss. 3, 4 and 5. • Cf. s. i and app., F, i. 

^Is it possible that the suggestion made on p. 68 is true here also and 
that these presentments were considered conclusive evidence of guilt? 



r 



I 



CENTRAL COURTS 175 

writs printed in the Registrum ^ cover all the essential 
clauses of both ordinance and statute, except the price 
clause; namely, departure of a servant, retention of an- 
other's servant, compulsory service, excess wages, rights 
of lords, service by the usual terms and the summer and 
winter clause. One is therefore led to expect to find on the 
Plea Rolls records of suits brought under these various 
forms of writs, especially suits on the wages clause, so 
frequent in Ancient Indictments. 

The result of an analysis of the 312 cases occurring on 
the 59 rolls examined does not fulfil this expectation. In 
the court of common pleas there are 277 cases on the con- 
tract clause, either for departure or for retention, or for 
both ; * 2 cases on the compulsory service clause," and 2 on 
the statute of the 35th year.* There are also 7 cases in- 

'^^^. Brev. Orig,, 119, 189-191; Reg. Brev, Jud,y 27-28. Sec app., 
411-413. Most of these writs appear in the middle of the Registrum in 
that section described by Maitland as an appendix, since it includes 
" Brevia de Statuto/* /. ^., writs on comparatively new statutes; ** Reg- 
ister of Original Writs," in Harvard Law Review y iii, 100. I exam- 
ined in the Harvard Law library nine editions of the Naiura Brevium, 
printed between 1525 and 1584, but did not find a single instance of 
writs on the statutes of labourers. 

'The references to all these cases would take too much space, but in 
the course of this chapter many of them will be referred to specificallv. 

The Registrutn includes three forms of writs on the contract clause: 
first, against a servant for departure before the end of his term; 
second, against an employer for the retention of a servant who had thus 
illegally departed ; and third, against both servant and employer 
for departure and retention respectively; 189. 

•De Banco, 38, Trin., 86, Camb.; 46, Hill., 102, York and 46, Pasch., 
321 d, York. 

.*/5iV/., 41, Trin., 248 d, Line; 45, Trin., 247, Camb. and 46, Trin., 
361, Camb. 

For the discussion of the date of this statute, cf, p. 25, note i. 
Only 35 De Banco and 8 Coram Rege Rolls were examined for the 
period subsequent to its enactment. 



176 ENFORCEMENT OF THE STATUTES OF LABOURERS 

volving the statutes, 6 of which refer to the contract ^ and 
one to the compulsory service clause." In the court of 
king's bench there are 22 cases on the contract clause, and 
2 cases involving the statutes in general.* Therefore of 
the 312 cases, 299 are on the contract clause, and 6 involve 
it, — a total of 305 ; whereas there are only 2 cases on the com- 
pulsory service clause, and one involving it ; 2 on the statute 
of the 35th year, and 2 involving the statutes in general, — a 
total of 7. Of actions that have reached merely the initial 
stage, the 47 De Banco Rolls contain one on the summer 
and winter clause,* 9 on the statute of the 35th year, and 
nearly 60 on the compulsory service clause. The last group, 
while numerous in comparison with the two that have reached 
a later stage, in absolute numbers is still far less than the 
actions on the contract clause in the initial stage, which, 
roughly speaking, amount to over 2500. Several important 
suits for breach of contract deal with the rights of lords over 
their tenants, both villein and free, but no action has come 
under my observation based directly on this clause, nor a 
single instance of a case on the wages or price clause. In 
view of the figures just given it is natural that the rolls of 
exigends ^ and the pardons for outlawry • should show few 
examples of infringement of the statutes other than of the 
contract clause. 

The later legal treatises (not counting the Registrum) 
reveal the same emphasis on the contract. The form of 

* Cases 10, 17 and 43, app., F, 5 and 6; case 30, list in app., F, 3; De 
Banco, 40, Pasch., 175, Suff.; 40, Mich., 175 d, Essex and 41, Trin., 
312, Essex. Throughout this chapter ** list in app." refers to the list 
in F, 3. 

* De Banco, 50, Hill., 345, Surrey. • App., 213, and pp. 123-124, note i. 
*De Banco, 29, Pasch., 135 d, Notts. 

* Included among Coroners' Rolls; see p. 166, note 2, and app., 413- 

415. 

"Enrolled on the Patent Rolls; see p. 166, note 2, and app., 415. 



CENTRAL COURTS 177 

the one count on the statute of labourers given in Novae 
Narrationes is for an action for departure,^ and the two pleas 
recorded in Liber Intrationum are both for departure and 
retention.* Fitzherbert in his commentary touches on the 
compulsory service and the summer and winter clauses, and 
on the relation of the lord to his villein, but for the first 
two gives no reference to reported cases; he omits the 
wages clause altogether and lays all the stress on the terms 
of the contract.* It is significant that Brooke in mention- 
ing the summer and winter clause merely quotes Fitz- 
hert's remarks.* The conclusion from all the above data 
is certainly warranted that, in sharp contrast to what was 
happening in quarter sessions, the two upper courts were 
concentrating their attention on the enforcement of the con- 
tract clause of the ordinance.*^ An explanation of this 
phenomenon must be attempted. 

It is, of course, clear that the receipt of excess wages and 
of excess price was a question of fact the truth of which 
could be easily and legitimately determined by justices of 
labourers and their juries; while the question of contract 
involved legal problems needing the opinion of the trained 
and learned lawyers of the upper courts.* It is also true 
that a breach of contract would naturally be worth while 
to a servant only if he were enabled thereby to secure higher 
wages than he was already receiving. The writs for de- 

»App., 413. 

* * ' Statuta de laboratoribus contra magistrum et seruientem qui placi- 
taut licenciam etc./' xxxii f.; " Narratio versus seruientem qui recessit 
ante finem termini;" Ixv e. The latter is given in the table of contents 
but I have not succeeded in finding it. 

^New Naiura Btevium, 388-392. 
*La Graunde Abridgement, Laborers, 51. 

^ Leaving aside the puzzling question of the presentments in Ancient 
Indictments. 

* I am indebted to Professor Vinogradoff for this suggestion. 



178 ENFORCEMENT OF THE STATUTES OF LABOURERS 

parture and retention as given in the Registrum include 
the significant phrase facta . . . promissione , . . de 
salario plus solito recipiendo,^ and although on the Plea 
Rolls the writs are usually shortened by the omission of 
just this phrase, even here it sometimes appears.* There 
are instances where the actual figures are mentioned in the 
count. For example, in an action for departure and re- 
tention it appears that the plaintiff's terms had been as fol- 
lows : for one servant, 2d. per day and food, for the other 
servant, a quarter of com every ten weeks and 7s. a year; 
while the tempting advance offered by the defendant was 
1 2d. per day for each servant.' Indirectly therefore the 
wages legislation was being enforced through the medium 
of the enforcement of contracts. More important, how- 
ever, than either of the above considerations is the status 
of the common law in relation to parol contracts. Stress 
has previously been laid on the fact that at this date only 
contracts based on writing had validity in the courts of 
king's bench and of common pleas ; * in a later section " it 
will be shown somewhat in detail that the ordinance ren- 
dered it possible to enforce in these courts agreements be- 

*App., 411. 

' I give a few references to writs enrolled on the Plea Rolls which in- 
clude the phrases beginning ''nee ullus eciam mercedes etc.," or 
"facta . . . promissione etc.," or both. Case 3, list in app.; De 
Banco; 29, Hill., 59, Bucks.; 69, Norfolk; 29, Pasch., 157 d, Wilts.; 
152 d, Dorset. Coram Rege; 27, Trin., Shareshull, 45 d, Midd.; 27, 
Mich., Shareshull, 94, Norfolk; 77 d, Suffolk; 28, Hill., Shareshull, 
40, Lincoln; 74, Surrey; 59 d, Oxford. My impression is that as the 
years went by the shorter form of the writ became more usual. 

'Case 3, list in app. This is the only instance that has come to my 
notice where wages are as high as those mentioned by Knighton, ii, 
62, quoted by Professor Tout, Polii. Hist, of Eng,, 372. The counts 
furnish excellent opportunities for adding to our knowledge of the rates 
of wages. 

*Pt. ii, ch. i, and especially pp. 157-158, notes i and 2. *S. 5. 



CENTRAL COURTS 



179 



tween masters and servants, even though not made in 
writing. 

The significance of the discovery through this analysis 
of cases that only the contract and compulsory service 
clauses were dealt with by the two upper courts lies partly 
in the circumstance that it is thus proved that the ordinance, 
not the statute, was the essential document, and that dur- 
ing the long period before it was made a statute ^ it had 
all the force of statute law. 

(4) Classes to which the compulsory service and contract 
clauses applied, — The analysis of the work of quarter ses- 
sions showed that the juries, in by far the majority of in- 
stances, were making presentments against the takers of 
excess wages and prices, chiefly agricultural labourers, do- 
mestic servants, victuallers, and representatives of handi- 
crafts, and only very occasionally against members of the 
employing class, even in contract cases ; * for practical pur- 
poses it may be said that the justices of labourers were en- 
forcing the law against manual labourers only. It must 
now be ascertained whether this statement is also to be 
made of the application by the upper courts of the two 
clauses of which they took cognizance. 

Compulsory service. The wording of the ordinance is 
explicit : ■ all able-bodied men and women under sixty,* 

* Cf, p. 2, note 8. 

'See pt. I, ch. ii, ss. 3, 4 and 5. Suits brought by individuals are so 
few in comparison with presentments of juries that they need scarcely 
be counted, but the same description applies to them. 

'Already summarized and discussed in pt. i, ch. ii, s. 3. 

*The minimum age is not indicated. There is some ambiguity in 
Fitzherbert's comment: " An Infant of 12 Years of Age shall be bound 
by his Covenant to serve in Husbandry . . . although he may spend 
40 Shillings or 12 Marks by the Year." New Nat. Brev.y 390-391. 
This seems rather to apply to liability of minors for a contract; cf. 
pp. 185-186. 



l8o ENFORCEMENT OF THE STATUTES OF LABOURERS 

both free and bond, not living by trade or handicraft, and 
without land sufficient to occupy them, are bound to ac- 
cept service with the first employer who offers them work 
at the legal rate of wages. ^ It is obvious that the clause 
is not meant to apply to persons above the labouring class,^ 
and that of the latter it would affect mainly agricultural 
labourers and domestic servants. The differentiation of in- 
dividuals liable to compulsory labour from those not liable 
is purely an economic one and naturally causes some diffi- 
culties of interpretation. Accordingly, a petition in parlia- 
ment complains that labourers make insufficient holdings an 
excuse for idleness ; ' in one reported case issue is taken on 
the question of the performance of how many services 
exempts a man from the clause ; * in another, a labourer, on 
being put into the stocks for refusal to serve, brings an 

* Fitzherbcrt, op. cit., 389: '* And if a Man be required to serve, and 
hath not Lands nor Tenements to live upon, nor other Art or Trade, 
and he refuseth to serve, then he who requireth him to serve, shall have 
this Writ . . . ." For the writ cf, app., 412. 

' Fitzherbert, op. cii,, 391: ** He who hath not sufficient Lands of his 
own to occupy, shall be compelled to serve.*' Again: ** And so a Gen- 
tleman by his Covenant shall be bound to serve, although he were not 
compellable to serve. For if a Gentleman, or Chaplain, or Carpenter, 
or such which shall not be compelled to serve, yet if they covenant to 
serve, they shall be bound by their Covenant, and an Action will lie 
against them for departing from their service." 

In Reeves, Hist, Evg, Law, ii, 275, a Year Book report of an action 
for departure against a chaplain (10 H. VI, f. 8, p. 30) is quoted to the 
effect that the statute " was not made but for labotu'ers in husbandry; as 
in the case of a knight, or esquire, or a gentleman, you cannot compel 
him to be in yotu* service by the statute, for that the statute is not to be 
understood [but] of labourers who are in grant, and have nothing 
whereby to live." Evidently at this date there is some confusion be- 
tween the contract and the compulsory service clauses. 

^I^ot. Pari., ii, 261 b; labourers **pernent bovees de terre, ou demy 
bovee, des Seignurs, quele n'est pas sufficiancie ptu* eux dount vivre, ou 
estre occupcz, de lour excuser de servir par termes . . . ** cf. alsoidid., 
iii, 17 a, and pp. 73-74 of this monograph. 

* Case 20, app. F, 4. 



CENTRAL COURTS igi 

action of false imprisonment against the official who had 
administered the penalty, on the plea that he (the labourer) 
held enough land to secure exemption from the law.^ Evi- 
dence that employers frequently succeeded in securing this 
penalty of stocks for labourers unwilling to work is af- 
forded by the numerous instances of actions of trespass in 
which it appears that such delinquents had been rescued 
%n et armis from their confinement.* At this time of great 
scarcity of labourers of all kinds, there was inevitably much 
wandering from place to place of both free men and villeins, 
seeking to take advantage of the situation by demanding 
the highest possible wages. In the crisis the ordinance 
tried to provide labour for employers at the old rates by 
giving them this right of seizing idle vagrants, and putting 
them to work ; ■ the right is, however, subject to two im- 
portant limitations which must be analyzed later, the pre- 
ference given to former masters in the case of free men,* 
and to lords in the case of villeins.' 

Contract clause. The 299 cases for breach of contract • 
fall into three groups: i. 136 actions brought by masters 
against servants for departure before the end of their term ; 
2. 116 brought by masters against other masters for re- 
tention of servants out of their service before the end of 
their term ; 3. 47 brought by masters against both servants 
for departure and other masters for retention. To these 

*Casc 39, list in app. Cf. Reeves, op. cit,, ii, 247, for a commentary 
on this report. 

* See p. 176, note 2, for a reference to one of these cases. In an action 
for departure it appears that the plaintiff having found the defendant 
" vagantem" and refusing to work although "potens in corpore" and 
possessing nothing wherewith to live, had caused the constable to put 
him in stocks until he agreed to make a contract within the terms of 
the law; De Banco, 51, Pasch., 206, Surrey. 

*See p. 3, and note i; also, Reeves, op, cit., ii, 247. 

*S. 5. 'S. 6. •S. 3. 



l82 ENFORCEMENT OF THE STATUTES OF LABOURERS 

must be added the 6 cases involving the contract clause; 
they include one action of false imprisonment brought by a 
servant against a master and five actions of trespass vi et 
armis brought by masters against other masters for taking 
servants out of their service. It appears therefore that a 
sixth of the cases for breach of contract are against em- 
ployers as well as servants and that over a third in addition 
are against employers alone; in contrast then to quarter 
sessions, the upper courts were making a vigorous attempt 
to compel the employing class to obey the law. Now to 
what social and economic status do the delinquent employees 
belong, for convenience designated by the general term of 
"servants?" The wording of the ordinance, "reaper, 
mower, or other workman or servant, of whatever condi- 
tion he may be" certainly suggests manual labourers, es- 
pecially those occupied in agriculture ; but a classification of 
the employees ^ concerned in the 305 contract cases gives a 
definite answer to the question. The six involving the con- 
tract clause may be dismissed first: they include two vil- 
leins, a labourer, a ploughman and carter, a housemaid, 
and two servants.* The 299 cases are divided as follows: 
agricultural labourers, 116;' household servants, 30;* 

' In the departure cases, the employees are of course the defendants, 
but in the retention cases they are not parties to the suit although the 
cause of the suit. 

'See p. 176, note i. 

' It would take too much space to print all my references to the Plea 
Rolls; I merely give a list of the occupations represented, some of 
which appear more frequently than others. Bercarius, carectarius, car- 
ectarius et carucarius (or order reversed), carucarius, carthwoman, in 
officio coUigendi garbas, in officio custodiendi equos, in officio ad erad- 
icandum spinas, custos aueriorum, deye, fugator caruce, herbarius, 
laborarius, communis laborarius, messor, mower, pastor, porcarius, 
shepherd, tentor caruce, vaccarius. 

^Ancilla, bona ancilla, communis ancilla, cellarius, cokus, lotrix, 
nutrex, in officio cariandi aquam, communis seruiens et ad sellas faci- 
endas, communis seruiens, ostillarius et seruiens domi. 



CENTRAL COURTS 183 

artisans, 30; ^ victuallers, 17; ^ servants, with no account of 
duties, 36 ; unclassified, 4 ; * above the class of manual la- 
bourers, 19;* occupation illegible or not recorded in my 
notes, 47. In the 83 doubtful instances it is safe to infer that 
a third are concerned with agriculture; therefore nearly 
a half of the total number of " servants " are agricultural 
labourers, half again of these being ploughmen.* Of the 
servants not coming under the head of agricultural la- 
bourers, fully a third came from London alone; as far as 
the country at large is concerned therefore, the popular be- 
lief that this legislation affected chiefly the tillers of the 

'Building trade: carpentarius, faber, plumbarius, seruiens tegularii. 
Gothing trade: alutarius, breoderer, cissor, cordewaner, fullator, ser- 
niens in officio apprenticii pannarii, sutrex, taillor et clothier, textor, 
zonarius. Various: aurifaber, armirarius, cardemaker, Sagittarius, ser- 
uiens of a sporiere. 

'Ancilla pro taberna bocher, braciator, braciatrix, garcon ad custodi- 
endum shopam et ad vendendum carnes, molendinarius, pandoxatrix, 
pistor, pistor et braciator, pistrix et braciatrix, pulter, tabernarius vin- 
orum, tapester, vinetarius. 

'Malieman, marinarius, hobelarius ad arma, seruiens in officio mares- 
calcie. 

* For the occupations represented, see pp. 186-187. 

^Eulogium Hisioriarum, iii, 214: **Cessante pestilentia nutu Divino 
tanta facta est paucitas servientium quod non sunt inventi ad agricul- 
turam faciendam, pro quorum defectu mulieres et parvuli invise missi 
sunt ad carucas et ad plaustra fuganda. ' ' Was Chaucer's description of a 
ploughman a satire? 

** With him ther was a Plowman, was his brother, 
That hadde y-lad of dong ful many a fother, 
A trewe swinker and a good was he, 
Livinge in pees and parfit charitee. 
God loved he best with al his hole herte 
At alle tymes, thogh him gamed or smerte, 
And thanne his neighebore right as hym-selve. 
He wolde thresshe, and ther — to dyke and delve, 
For Christes sake, for every povre wight, 
Withouten hyre, if it lay in his might." 

--Prologue to the Canterbury Tales, verses 529-538. 



f 



l84 ENFORCEMENT OF THE STATUTES OF LABOURERS 

soil receives strong confirmation. The application of the 
contract clause to members of the victualling trade, to house- 
hold servants, and to agricultural labourers, raises no legal 
questions, except in regard to the last-named class in those 
actions in which the plea of villeinage is urged. The dis- 
cussion of this subject is reserved for a future section ; * 
here it is sufficient to say that there is, of course, no instance 
of an action against a villein as such for breach of the 
statutory contract ; * the lord's court already had remedies 
against fugitive bondmen. In the case, however, of arti- 
sans, of apprentices, of minors, and of men above the la- 
bouring class, during the course of Edward's reign, several 
interesting problems arose as to the application of the new 
law. 

Artisofis. For a time the contract clause was enforced 
without question against artisans; ' but in 1364, in the court 
of common pleas in an action brought against a carpenter 
for departure,* as learned a lawyer as Bealknap urges on 
behalf of the defendant that only the excess wages clause 
applied to a carpenter; the plea is not allowed by the court 
and the defendant is forced to deny the covenant. Ap- 
parently this precedent was not held sufficient; for, nine 
years later, in a similar action in the same court against a 
*' breoderer," counsel puts in a still more general plea that 
the clause applied only to servants and labourers, not to 
artificers; the ruling of the court that the clause applied 
equally to artificers must have settled the matter. ° 

'S. 6. 

' The one possible exception to this statement is an action for the re- 
tention of a natiuum et seruientem; see p. 205, note 4. 

■-£■. g,y De Banco, 30, Pasch., 183 d, Sussex; 33, Pasch., 232 d, Lond. 
In 30 actions against artisans the question is raised only twice. C/. 
Fitzherbert, supra y p. 180, note 2, and Reeves, op. ctt,^ ii, 247. The 
latter merely quotes the argument in case 40, list in app. 

^Case 44, app., F, 4. 'Case 40, list in app. 



CENTRAL COURTS 185 

Apprentices, In one of the earliest cases on the contract 
clause brought in the court of king's bench by a draper for 
the retention of his servant, the latter is described in 
the count as bound to him for seven years as apprentice in 
the clothing trade; the plea of the defendants is an action 
of ravishment of ward pending in the court of common 
pleas between the same parties for the same cause, and in- 
cludes no reference to the question of apprenticeship.* It 
looks therefore as if at first the courts permitted the con- 
tract clause to apply to apprentices as well as to servants; 
by 1365, however, it is distinctly ruled that an action for 
departure on the statute does not lie agfainst an apprentice ; 
the defendant is forced to plead that he was a servant, not 
an apprentice.* 

Minors. The clearest statement of the law is in a report 
of a case of which I have not found the record ; * in an action 

^Case 2, list in app.: ''seruientem ipsius Willelmi in seruicio suo, 
videlicet, in officio apprenticii pannarii . . . nuper retentum ad com- 
morandum . . . vsque ad terminumseptemannonim." Note from the 
record. Cf. also the case summarized on p. 211, in which the issue of 
apprenticeship is not raised. 

' Case 16, list in app. ; cf. also case 31 , app. , F, 4. There are several in- 
stances of this plea; e. g.^ De Banco, 47, Hill., 297, Lond. Cf. Fitz- 
herbert, op. cit,, 391: " And a Man shall not have an Action against an 
Apprentice upon his Departure, upon the Statute;" also Reeves, oi>. 
cii., 11,247. 

'Case 27, list in app. In case 12, list in app., it is ruled that the 
child in question was too young to make a contract but that neverthe- 
less it was illegal to take him out of his service. The question had 
been apparently decided in the same way some years before; cf. case 6, 
app., F, 4, a case in which there is a strange difference between the 
report and the record. Fitzherbert, op. cit., 390: "If a Man take an 
Infant or other out of another's Service, he shall be punished, although 
the Infant or other were not retained." Hale's note is based on the 
reports of my cases 6 and 12: " See where a Servant was but 9 Years 
old, in a Writ against him, and the Husband and Wife who had retained 
him, the Infant was discharged, but the Husband and Wife put to 
answer, and they plead that he was not retained by them, and Issue 



1 86 ENFORCEMENT OF THE STATUTES OF LABOURERS 

brought against a child of five for departure and a master 
for its retention, judgment is given for the defendants, on 
the ground that since the child is too young to make a con- 
tract, no action lies against him for departure; and since 
none lies against the principal, there can, therefore, be none 
against the accessory, the master, for retention. In other 
words, the contract clause does not apply to minors al- 
though it appears that there is a remedy at common law 
for the actual " taking " of a child out of service. Some- 
where between thirteen and either fifteen or sixteen, depend- 
ing on whether one takes the evidence of the report or of 
the record of the same case, is the age at which for the 
purpose of contracting, a child ceases to be a minor. ^ 

Above the doss of manual labourers. Except in the case 
of chaplains which I shall discuss at length, there is no evi- 
dence that issue was taken during Edward's reign on the 
applicability of the contract clause to men employed for 
salaries in occupations that cannot be described as merely 
manual. The records show actions for departure or reten- 
tion involving the following: armiger et camerarius,^ five 
balliuiy^ two camerarii et sagittarii,^ two clerici,^ one of 

taken, but as it seems to me Finchden there takes a good Diversity, if 
the Servant departs first (where he was never lawfully retained) there 
an Action does not lie against him who shall afterwards retain him: 
contra if he be taken with Force, etc.. Action lies, tho' he found the 
Infant Vagrant and retained him." See also p. 195 and note 4. 

^Case 26, list in app.; but Fitzherbert and Hale both put the limit a 
little earlier, i, e,, at twelve for a covenant in husbandry; see supra, 
p. 179, note 4. 

'G>ram Rege, 48, Mich., Cavendissh, iS, Lend. 

•De Banco, 33, Mich., 250, Hunts.; 39, Pasch., 287 d, Dorset; 50, 
Hill., 487 d, Norfolk; record of case 33 and case 34, list in app. An 
analysis of the last is given infra, p. 188, note 2. 

^ Coram Rege, 48, Mich., Cavendissh, 18 d, Lond.; De Banco, 47, 
Hill., 79, Camb. 

^Idid., 46, Pasch., 350 d, York; 47, Hill., 377 d, York. In the latter 



CENTRAL COURTS jgy 

whom is a school-teacher, decanus decannatus,^ hospiciar- 
itis,^ mercator,^ a man who had been retained in officio ad 
colligendum elemosinas Sancti Antonii et Sancti Spiritus,^ 
senescallus^ The pleas are all perfectly commonplace, issue 
being taken on mere questions of fact, — ^permission to depart, 
difference of dates of contract, lack of payment, denial of 
retention or of departure. It is true that a plea to the ef- 
fect that the statute was not applicable to this class of em- 
ployees, if not allowed by the court, would not have found 
its way on to the records ; it would, however, almost surely 
have been noted by some reporters and therefore appeared 
in the Year Books ; • the silence of the latter for the reign 
of Edw. Ill, confirmed by the evidence of the above cases, 
certainly proves that at this time the contract clause was 
applied very generally. 

Chaplains. Objections were made only in the case of 
chaplains. In this instance also it is important to use the 
records of cases not reported as well as the reports; the 
former afford conclusive proof that for a time writs based 
on the contract clause were upheld by the courts against 
chaplains just as against bailiffs and school-teachers. There 

the defendant had been retained by the plaintiff: "ad deserviendum ei 
in arte sua, videlicet, ad adiscendum scolares suos in scolis suis grama- 
tice." Cf, in Gasquet's Great Pestilence, 48, a quotation from Contin- 
uatio Chronici Guillelmi di Nangiaco: '^And few were found who 
could or would teach children the rudiments of grammar in houses, cities 
or villages." 

' De Banco, 42, Hill., 381 d, Norfolk. 

'/W</., 49, Mich., 77 d, Suffolk. 

* Ibid,, 46, Mich., 644, Lond. 

*Ilnd,, so. Mich., 471, Wilts. ^Ibid., 49, Trin., 250 d, Lcic. 

*In case 33, list in app., an action for departure, the defendant had 
merely denied the retention; the reporter quotes the case for a point on 
the law of contract, and it only appears from the record that the defend- 
ant's occupation was that of a bailiff. 



l88 ENFORCEMENT OF THE STATUTES OF LABOURERS 

are several cases where issue is taken on questions of fact, — 
denial of retention or reasonable cause for departure ; ^ but 
at the very end of the reign a successful attempt is made to- 
take chaplains out of the category of those against whom 
an action on the ordinance could be brought. In the first 
case in which the change is noted the report is exceedingly 
condensed ; ^ to the plaintiff's count that the defendant had 
broken a covenant to be seneschal and to celebrate divine 
services, the plea is urged that he had merely been retained 
to chant masses — ^which does not come under the statute ; no 
argument is given either in report or record. The report and 
record of the second case, a year later, are more explicit ;* the 

*De Banco, 30, Pasch., 217 d, Warwick; 41 d, Devon; in the latter 
the defendant's contract with '*parsona ecclesie" had been "quod de- 
seniiret ei in officio capellani parochialis ecclesie sue de Beworth et 
haberet curam rectorie sue ibidem." /did,, 39, Pasch., 392, Midd.» 
contains a record of a case in which the contract had been ''in officio 
capellani parochialis/' and the defendant's plea is reasonable cause for 
departure: ''quod tempore conuencionis predicte facte inter eos, con- 
cordatum fuit quod idem Walterus inter alia inueniret ipsi Thome per 
totum tempus predictum tabulam suam, videlicet, victum vt in cibis et 
potubus et eciam vnam cameram pro huiusmodi seruicio et dicit quod 
ad prefatum festum Pasche predictus Walterus tabulam suam ipsi Thome 
subtraxit . . . camera sua expulsit et eas ei vlterius inuenire noluit." 

'Case 34, list in app. In the record the plaintiff claims that the de- 
fendant's contract had been " in officio balliui et colectoris firmarum et 
reddituum ad capellam . . . spectantium." To which the defendant 
replied that his contract had been not " in officio balliui" but " in officio 
capellani ad celebrandum missas et alia diuina facienda que ad officium 
sacerdotis in ecclesia Dei spectant." Although there is a difference in 
the dates of the report and the record, as well as a slight discrepancy 
between the counts, my belief is that they refer to the same action. 
With the exception of two, I have examined all the De Banco Rolls 
until the end of the reign and have found no other chaplain case except 
the record of case 42, app., F, 4. Moreover out of 312 cases, there are 
in all only four cases besides this one that deal with chaplains, and as 
errors in the dates of the reports are frequent, the chances are in favour 
of the correctness of my hypothesis. 

'Case 42, app., F, 4. 



CENTRAL COURTS 189 

chaplain is not an ordinary labourer, but a servant of God, 
and he should be punished by the ecclesiastical courts; de- 
ferring to a case in a previous term, the chief justice of 
common pleas says : **it is our opinion and that of our com- 
panions of the king's bench that a chaplain is not bound by 
the statute as other people are." The plea in the record of 
this action that the ordinance is general, referring to every 
kind of person of whatever condition or rank, while not 
maintained in the case of chaplains, certainly shows the 
attitude at this time toward the contract clause.* In the 
next century when the question came up again, limitations 
were made by the courts on this elastic interpretation of the 
law ; * but it is significant and worthy of emphasis that dur- 
ing Edward's reign, while quarter sessions were enforcing 
the wages and price clauses against what are technically 
called the labouring classes, the upper courts were uphold- 
ing an extension of the contract clause so wide as to make 
it apply to all who were working for salaries ; an extension 
undoubtedly never contemplated by the framers of the 
ordinance. 

(5) The contract — The reason for the application by the 
courts of the contract clause of the ordinance to employees 
of all ranks and conditions * and also the nature of this 
novel form of contract, can best be understood by emphasiz- 

' Fitzherbert, curiously enough, although he summarizes the reports 
of both these cases in his abridgment, does not refer to them in New 
Nai. Brev,; he there states explicitly that a chaplain is bound by a sta- 
tutory retainer; see supra, p. 180, note 2. Cf, Reeves, op. cii.y ii, 247, 
note: *' Of course it was held that such persons (i. e., chaplains) were not 
within the statute." The change in the practice of the courts becomes 
apparent only by a study of the Plea Rolls. It seems strange that the 
instructions to bishops at the end of the first ordinance were not quoted 
or the regulation of chaplains' wages by 36 Edw. Ill, st. i, c. 8, StatuUs, 

^Cf. Reeves, op, cit,, ii, 274, note. 

'See s. 4 for exceptions. 



ipo 



ENFORCEMENT OF THE STATUTES OF LABOURERS 



ing the difference between the latter and the old "covenant" 
of the common law; the discussion in this section is re- 
stricted to cases in which free men are concerned. The 
essential distinction although not specified by the ordin- 
ance is made clear by the interpretation of the courts; in 
several important cases attention is called to the fact that 
an action of covenant at common law can be maintained only 
when specialty can be produced, that is, when the covenant 
had been made under seal,^ while a retainer under the or- 
dinance is an engagement not based on a written document.* 
I have found no reference to the necessity of witnesses for 
the validity of such a retainer ■ and only one instance of the 
mention of the taking of an oath.* The contract seems to 
be merely a parol agreement, with no formalities prescribed 
as to the method according to which it was to be made," 
but plainly indicates a status different from that of service 
without any agreement at all, or pro voluntate.^ In a 
number of cases it is emphasized by the courts that the mere 
making of a contract of this kind, even if the service has 

^ Cases 28 and 32, app., F, 5; cf, pt. ii, ch. i. 

'Case 31, app., F, 4; "communis retencio sine conduccio." The 
term " conuencio" is frequently used; e. g,, in case 9, app., F, 6. It is 
to be noted that both on the Plea Rolls and in Fitzherbert's com- 
mentary, the ordinance is commonly referred to as the statute; I shall 
try in this section to distinguish between them. 

'Such as are suggested, e. g., in the Waterford custumal; see p. 759, 
note 6; cf, also app., 249, for reference to witnesses in a compulsory 
service case. 

* Pat. , 28, pt . .1 , m . 20, 16 Jan . ; * ' Pro priore et fratribus de Wytham . * ' 

*C/. the account of the borough law of agreement; p. 159, note 6.. 

•Dc Banco, 50, Mich., 545, York. The request of the insurgents 

recorded in the Anominalle Cronicle (printed by Trevelyan in E. H. R., 

xiii, 517) is to the point: **que null ne deveroit servire ascune home 

mes a sa volunte de mesme et par couenante taille." Mr. Kriehn has 

|! already pointed out that this is a demand for the repeal of the statutes of 

fj labourers; "The Social Revolt in 1381," in A, H. R., vii, 282. 



CENTRAL COURTS igi 

not actually begun, is equivalent to the corporaliter in ser- 
vice of the common law.* 

Although information is lacking of the way in which this 
parol agreement was solemnized, many details of its terms 
and conditions are given in the ordinance or appear as the 
result of decisions of the courts. The statute had specified 
that engagements of labourers should be by terms of the 
usual length, t. e, a year or six months, and not by the 
day ; * the courts therefore hold that a contract for a day's 
work or for several days cannot be enforced under this 
legislation, and that to disprove the existence of a statutory 
retainer it is sufficient to show that the agreement had been 
for a day at a time merely.* An extreme instance has come 
to my notice in an action for departure and retention where 
the justices of labourers had apparently construed such ser- 
vice by the day as equivalent to a state of " vagabondage." * 
As early as 1356 issue is raised as to the legality under the 
new law, of a contract for a term longer than a year ; it is 
at this date decided that a contract of even seven years is 
admissible ' and records of actions continue for some time 
afterwards to show examples of terms varying from two to 

^ Cases 28 and 36, app., F, 5; but cf, the report of case 33, list in 
app., for an apparently different decision. 

•App., 13. Hence the writ: ** Quod servientes deserviant per ter- 
minos usuales et non per dietas," in the Re^strum, Cf» also the quo- 
tation from Vox Clamantis given on p. 75, note 2. 

'Case 3, list in app.; De Banco, 39, Mich., 233, Camb.; 41, Pasch., 
199 d, York. Fitzherbert, op. cit,, 391: " And if a Man do retain one 
to serve him for 40 Days, and another doth afterwards retain him to 
serve him for a Year, the first Covenant is avoided, because the Retainer 
was not according to the Statute. 

And so if a Man be retained to serve at every Time he shall be re- 
quired, it is no Retainer according to the Statute, but a Covenant if it 
be by Deed; and without Deed it is void." 

*De Banco, 38, Pasch., 198, York. 

'Case 6, app., F, 4. 



192 ENFORCEMENT OF THE STATUTES OF LABOURERS 

ten years/ Subsequently, however, when the question 
comes up again, the justices of the court of common pleas 
are unable, on the spot, to give judgment ; * but since later 
instances occur of contracts for more than a year,* it is to 
be inferred that their decision was in favour of the long 
terms. Other elements of the agreement between master 
and servant, such as the amount of wages and the details 
of the tasks to be performed, evidently enter into the mak- 
ing of the contract, as they are often explicitly stated in the 
plaintiflf's count,* while the defendant frequently denies 
that the contract had been of the form thus described. 

The wording of the clause in the ordinance stipulates cer- 
tain conditions under which the servant is released from his 
contract.'' The simplest of these is permission from the 
employer to depart, a fairly common plea on the part of 
the defendant.* In one case a servant's wages are, by 
agreement, deducted for his absence ; ^ in another, a writing 
releasing the servant from his contract is produced in court/ 

^Dc Banco, 33, Pasch., 11 d, Line, 3 years; 34, Hill., 205, Devon, 
10 years; case 26, list in app., 9 years; record of case 29, list in app.. 
2 years; case 18, list in app., 3 years. 

*Case 31, app., F, 4; the record shows that Fitzhcrbert^s summary is 
not correct. 

^ E, g,, De Banco, 49, Pasch., 274 d. Line, 2 years; cf. Fitzherbert, 
op. cii,, 391: ** And a Man may retain one for two or three Years, and 
it is good;'' also: ** And if a Man do retain one to serve him, and doth 
not express for how long he shall serve him, he shall serve him for a 
Year, for that Retainer is according to the statute." 

^De Banco and Coram Rege Rolls, passim, Cf, e, g,, case 3, list in 
app., quoted in s. 3 or the following description: a labourer had been 
retained *' in quodam officio ad eradicandum spinas, tribulos et genettas 
in quadam pastura vocata le Broom, et eandem pasturam mundandam 
et daustrandam . . . per vnum annum integrum." De Banco, 45, 
Mich., 434 d, Essex. * App., 9. 

•£". ^., De Banco, 45, Trin., 259, Camb.; 50, Pasch., 465 d, Norfolk. 

* Fbid., 50, Pasch., 340 d, Herts. ^Ibid,, 40, Mich., 132 d, Lond. 



CENTRAL COURTS 193 

A justification for the departure of a servant, allowed by 
the ordinance, but more difficult to prove, is "reasonable 
cause." This is interpreted by the courts in varying ways : 
unpaid salary, either in money or in kind ; ^ lack of suffi- 
cient food ; * ill-treatment, of which there are many specific 
instances; thus a servant's life is threatened,' or a servant 
is beaten so that she departs pur doute de mort^ In addi- 

^ In case 3, list in app., an action against a master for retention and 
against two servants for departure, the plea of one of the latter is that 
his wages had not been paid; the plea is traversed by the plaintiff, and 
the issue was on the question of fact. In case 22, list in app., the de- 
fendant justifies his departure by the failure of the plaintiff to pay the 
wages stipulated and issue was joined on the question as to whether the 
payment had been made. In De Banco, 34, Hill., 276, Kent, the de- 
fendant justifies his departure by the neglect of the plaintiff to pay the 
promised wages of "unum quarterium bladi et duos solidos argenti;" 
. . . therefore he had departed ' ' post rationabilem promonicionem 
eidem Thome prout moris est factam." See also De Banco, 41, Mich., 
244 d, Oxford; 45, Hill., 408, Suffolk.; 4Q, Pasch., 298 d, Kent. In 
case 18, list in app., when a servant sues an employer for his arrears of 
wages it is apparently held by the court that the plaintiff's departure 
w^ithin the term, if proved, would bar his action. 

'De Banco, 39, Pasch., 392, Midd. (c/, p. 188, note i); 40, Mich., 
14J, Camb.; Fitzherbert, op.cit.j 391: "And keeping from the Servant 
Meat and Drink is a good Cause for his Departure from his Service. 

And so for Battery; or Licence to depart, is a good Cause of De- 
parture." 

^De Banco, 46, Mich., 299 d, Leic; the defendant, a ''communis 
andlla," had departed because her employer had threatened to take her 
life on her refusal to be his mistress. Idid,y 49, Pasch., 274 d. Line; 
the plaintiff is accused by the servant of having threatened him ''de 
vita et membris." Und., 38, Trin., 388 d, Kent, the servant (Willel- 
mtts) "dicit quod Matilldis, vxor predicti lohannis Colkyn (the first 
employer) , ipsum Willelmum de die in diem sepius verberauit, et sim- 
iliter idem lohannes Colkyn ipsam Matilldem manutenens etc., ipsum 
de vita et membris minatus fuit et ad ipsum verberandum quendam cul- 
tellum extraxit, per quod ipse metu mortis sue vel perdicionis aliquorum 
membrorum etc., recessit alibi pro seruicio sibi querendo, ..." 

*Case 25, list in app. Fitzherbert, op, cit,, 392: "If the Master's 
Wife do beat the Servant, it is good Cause for the Servant to depart and 
leave his Service." 



194 



ENFORCEMENT OF THE STATUTES OF LABOURERS 



tion to these specifications by the ordinance of the rights of 
the employee, the courts hold that a conditional contract 
made by the latter is valid and need be carried out only if 
the conditions are fulfilled; for example, there is one in- 
stance of an engagement made subject to the consent of the 
servant's parents,^ and another, to that of a previous master.* 
It is also ruled by the courts that a contract made by a ser- 
vant under compulsion need not be kept ; • that imprison- 
ment by another master is a good plea to justify a ser- 
vant's departure,* also forced obedience to the orders of the 
justices of labourers/ In nearly half the departure cases, 
however, without relying on any of the above justifications, 
the servant is content with the plea of a bald denial of the 
retainer ; • very frequent also is his denial of his departure 
within the term, or his assertion of the completion of his 
term ; the two latter pleas being often based on the claim of 
a difference in the length and the dates of the term agreed 
upon from those named by the plaintiff in his count. 

It is evident that this new form of contract gave certain 
well-defined rights to employees; it is equally evident that 
it bestowed far more important advantages on employers 
than they had possessed at common law, both as against 

^Case 32, app., F, 5. For other forms of conditional contract, cf, the 
record of case 22, list in app., and case 42, app., F, 4. 

•De Banco, 46, Trin., 327, Line. 

^Ibid,, 33, Pasch., 181 d, Hunts.; 33, Mich., 224, Dorset; 40, Mich., 
142, Midd. Cf, also case 4, list in app.; the second master in a de- 
parture and retention case claimed that the plaintiff had kept the servant 
in prison and compelled him to make a contract *' par force et par dur- 
esse." 

^De Banco, 41, Pasch., 223 d, Kent. 

^lind,, 38, Pasch., 198, York.; cf. p. 191, note 4. 

* Space prevents me from giving the long list of references to the 
commonplace pleas. 



CENTRAL COURTS 195 

their employees and as against competing employers. These 
advantages are worth noting. At common law a master 
can keep an unwilling servant in his service by force; ^ but 
if the servant once make good his escape, or if a servant 
after agreeing to enter the service of a given master, never 
appears, the master has no remedy.* According to the or- 
dinance on the contrary, in either of the last two circum- 
stances, the master has a right to re-capture the servant 
and even to use imprisonment or other means of forcible re- 
straint; in an interesting test case the plea of a servant to 
the effect that only a suit is legitimate for the master in 
such circimistances is not allowed by the court.* Again, at 
common law, a master has an action of trespass against a 
second master, only if the latter actually " take " the form- 
er's servant vi et armis out of his service.* This action is 
not abolished by the ordinance," but by the latter's pro- 
visions essential additions to the rights of the first master are 
made, namely : if a second master persuade a servant to leave 

^Case 10, app., F, 5. •Case 36, app., F, 5. 

'Case 10, app., F, 5. 

* Cases 6 and 36, app. , F, 4 and 5. Cf, summary of case 12, list in app. , 
quoted on p. 185, note 3. In case 27, list in app. , discussed on pp. 185-186, 
the issue turns on the question of the minority of one of the servants; the 
judgment includes the statement that at common law an action lies only 
if a servant is actually taken out of service. Reeves, op. cit., ii, 274-275, 
note, in a translation of a Year Book case, 11 H. IV, f. 23, affords the 
most explicit account of the distinction between the common law and 
the ordinance: " Thermug, If my servant, before the statute, went out of 
my service, I suppose well that no action is given to the master, but if 
a man took my servant out of my service, then action of trespass lay at 
the common law, and still lies; .... Hankford, I am of the same 
opinion as my master has expressed, that if my servant 'depart out of my 
service, at common law I can have no action, and the cause was for 
that between me and my servant it is a contract, upon which no action 
lay at the common law without a specialty, and for this mischief the 
statute was made, and action given on it." 

*C/. quotation in note 4, 5»^a, and case 17, app., F, 5. 



196 ENFORCEMENT OF THE STATUTES OF LABOURERS 

his first master/ or to fail to keep his agreement to enter the 
service of the first master; * or if a second master, without 
any overt act inducing a servant to leave the service in 
which he is bound, has merely taken into his service a ser- 
vant who has previously of his own accord broken contract 
with his first master,* — in all these cases, the first master has 
rights and remedies under the new law. In the first place, 
if he chance to come across his fugitive servant anywhere, 
he can carry him off bodily,* but it is assumed though no- 
where explicitly stated, that to accomplish this end he can- 
not employ violence against the second master.* In the 
second place, the first master in the three cases enumerated 
above, can serve notice on the second master, demanding 
back his servant, and if the second master fail to comply 
with this request, the first master then has an action on the 
ordinance against him.* 

* Cf, supra, p. 19s, note 4. Fitzherbert, op. cit., 392: ** If the Servant 
be drawn away, the Master may re-apprehend him, and keep him in 
Spight of him." Also 388: '* If a Man do retain my Servant being in 
my Service, for which the Servant departeth from me, etc., and goeth 
to serve the other, I shall have an Action against him who retained 
him, and against the Servant, upon the Statute of 23 Edw. III." 

-This follows from cases 28 and 36, app., F, 5. 

'The wording of the ordinance implies this; also the form of the writ 
for retention; cf, also the argument in case 6, app., F, 4, Fitzherbert, 
note 6, infra, and note 3 on p. 185. 

*Cf. note I, supra; also case 17, app., F, 5, where the record 
includes the phrase: 'Mnuenit et reduxit." In case 10, app., F, 5, the 
master re-captured and imprisoned the servant; in case 9, app., F, 6, it 
is asserted that a master could have taken his servant who had departed 
even if he had been free; in De Banco, 40, Pasch., 175, Suffolk, an action 
of trespass vi et armts, the defendant pleads previous contract with the 
servant which gave him a right to take her. 

*C/. case 17, app., F, 5, in which vi et armis are denied. 

*The form of the writ includes a phrase as to notice; app., 411 ; Fitzher- 
bert, op, cit., 390: "And if a Man be retained in Service, and go wan- 



CENTRAL COURTS 



197 



In more than half of the suits of this character 
noted in my investigation the defence of the second 
master is merely the denial of the retention, with no 
further plea. Other cases include interesting details; for 
example, two actions are recorded in both of which it is 
claimed that there had been no retention by the defendant 
who had been merely performing his duty as constable; in 
one, the defendant had found the servant vagrant and had 
compelled him to serve a former master ; ^ in the other, the 
defendant had put a servant in stocks in obedience to the 
justices of labourers.* Occasionally the second master 
denies the existence of a contract between the plaintiff and 
servant or claims that there had been such a contract but 
that it had been already carried out or broken for just 
cause ; sometimes he states that he had had a contract with 
the servant antedating that with the plaintiff ; * in one case 
he is able to show a technical error in the form of the plain- 
/ tiff's writ.* A fairly usual plea of the second master is that 

he had found the servant in question a vagrant," or even 
begging for help,* and that therefore he had rightfully re- 

dering abroad out of his Service, another Man may compel him to serve 
him, etc.y because he is out of Service. 

And so if a Man do retain another's Servant, not knowing that he 
was in the Service of the other, he shall not be punished for so doing, 
if he do not retain him after Notice of his first Service." 

^De Banco, 34, Hill., 142, Berks. 

*/W^., 39, Pasch., 328 d, Devon. 'Case 4, list in app. 

*Case 8, list in app.; a technical error in the writ is also pleaded in 
De Banco, 38, Pasch., 198, York. 

^E, g.j De Banco, 34, Hill., 106 d, Stafford; 38, Trin., 199, Bucks.; 
347, Lond.; 39, Hill., 248 d, York; 40, Mich., 553, Glouc; 389 d, War- 
wick; 41, Pasch., 329 d, Northants.; 116 d, Wilts.; 45, Mich., 281 d, 
Berks.; 50, Hill., 223 d, Norfolk; case 3, list in app. 

*De Banco, 39, Mich., 372 d, Leic; the defendant had found the ser- 
vant (bercarium) "infirmum . . . requisiuit . . . vt sibi sucourreret et 
auxiliaret." 



198 ENFORCEMENT OF THE STATUTES OF LABOURERS 

tained him. This appeal to the compulsory service clause 
seems to prove that it was more effective than had been 
indicated by the few cases brought directly on it. Now 
the ordinance had stipulated that the vagrant must be (Uteri 
non seruiens; from the above discussion it results that if 
a new employer is honestly ignorant of the previous con- 
tract, he is not punishable for employing a vagrant, even if 
the latter has left his legitimate service. He runs two risks, 
however, from the rights of a previous employer : ^ the lat- 
ter may chance to come across his servant and in this case, 
as has been shown, has a right to re-take him,* and thus 
to cause the employer of the vagrant to lose his service; 
or the first employer may serve notice on the new employer 
demanding back the servant, and the new employer must 
either restore the vagrant or be sued.' Toward the end 
of the reign certainly, and possibly before, a distinction 
grew up between the employment of vagrants in the same 
county as that in which their first retainer had been and their 
employment in a different county from that of the first 
retainer. Greater laxity is allowed in the latter case: the 
new employer is not obliged to recognize the retainer in the 
other county unless the previous master has served him 
notice ; * or to put it in the other way,' the first master, if his 

* Granting that he be a bona-fide employer. Cf. case 13, list in app. ; 
to the defendant's plea in a compulsory service action of a previous 
contract, the plaintiff replies that the contract was a fraud as the alleged 
master was only a child and did not, in any case, have enough land to 
entitle him to a servant. 

' See supra J p. 196. 

' In case 3, list in app., an action against two servants for departure 
and against a master for their retention, the plea of the latter is that he 
had found the servants vagrants and out of service; the plea is accepted 
provided that it can be proved that the servants were really not in the 
plaintiff's service. 

*Case 43, app., F, 6, if correctly interpreted by Fitzherbert in his 



CENTRAL COURTS jgg 

servant has escaped into another county, cannot re-take him 
without first serving notice on the new master. In spite 
of this partial exception in the matter of different counties, 
it is obvious that on the whole there was under the contract 
clause a considerable extension of the rights of the first em- 
ployer as compared with his rights at common law, and that 
this extension came into conflict with the provisions of the 
compulsory labour clause, and thus caused one of the two 
limitations on the power of a given individual to compel 
service from a vagrant.* 

In the peculiar stress of circumstances due to the plague, 
employers almost universally were having serious difficul- 
ties in keeping employees to their agreements, and since 
during this period only the local courts were enforcing un- 
written contracts of the type usual in the relations between 
employers and employees, the former had no remedies in 
the upper courts.^ This unsatisfactory status of the law 
of parol contract is undoubtedly the explanation • of the 
successful attempt made by the lawyers and judges of the 
king^s bench and of common pleas to widen the application 
of the contract clause, and to bring it about that a bailiff 
or a school-teacher could be sued for breach of contract un- 
der the same form of writ as a ploughman or a carter. 

(6) The effect of the compulsory service and contract 
clauses on the lord's relation to his villeins. — The lord's 

summary certainly proves this. Cf. also Hale's note to Fitzherbert, 
op, cit,, 390: *'If it be in the same County, he (the new employer) 
ought to take Notice of the first Retainer at his Peril, but he is not pun- 
ishable, if he (the servant) be found Vagrant in another County. ..." 
Hale refers to a Year Book report, 17 Edw. IV, f. 7, which contains a 
clear recognition of this distinction between counties by Littleton, and 
which gives a cross-reference to my case 43. This latter must be dis- 
cussed again in connection with villeins; see s. 6. 

'S. 4, p. 181. "See pp. 157-158. 'Page 178. 



200 ENFORCEMENT OF THE STATUTES OF LABOURERS 

relation to his tenants causes the second limitation on the 
right of employers to compel work from vagrants.^ The 
ordinance had provided that lords should receive prefer- 
ence both as to their bondmen and as to their free tenants ; * 
accordingly in an action against a labourer for refusal to 
serve, the plea is urged that the defendant was holding land 
of a lord for whom he had services to perform, and is up- 
held by the court on the ground that if the labourer had 
made a contract with another master, he could not legally 
have left him to perform the necessary services for his lord. 
It is added that the statute had been made for the advant- 
age of the lords.* In a case summoned to Westminster 
from quarter sessions the justices of labourers had decided 
that a labourer is justified in refusing to serve an employer 
when required, if he can prove that he is a villein of an- 
other man; the result is the peculiar situation in which a 
villein is himself interested in proving the fact of his vil- 
leinage.* The lords were not slow to perceive their ad- 
vantage; as early as 1351 the bishop of Winchester suc- 
ceeded in obtaining a commission of oyer and terminer to 
pimish a bondman who had refused to serve him in pur- 
suance of the ordinance of labourers.*' It has already been 
shown how some years later the abbot of Pippewell was able 
through special orders issued by the king to compel the 
justices of labourers in Warwickshire to furnish him with 
the necessary supply of labourers.* 

*Pagc 181 and p. 199. '^App., 9. 'Case 20, app., F, 4. 

* App., 248 250, and pt. i, ch. ii, s. 7. Cf. Vinogradoff, Villainage in 
England^ 53-55< In discussing the case printed in his app. (case 7 in 
my list) he writes: **The peculiarity of the case is that a third person 
has an interest to prove that the man claimed as villain had been as a 
free man." 

*Pat., 25, pt. 2, m. 10 d; 16 Aug. CaL, ix, 161. 

•App., 217-218, and pt. i, ch. i, s. 7. 



J 



CENTRAL COURTS 201 

It is not easy to ascertain the precise effect of the con- 
tract clause. Up to nearly the end of the reign there is 
dear evidence in both reports and records that if a villein, 
who had escaped from his lord or who had by payment of 
chivage acquired the right to live outside the manor/ made 
a contract with a new employer, he could be re-taken by 
his lord. The verbs used to describe such a recovery of 
villeins are: seisiuit,^ recepit et reduxit,^ dbstulit et recepit* 
arestauit,^ prisomus,^ cepit et abduxit,'' cepit^ The coun- 
sel for the other side does not deny the lord's right to re- 

* I am indebted to Professor Vinogradoff for suggesting the import- 
ance of the second class. 

•The record of case 7, list in app., printed by Vinogradoff; the report 
has "priso;mus." 

•The record of case 9, app., F, 6; the report has **prisomus.*' 

*Case JO, list in app.; in an action of trespass " vi et armis " for tak- 
ing servant out of plaintiff's service, the defendant's plea is that said 
servant was his "natiuus;" therefore ''dictum Thomam ab eodem 
lohanne Ewyn (plaintiff) abstulit et recepit sicut ei bene licuit." Plain- 
tiff claimed that servant was free; issue joined on question of villeinage 
versus freedom. 

*Casc 38, app., F, 6. 

* Case 41, list in app.; record not found. In an action on the statute 
of labourers for the taking of a servant out of plaintiff's service, the de- 
fendant's plea is that as bailiff of the countess of Pembroke he had 
taken said servant as villein regardant to her manor. 

'De Banco, 33, Hill., 176 d, Wilts; in an action for the retention of 
a servant, the defendant's plea is that said servant was his villein and 
that having found ' * eundem Walterum villanum suum a dominio suo 
sine licencia et voluntate sua elongatum, cepit eum et abduxit, prout ei 
bene licuit. ' ' Issue was joined on question of villeinage versus freedom . 

^Ibid,, 45, Mich., 579 d, Devon, an action similar to the last: " Et 
predictus Willelmus (defendant) . . . dicit quod predictus Dauid est 
natiuus ipsius Willelmi vt de manerio suo de West Woguill et ipse seis- 
itus de ipso Dauid vt de natiuo suo toto tempore predicto. Et quia pre- 
dictus Willelmus indigebat de seruicio ipsius Dauid, idem Willelmus 
cepit predictum Dauid de seruicio predicti lohannis (plaintiff), vt nati- 
iium suum, prout ei bene licuit." Plaintiff denies that servant was de- 
fendant's villein: issue on this point. 



202 ENFORCEMENT OF THE STATUTES OF LABOURERS 

claim his villein but almost always merely tries to prove 
that the labourer in question is free, not villein. A curious 
case originating before the justices of labourers and sum- 
moned to Westminster is to the point. Five brothers bring 
an action on the statute of labourers against a lord, on the 
ground that, after each of them had entered into a contract 
with an employer, the defendant had come and taken them 
each back to his manor and by thus preventing them from 
fulfilling their contracts had caused them damages to the 
extent of 20s. each. The plea of the defendant that they 
are all his villeins is held a good plea by the justices and 
the plaintiffs are all in mercy; there is apparently no ques- 
tion raised as to his right as their lord to take them out of 
the service of their new employers.* As a logical result of 
the recognition of the lord's right to re-take his villein even 
though bound by contract, it is decided by the courts that 
a servant can justify his departure within the term by 
proving that he had been distrained * or actually seized as a 
villein • by the agents of his lord. Since the ordinance had 
stipulated that a lord might keep only as many villeins as he 
needed it is natural that in some of the cases the lord should 
add to his statement of the villeinage of the servant in 
question the plea that he needed his services;* yet when 

^ App., 244-248, and p. 96. It is more accurate to say that the ques- 
tion had not been raised before the justices of labourers; I do not know 
the final result of the case. 

*Case 7, list in app., printed by VinogradoflF; cf. also Fitzherbert, op, 
ciL, Hale's note, 391. 

'Coram Rege, 47, Hill., Cavendissh, 9, Derby; William Gande, a 
carter, was attached to answer Thomas de Grenehill for departure 
within the term: " Willelmus Gande . . . dicit quod ipse die Lune pre- 
dicto a seruicio predicti Thome contra voluntatem suam captus fuit per 
Willelmum Shepey, balliuum episcopi Couentrensis et Lychfeldensis, vt 
natiuus predicti episcopi, apud Sallow e et detentus ibidem per predictum 
Willelmum Shepeye et alios ministros dicti episcopi. ..." 

^See p. 201, note 8; also case 38, app., F, 6. 



CENTRAL COURTS 203 

there is an attempt to make an issue of the fact as to whether 
a lord needed this particular villein, the court rules that this 
point is not issuable.^ 

As far as these cases go, if the above analysis be correct, 
it- is clear that at this date neither the compulsory service 
nor the contract clause interfered with the legal bond be- 
tween a lord and his villeins ; he merely had to state that he 
required their labour and was then entitled to take them." 
In other words the relation of a lord to his villeins or to 
his tenants who were not villeins • was equivalent to the re- 
lation of a master to a free servant under the terms of a 
contract ; * both relations stood in the way of the rights of 
a new employer. 

The real difficulty comes up in the interpretation of an 
action at the very end of the reign including the compli- 
cation of the escape of villeins into another county.* Ac- 

^ Case 9» app., F, 6. The report had left the matter in doubt, but the 
record shows that the issue was not allowed. 

' Fitzherbert, op, cit,, 391: **The Lord may take his Villain out of 
the Service of another if he hath need of Servants, otherwise not." 
(19 R. II, 50 Edw. Ill, 22.) Hale's note somewhat modifies this bald 
statement; he quotes 30 Edw. Ill, 31 (case 9) and also reports of later 
reigns where the lord re-took his villeins. Reeves, op, cit,, ii, 247, 
note: ''a lord could take away his villein even from the service of 
another person. " Vinogradoff , loc. cit. : ** One of the difficulties in work- 
ing the statute came from the fact that it had to recognize two different 
sets of relations between the employer and the workman. The statute 
dealt with the contract between master and servant, but it did not do 
away with the dependence of the villain on the lord, and in case of con- 
flict it gave precedence to this latter claim; a lord had the right to with- 
draw a villain from a stranger's service." 

'De Banco, 33, Pasch., 181 d, Hunts.; in an action for retention and 
departure, one of the defendants (the employer) , claims that the other 
defendants (the two servants), 'Mpsi fuerunt tenentes sui et tenuerunt 
diuersa tenementa sua in villenagio. ' ' Apparently they were not villeins 
by status. *S. 5, p. 198. 

^Case 43, app., F, 6, referred to by Fitzherbert as 50 Edw. Ill, 22; see 
note 2, supra. Cf, pp. 198-199. 



204 



ENFORCEMENT OF THE STATUTES OF LABOURERS 



cording to the report in the printed Year Book and to Fitz- 
herbert's version of the case ^ the courts have arrived at the 
same conclusion in regfard to the employment of a vagrant 
villein as had already been reached in regard to the employ- 
ment of a vagrant free labourer, bound by a previous con- 
tract which he was seeking to avoid; i, e. if a villein is 
vagrant in another county and there enters into the service 
of a new employer, his lord can legally re-take him only 
after serving notice on the new master. Brooke's summary 
omits the distinction between counties ; * while the record, 
if indeed it be the record of this action,* shows that the 
case turned on an issue quite different from that presented 
in the report. Although the necessity of notice is clearly 
emphasized in later cases on the contract of a free labourer, 
I have come across no further reference to it in regard to 
a villein ; * on the other hand there are cases after this date 

' It is strange that Fitzherbert should omit in his commentary the 
discussion of this point. 

•App., 460. 

' It is with much hesitation that I print the record as probably refer- 
ing to the report under discussion, in view of the fact that Professor 
Vinogradoff, who was so good as to consider the evidence, is inclined to 
believe that the report and record do not refer to the same case. That 
there are striking differences as well as striking similarities must 
be admitted; but the fact that so very few actions occur that involve 
both the statutes of labourers and the question of villeinage increases 
the likelihood that this is the record of the reported case. 

^ See p. 198, note 4. It will be seen that I am forced to differ from 
Mr. Savine in his understanding of case 43; cf, " Bondmen under the 
Tudors," in Trans. Royal Hist. Soc, xvii, 254: '* Though perfectly 
hostile to liberal tendencies, the labour legislation in the long run cer- 
tainly assisted to loosen the dependence of the bondman on his lord. 
. . . The lord retains the preferential right over the working power of 
his villein; but when the villein does not find employment in his manor 
and is vagrant everybody can seize and put him to work, and the lord 
cannot take him back into his manor until the end of the statutory con- 
tract." 



r 



CENTRAL COURTS 



205 



in which the lord plainly did reclaim his villein, without 
anything being said as to notice.* Undoubtedly, therefore, 
this statutory interference between lords and their villeins 
was limited to instances that involved a second county and 
cannot be considered as introducing any serious innovation 
into their legal relations. The requirement of notice was 
more important practically than juridically; from the point 
of view of law the distinction was one of procedure and 
lay in the difference between a remedy offered by a posses- 
sory as against that furnished by a petitory action.* 

Out of the 312 cases occurring on the 59 Plea Rolls ex- 
amined, only 9 deal with villeins ; * the reports naturally 
show a much larger proportion, namely 6 out of 44, but on 
the whole the inference is sound that the enforcement of the 
statutes did not very often touch directly on the question of 
villeinage.* It is, however, possible that since it had be- 
come difficult to recover fugitive villeins by the ordinary 
machinery of the manorial courts, lords who needed la- 
bourers made use of the compulsory service clause of the 
ordinance ; * on this hypothesis the very absence of many 

' Cf, quota.Son from Hale, p. 203, note 2, supra; also the two later cases 
quoted by Mr. Savine which contain decisions, as he himself recognizes, 
contrary to his interpretation of my case 43; and make him admit that 
it is "possible to overestimate the disintegrating influence of this labour 
legislation," and also that ** such judgments as those pronounced in the 
last two cases certainly limited very much the action of the Statute of 
Labourers as far as it concerned the villeins if they did not annul it 
altogether." Op. ciL, 255-256. 

' I am indebted to Professor VinogradofF for pointing out this aspect 
of the question. 

' Of the six reported cases the records have been found of all but one. 
In addition there are four records of cases not reported and one record 
dealing with villeins by tenure; these are all quoted in this section. 

* One instance has come to my notice in which the lord used the ordi- 
nance as a means of recovering '* natiuum et seruientem;" De Banco, 
47, Mich., 406, Glouc. 

*C/. note to Reeves, op, cit,, ii, 247. 



2o6 ENFORCEMENT OF THE STATUTES OF LABOURERS 

cases in the courts on this clause may be interpreted to 
mean that, a lord instead of bringing suit to recover his own 
fugitive villein, found it easier to employ the vagrant villein 
of some other lord. 

The epoch is one of transition during which the position 
of villeins was undergoing radical changes by no means due 
to direct legislation. Nowhere are these changes more em- 
phatically revealed than in the cases already quoted in which 
villeins were bringing actions on the statutes of labourers 
against their lords ; especially, perhaps, in the case in which 
it appears that villeins were themselves employers of 
servants and were suing their lords for eloigning these 
servants.^ 

(7) Judgments and verdicts. — Of the 312 actions consid- 
ered in the preceding pages, 299 were on the contract clause.* 
These, as has been pointed out, were classified as follows : * 
136 against servants for departure, 116 against masters for 
retention, and 47 against both masters and servants for re- 
tention and departure respectively. Of the 6 actions in- 
volving the contract clause, there is one of false imprison- 
ment brought by a servant against a master,* and five of 
trespass zH et amtis brought by masters against other 
masters, four of them for taking servants ' and one for 
taking villeins. * There is in addition a report of a case 
of which I have not found the record, an action for debt 
brought by a servant against a master and which involves 
the contract clause.^ 

*See pp. 95-96. 'S. 3. 

'S. 4. *Case 10, app., F, 5. 

•Case 17, app., F, 5; case 30, list in app.; De Banco, 40, Pasch., 
17s, Suff.; 40, Mich., 175 d, Essex and 41, Trin., 312, Essex. In the last 
case the servant was being punished by stocks. 

•Case 43, app., F, 6. 

^Case 18, list in app.; see p. 193, note i. 



r 



r 



CENTRAL COURTS 207 

A further analysis of the 299 cases gives the follow- 
ing results. 136 actions for departure: attachment (no 
further process), 15; jury on question of fact (result not 
given), 107; judgment on question of law, 8; jury on one 
point (result not given) and judgment on another, i; jury 
on question of fact, verdict given, 5. 

116 actions for retention: attachment, 7; jury on ques- 
tion of fact, loi ; judgment on question of law, i ; judg- 
ment asked but not recorded, i ; jury on one point and 
judgment asked on another, i ; jury on question of fact,^ 
verdict given, 5. 

4/ actions for retention and departure: attachment, 3; 
jury on question of fact, 39; jury on one point and judg- 
ment on another, 2; jury on question of fact, verdict 
given, 3. 

Totals: attachment, 25; jury, 247; judgment, 9; judg- 
ment asked but not recorded, i ; jury on one point and 
judgment on another, in one instance asked but not re- 
corded, 4; jury on question of fact, verdict given, 13. 

In the comparatively few instances where the final re- 
sults are recorded,^ the important question to be answered 
is : are the findings of the courts for or against the labouring 
classes? The judgments may be considered first. By a 
strange coincidence I have failed to find the records cor- 

^ It is not only in actions on the statutes of labourers that the results 
do not appear. Cf, Introduction to Year Book, 3 Edw. II, Ixxi (Selden 
Soc.) : '* A day is given to the parties to hear their judgment. A blank 
space for the judgment is left upon the roll, and blank it remains after 
the lapse of six centuries. What happens in these cases we do not 
know; but we fancy that very often the parties, weary of waiting for a 
judgment, patch up their quarrel without telling the Q)urt anything 
about the compromise. In some future volume we, or some of our suc- 
cessors, may be able to explain more fully than we could at present how 
it comes about that so many records finish with an issue of fact or with 
an issue of law, and show no judgment and no verdict." 



2o8 ENFORCEMENT OF THE STATUTES OF LABOURERS 

responding to six reports where judgment was given, four 
of which belong to the group of contract cases, in addition 
to the judgments included in the figures given above. In 
the first of these four, an action for retention, judgment is 
for the defendant, on the ground of the minority of the 
servant;* in the second, an action for retention and de- 
parture, for the defendants, on the same ground ; ^ in the 
third, an action for the departure of two servants, for 
the defendants, on the ground that there should have been 
two writs instead of one; in the fourth, an exactly similar 
action, a similar judgment.® Of the two cases in 
which the judgment although asked is not recorded, one 
is an action for retention in which the defendants ask 
for judgment on the plea of another action pending 
between the same parties for the same cause ; * the 
other is also an action for retention, in which the de- 
fendant asks for judgment on the ground that the ordin- 
ance does not apply to contracts for a term longer than a 
year/ In the nine cases where judgment is recorded, the 
details are as follows: in three departure cases, the judg- 
ment is for the plaintiff, on admission of guilt by the de- 
fendant ; • in four departure cases, for the defendant, be- 

*Case 12, list in app.; cf. p. 185, note 3; also p. 195, note 4. 

'Case 27, list in app.; cf, ut supra. 

'Cases 19 and 37, list in app.; the latter is worded as follows: **et 
fuit demaunde judgement de brief . . . le covenant de lun nest pas le 
covenant de lautre, ne le service, et per consequens, le departure de lun 
nest pas le departer lauter." 

* Case 2 J list in app. 

^Case 31, app., F, 4, and s. 5, p. 192. 

•De Banco, 33, Mich., 161, Northants; fine of 2s. for defendant, 

. laborarius. Ibid., 34, Hill., 195 d, Lond(?). (the defendant is allutar- 

ius) . " Ita consideratum est quod predictus Ricardus Freman (plaintiff) 

habeat predictum Ricardum Perre, seruientem suum, de sibi seruiendo 

per tempus supradictum in ofHcio predicto in forma predicta . . . venit 



CENTRAL COURTS 209 

cause the plaintiff failed to prosecute ; ^ in one action for 
departure, for the defendant, on the ground that the plain- 
tiff's offer of waging his law as to the truth of the facts at 
issue was not acceptable f in an action for retention, for the 
defendant ; writ abated on ground that it had been brought 
in the wrong county.' There are three cases where there 
is a judgment recorded on one point and an appeal to a 
jury on another: in a departure case, judgment is for the 
defendant, on the ground that the statute does not apply to 
the contract of a chaplain ; * in a departure and retention 
case, for one defendant, the servant, on the ground of his 
minority ; ^ in another departure and retention case, for 
one defendant, also the servant, on the ground that distraint 
by his lord exempts a villein from the penalties of the or- 

predictus Ricardus Perre hie in curia et fecit finem cum domino Rege 
pro duobus solidis per plegiagium . . . Ideo eat inde quietus etc. £t 
deliberatur eidem Ricardo Freman per curiam etc., ad deseruiendum ei 
in forma predicta etc." Idid.t 40, Pasch., 196 d, Bucks.; defendant, 
•carucarius, is assessed lOOs. as damages. ''Ideo consideratum est quod 
predictus prior (plaintiff) recuperet seruientem suum et dampna etc. 
Et idem prior in presencia curie remittit dampna etc." 

^Ibid., 38, Trin., 405 d, Bucks.; defendant, carucarius; ibid,, 42, 
Hill., 480 d, Oxford, defendant, seruicns; ibid,, 45, Mich., 539 d, 
Lond., defendant, seruiens; Coram Rege, 48, Hill., Cavendissh, 9, 
Lond.; defendant, a card-maker. 

'Case 25, list in app.; cf, s. 5, p. 193, note 4. The defendant, nutrex\ 
pleaded that she had left because she had been beaten by plaintiff and 
also that she had had permission to depart; when forced to choose 
between the two pleas she chose the latter. Note from the record: *' et 
predictus Willelmus (plaintiff) dicit ex quo ipse paratus est facere legem 
suam quod ipse non dedit ei licenciam a seruicio suo recedendi quem 
quidem exitum predicta Matilldis recusat petit indicium et dampna sua 
etc. Et quia huiusmodi exitus non est acceptabilis consideratum est 
quod predictus Willelmus nichil capiat per breue suum set sit in miseri- 
cordia. Et predicta Matilldis inde sine die." For wager of law, see 
Pollock and Maitland, hist, Eng, Law, ii, 634, ei seq, 

* Case 8, list in app. ; servant involved, seruiens, 

* Case 42, app., F, 4, and pp. 188-189. ^Case 6, app., F, 4, and p. 185. 



2IO ENFORCEMENT OF THE STATUTES OF LABOURERS 

dinance.* In the action of false imprisonment brought by 
the servant judgment is for the defendant, i. e, the master, 
on the ground that under the contract clause re-capture by 
force is legal as a means of holding a servant to his agree- 
ment.* Therefore, of these seventeen actions, in eleven the 
judgments are in favor of the servants, and in two of the 
second masters and therefore of the servants ajso; and in 
only four are they against the servants, and in three of 
these because of their own confessions. 

In turning to the verdicts of the juries, it is to be recalled 
that out of the 299 cases on the contract clause, thirteen 
verdicts are recorded and out of the six cases involving the 
clause, one; these verdicts must be considered somewhat in 
detail, the plea of the defendant and the occupation of the 
servant being noted, as well as the penalty. 

Actions for departure, 

1 Denial of date of contract by carucarius et carectar- 
ius; damages of 40s. for plaintiff.' 

2 Denial of contract by bercarius; damages of 2 marks 
for plaintiff.* 

3 Denial of date of contract by communis ancilla; 
damages of 20s. for plaintiff; defendant also fined 

28." 

4 Ill-treatment and failure of plaintiff to pay wages to 
laborarius; damages of 10 marks for plaintiff; de- 
fendant also fined 2 marks.* 

'Case 7, list in app., printed by Vinogradoff; cf, s. 6, p. 202. 

'Case 10, app., F, s; also p. 195. 

•De Banco, 33, Pasch., 11 d, Line; plaintiff had sued for 10 marks. 
The plaintiffs regularly asked for much higher damages than they ob- 
tained. 

*Ibid.y 38, Trin., 343 d, Sussex. 

»/Wrf., 47, Trin., 231, Warwick. •/Wrf., 42, Hill., 475. Lond. 



CENTRAL CO URTS 2 1 1 

5 Denial of contract by carectarias; damages of 2s. 
for plaintiff; defendant also fined.* 

Actions for retention. 

1 Denial of retention of ancilla; damages of 10 marks 
for plaintiff.* 

2 Denial of retention of servant contrary to the ordin- 
ance; damages of 4 marks for plaintiff.* 

3 Denial of knowledge of previous contract of servant 
who had been engaged in oMcio custodis aueriorum; 
damages of 50s. for plaintiff.* 

4 Denial of retention of servant who had been engaged 
by plaintiff as apprentice in artificio cellarii; dam- 
ages of 10 marks for plaintiff; defendant also fined 
half a mark.* 

5 Vagrancy of carucarius pleaded by second master 
and mistress; damages of f 10 for plaintiff, remitted 
because of general pardon at death of Edward III.* 

Actions for retention and departure. 

1 Denial of retention by second master, and of de- 
parture by lotrix; damages of 40s. for plaintiff; 
second master fined 4od. and lotrix fined I2d.^ 

2 Vagrancy pleaded by second master, ill-treatment by 
ancilla; damages for plaintiff of 40 marks from 
second master and 10 marks from ancilla.^ 

'Coram Rege, 47, Trin., Cavendissh, 22 d, Rutland; two justices "de 
Banco" appeared in this case. 

'De Banco, 41, Mich., 270 d, Suff. 

*/dtd,, 506, Devon; plaintiff had asked for ;^20. 

^ Coram Rege, 47, Hill., Cavendissh, 51, Northants.; defendant 
claimed that he had even asked servant if he were already bound by 
contract. Plaintiff had asked for ;^40. 

^/did., 2B, Hill., Shareshull, 43. Midd. 

*De Banco, 50, Trin., 192, Kent. 

''Ibid., 40, Mich., 275, Lond. ^/bid., 553, Gloucester. 



212 ENFORCEMENT OF THE STATUTES OF LABOURERS 

3 Vagrancy pleaded by both the second masters; lack 
of contract and also lack of food and clothing by the 
two ancille; damages for plaintiff of i6d. from one 
ancilla and 2s. from the other; and 36s. 8d. from 
each of the masters.' 
In the action of trespass tn et annis for taking servant, 
the plea of previous contract urged by the defendant is not 
upheld, because the plaintiff is able to prove that the defend- 
ant's ill-treatment had justified the servant's departure; the 
verdict is damages of 4 marks for the plaintiff and also a 
fine of 5s. for the defendant.* Out of these 14 verdicts, 
therefore, there is not one explicitly for the servant although 
in the last case he benefits by the verdict for the plaintiff. 

In the small number of actions on the compulsory ser- 
vice clause, only two altogether, and one involving the 
clause,* no example occurs either of a verdict or of a judg- 
ment ; but to these actions found on the Plea Rolls must be 
added the reports of two cases, for which I have not suc- 
ceeded in identifying the records. In one of these the judg- 
ment is for the defendants on a technicality: there should 
have been two writs instead of one ; * and in the second 

* Dc Banco, 50, Hill., 223 d, Norfolk; ** Et eedem Cristiana ct Sibilla 
separatim dicunt quod quedam Alicia mater ipsarum Cristiane et Sibille 
fuit comorans per longum tempus cum predicto Thofna (plaintiff) , quasi 
amica et seruiens eiusdem Thome, ipsis adtunc tenuris etatis et cum 
cadem matre sua in domo ipsius Thome comorantibus, et postea mater 
eanindem obiit; post cuius mortem ipse comorabantur cum eodem 
Thoma quasi filie sue et ipsi deseruiebant absque aliqua conuencione, et 
postea cum etas earundem accrescebat et idem Thomas eis pro victu et 
vestitu suis necessariis pro earum statu et labor e competencia non in- 
veniebat, eedem Cristiana et Sibilla ab eodem Thoma recesserunt." 

'Case 17, app., F, 5. 

' See pp. 175-176, for references to these, and also to the remaining 
four cases making up the total of 312. 

^Case 14, list in app.; Hale's note to Fitzherbert, op, cii.y 389, quotes 



CENTRAL COURTS 213 

the judgment is also for the defendant, on the ground that 
he had sufficient services to perform for a lord of whom he 
held some land and that therefore he was exempt from 
the clause.* 

The result of these figures is to prove that the courts were 
perfectly ready to allow to servants or to masters offend- 
ing against the labour legislation the full advantage of any 
legal technicalities ; but that the juries almost never gave ver- 
dicts in favor of servants or even of employers who were 
charged with infringement of the law. It has already been 
shown what kind of questions of fact arose in actions for 
breach of contract ; but it has also been admitted that no in- 
formation has come to my notice as to the necessity of any 
formality, such as the presence of witnesses, for the validity 
of the parol agreement between master and servant. If a 
servant said in court that no such agreement existed, or if 
a second master claimed a previous contract with the ser- 
vant, it must have been difficult to establish either the truth 
or the falsity of the statement. In the existing conditions 
of the labour market the sympathy of witnesses called in to 
testify and also of the jurors was likely to be on the side of 
the plaintiff, while the presumption of guilt was certainly on 
the side of the defendant. There is small cause for wonder 
that even by conscientious jurors the acquittal of servants 
and masters on trial was not frequent. 

An exhaustive study of the Plea Rolls for the reign of 
Edward would undeniably still further confirm the im- 
pression that the upper courts were giving full measure of 
attention to the statutes of labourers, thus supplementing 

this report: ** One cannot join, in one Writ, two Persons who refuse to 
serve." It is strange that the writ in the Regisirum should be against 
two; app., 412. 

^Case 20, app., F, 4; cf, also s. 4 and s. 6. 



214 ENFORCEMENT OF THE STATUTES OF LABOURERS 

to an important extent the work of the special machinery- 
devised for the enforcement of the legislation. So ap- 
parent is this whole aspect of the execution of the statutes 
that one is surprised at the remark of the chief justice of 
common pleas : Lestatut fuit fait par cause de seruant pris 
deuant Justices de laborers en pays et nemy deuant nous,^ 
Not only have the records proved valuable as showing 
changes in the interpretation of the law by the courts that 
had escaped the notice of the reporters, but also as contain- 
ing a veritable store-house of details illustrating the relations 
between masters and servants and thus throwing light on 
the homeliest incidents of every-day life. 

' Case 2g, list in app. 



PART III 

SUMMARY OF THE WORK OF THE KING'S CX)UNC1L 

At many points in the preceding study of the labour 
legislation and of its enforcement, reference has been made 
to the part played by the king's council ; in conclusion, there- 
fore, it seems desirable to recapitulate the more important 
phases of its activity, in order to convey an impression of 
its relation to the whole administrative machinery.* 

Owing to the inability of parliament to meet during the 
plague, the first ordinance was framed and promulgated by 
the council, and proved to be not a mere temporary ex- 
pedient, but a permanent measure having all the force of 
parliamentary legislation, and in many ways a more im- 
portant enactment than the statute by which it was after- 
wards supplemented. With the council originated the in- 
genious device proclaimed in the second ordinance, namely 
the relief of the taxpayers by the application in aid of the 
current subsidy of the penalties resulting from the first or- 
dinance. Even during the running of the next subsidy, 
when a similar application of these penalties had been care- 
fully regulated in parliament, the council steps in with a 
special provision for a certain town, or with the issue of 
special commissions to investigate the carrying-out of the 
scheme. It seems more than probable that it was the di- 
rect initiative of the council, in consultation with the treas- 

* It is necessary always to remember that I have omitted the whole 
subject of ecclesiastical responsibilities for the administration of the sta- 
tutes; cf. the last clause of the ordinance and quotations cited by Gas- 

quet, Great Pestilence, i86. 

215 



2i6 ENFORCEMENT OF THE STATUTES OF LABOURERS 

urer and the barons of the exchequer, that twice after- 
wards in the course of the decade caused changes in the 
law as to the disposition of these same penalties; first, in 
the matter of the claims of the lords of franchises, and 
second, in the application of certain arrears of penalties. It 
was the council again, apparently at the instigation of the 
king, which issued special grants of the penalties to certain 
favored individuals. It is to be kept constantly in mind 
that the systematic control exercised by the exchequer 
over the work of the justices of labourers, was undoubt- 
edly on many more occasions than have been noted, subject 
to the supervision and advice of the council through the con- 
necting link of the treasurer who was a member of the 
council. 

The form of the commissions issued to the justices of 
labourers and the limits of the geographical districts with- 
in which they were to act, seem to have been decided by 
the council; and while there are on record many petitions 
in parliament in the matter of the extension of the juris- 
diction of the justices of labourers, notably in their relation 
to the preservation of the peace, and of the question of the 
consolidation of the two commissions, it appears that the 
council had really settled the matter previous to the par- 
liamentary legislation oh the subject. The appointment of 
the justices and their removal are chiefly in the hands of the 
council, subject undoubtedly to suggestions from local 
communities; the supervision of the proceedings of the 
justices is steadily exercised by the council, through the 
issue of supplementary instructions to them, or through the 
appointment of special commissions of investigation; on at 
least one occasion, even during the short period under con- 
sideration, there is an appeal to the council from the parties 
to a suit brought in the first instance before the justices of 
labourers. More rarely, the council, instead of acting 



THE KING*S CO UNCIL 2 1 7 

through the existing administrative machinery, carries out 
the provisions of the statutes directly ; for example, it em- 
powers two citizens of Norwich to compel labourers to 
serve in accordance with the compulsory service clause of 
the ordinance,^ or it appoints a special commission to aid the 
bishop of Winchester in securing service from one of his 
villeins, also in accordance with a clause of the ordinance." 
The more important functions of the council, however, 
are those to which reference has already been made, the 
initiation of legislation or of changes in the law without 
recourse to legislation, and the persistent control of the 
administrative machinery. 

Since the distinctive feature of the statutes of labourers 
is that they represent the first thorough-going attempt to 
impress uniform economic standards on the country at large, 
and since the special machinery created to enforce these 
standards became a permanent part of the new centralized 
system of local justice that was cutting into the jurisdiction 
of the old local courts, it was inevitable that these statutes 

'Pat., 26, pt. I, m. 10 d, 16 April; " De operariis capiendis pro ciui- 
tate Norwici pauianda et muris eiusdem ciuitatis dirrutis reparandis;" 
Cai., ix, 263-284. " Cum . . . intellexerimus quod predict! dues circa 
pauiamentum et reparacionem predicta facienda et dictam ciuitatem 
mundandam seruitoribus et operariis multum indigent, et quod quam- 
plures homines et mulieres fortes et ad laborandum potentes in eadem 
ciuitate vagantur ociosi et pro salario competenti operari recusant et 
quia in ordinacione. ..." 

There is, of course, the regular practice of the issue by the crown of 
writs empowering certain individuals to engage labourers for the royal 
works at the statutory rates of wages; cf. e. g,, Pat., 31, pt. 2, m. 11, 
I Aug.; "De operariis capiendis." There were sometimes difficulties 
in carrying out such instructions; cf, Pat., 29, pt. i, m. 27 d, 30 Jan.; 
" De quibusdam cementariis arestandis." This is a commission to 
Walter Albyn, serjeant-at-arms, and to the sheriff of Kent to arrest four 
labourers for certain *'contemptibus et inobedienciis " and to imprison 
them in the Tower until further notice. 

*C/. p. 200. 



2i8 ENFORCEMENT OF THE STATUTES OF LABOURERS 

should be mainly under the control of the council, the main- 
spring of the central government.^ What the privy council 
of the Tudors ^ and of the Stuarts attempted to do in rela- 
tion to the justices of the peace and the enforcement of the 
poor law,^ is what Edward's council, though of course less 
systematically, was attempting to do in relation to the jus- 
tices of labourers and to the statutes which these justices 
were appointed to enforce. 

' Mr. J. F. Baldwin has become the authority on the king's council 
for this early period; see his articles listed in my bibliography. His 
conception of the council as "a power working with great persistency 
in legislation and administration, which it would be no exaggeration to 
call the mainspring of the government" (article m A. H. R,, xi, 15), 
is fully borne out by the traces of its activity in relation to the labour 
legislation. 

' Beard, Justice of the Peace, chs. 4 and 5. 

'Leonard, Early Hist, of Eng, Poor Relief, passim. 



CONCLUSION 

It is now time to try to answer the questions suggested 
in the introduction as to the legitimacy and effectiveness 
of the statutes of labourers. In regard to the ethics of the 
most familiar and obvious aspect of the legislation, — ^the 
endeavor to keep wages and prices at the rates prevailing 
before the plague, — authoritative statements will be war- 
ranted only after an exhaustive study of the available sources 
has resulted in statistics,* but the subject is so full of com- 
plexities that even with statistics a decisive opinion will not 
be easily formed. 

The case against the government rests chiefly on two 
considerations. First ; the statutory rates of wages are too 
low, recurring to standards already obsolete.* Second ; the 
apparent fairness in the regulation of prices as well as of 
wages is misleading; the prices are for the most part of 
goods sold directly by the makers and therefore constitute 
really a labour wage, while the prices of victuals etc, not 
coming under this head, are to be " reasonable " instead of 
going back to an antiquated rate.* The case for the gov- 
ernment is in my opinion even stronger. The scattered in- 
stances noted in this monograph where a direct compari- 
son between the old and new rates is possible reveal such 
an enormous increase in both wages and prices, the demands 
of both producers and labourers (whether combined in the 
same individuals or not) went so far beyond what con- 
sumers and employers could pay, the latter were also under 
such unusual pressure of taxation, that the situation was 

'Pt. I, ch. ii, s. 6. *Ibid., p. 87, note 4. 

'Professor Benjamin Terry writing to me in April, 1907, made a 

forcible presentation of this argument. 

219 



220 ENFORCEMENT OF THE STATUTES OF LABOURERS 

plainly a crisis of an unprecedented character, involving real 
danger to the welfare of the community. In an age when 
the idea of a competitive price had not yet been evolved 
and when for normal conditions regulation by local authori- 
ties of both wages and prices was the accepted custom,* 
it was natural and equitable that in an emergency the cen- 
tral government should exert itself to the utmost to check 
the evil. The evidence of the records examined in this 
investigation goes to show that the attempt was honestly 
meant to include prices as well as wages whenever there 
had been a rise in the former also; under these circum- 
stances it seems unreasonable to consider such an attempt 
as unfair oppression of the working classes. From the 
point of view of injustice, the inequity of the low statutory 
rates of wages was surpassed by the exorbitance of the de- 
mands of the labourers. 

In turning to the problem of whether success or failure 
is to be attributed to the endeavor to lower wages and 
prices, it is clear that the preceding study warrants at 
least one positive conclusion. The large number of justices 
appointed within a short interval to enforce the laws, the 
existing records of their sessions, the references to similar 
records that have ceased to exist, the entries for the pay- 
ment of their wages, — convincing proof of the regularity 
of their sessions, — the importance to various claimants of 
the penalties imposed by the justices, — chiefly, as has ap- 
peared, for the receipt of excess wages and prices, — the 
figures of the amounts of these penalties, — evidence of the 
large sums actually levied on thef labouring classes, — all 
these facts point to the zealous administration of this por- 
tion of the enactments. To the work of the special justices 
in convicting labourers must be added the occasional efforts 

'Page 4, note 3; pt. ii, ch. i. 



[ 



CONCLUSION 221 

of the old local courts, while the importance of the action 
of the upper courts in attempting to compel employers as 
well as employees to obey the law can not easily be over- 
estimated/ In view of this cumulative evidence it is im- 
possible to doubt that during this first decade the wages 
and price clauses were thoroughly enforced. The fact that 
rates remained high after the plague ^ by no means proves 
that the thorough enforcement had no effect; on the con- 
trary, it may prove that, had it not been for the deterrent 
influence of the levying of penalties under the statutes, the 
rise would have been even greater. Although from the 
nature of t-he case there is no positive method of showing 
what would have happened to wages and prices had no sucjh 
restrictions existed, my belief is that regulations as effi- 
ciently carried out as these were for a short period, at least, 
could not fail during that period to achieve their purpose 
to some extent, although not, of course, to the extent de- 
sired by their framers. That is to say, wages were not 
kept at the statutory level, but they were kept for ten years 
at a lower level than would have resulted from a regime 
of free competition.* 

' It has been shown that the cases on the contract clause in the upper 
<rourts dealt indirectly with the wages clause; p. 178. 

'Pages 4-5, note i. 

' For a recent statement of this view, see Oman, The Great /Revolt, 

7: "The Black Death permanently raised the price of labour— despite 

•of all statutes to the contrary— though its effects would have been much 

greater if they had not been checked by the legislation of Parliament." 

The whole subject of economic restrictions is a matter of serious con- 
troversy among economists. On one side it is maintained that the 
usury laws tended on the whole to raise, not lower, the rate of interest: 
on the other it is urged that the regulation of cab fares actually reduces 
the price of cabs. It must, however, be confessed that the weight of 
•economic opinion is against my view. Without here attempting an 
analysis of the conditions that go to determine the possibility of accom- 
plishing a given end by such regulations, it will be universally admitted 
that thoroughness of administration is essential, and that in the instance 
under discussion this at least was secured. 



1^ 



222 ENFORCEMENT OF THE STATUTES OF LABOURERS 

To the question as to whether the statutes represent an 
influence in favor of or opposed to the system of villein- 
age, it is not easy to give a categorical answer. The en- 
deavor to check the mobility even of the free labourer seems 
at first sight an extension of the whole theory of villeinage; 
but it is to be emphasized that this provision was merely 
aimed at preventing a given labourer from refusing the 
legal wages offered in his own district and from going to a 
place where he could obtain higher wages. Likewise, the 
compulsory service clause was not so much concerned with 
stopping the vagrancy of either free or bond, as with 
securing for the employer a sufficient supply of labour at 
the normal rate. The specification that a lord could keep 
only as many villeins as he actually needed is theoretically a 
direct interference with the relations between lord and 
villein and might conceivably have tended to put an end to 
the old system; but the conservative attitude taken by the 
upper courts on this question, as shown by their decision 
that a lord might re-capture his villein in spite of a statutory 
contract between the latter and another employer, neces- 
sitates considerable modification of the statement that " the 
Edwardian statutes struck a very heavy blow at the whole 
fabric of the manorial system." * It has, however, been 
suggested in the preceding pages that the provisions for the 
employment of vagrants were an indirect admission that the 
; machinery of the manorial courts had become inadequate 
^ for the task of recovering fugitive villeins, and that the 
(lords needed some other means of securing labourers, and 
that therefore a remedy was provided for them by the 
^ency of the central government.* The fact that villeins 

* Petrushcvsky, quoted by Savine, in ** Bondmen under the Tudors," 
in Trans, Royal Hist. Sac., new scries, xvii, 254. 

'Pages 205-206. 



CONCLUSION 



223 



were being tried and convicted by the justices of la- 
bourers exactly like free men, and that they were them- 
selves bringing audacious suits in quarter sessions against 
their own masters; the fact that these masters evidently 
preferred to leave to the crown-appointed officials the brunt 
of the work of enforcing these measures against their 
tenants whether free or bond, while they themselves merely 
received the fiscal profits resulting from convictions; these 
facts, as well as many others, all point in the same direc- 
tion. The cataclysm of the Black Death had hastened the 
break-down of the old system and had accelerated changes / 

in economic and social relations throughout the community ; ^ 

the statutes of labourers must be regarded not as having 
created a new system or a new set of economic relations, 
but as affording proof that radical changes had occurred, 
ushering in a new era. 

Finally, in defence of the theory that this legislation 
was on the whole equitable, emphasis must be laid on that 
aspect of the statutes which has been usually neglected, 
namely their relation to the existing law of parol contract. 
From a modem point of view the endeavor of the upper 
courts to enforce contracts is obviously justified and com- 
mands sympathy and approbation. Although to a certain 
extent this endeavor was successful, the number of actions 
on the contract clause against masters proves the truth of 
the statement that it was in the end the keen competition of 
employers that made it impossible permanently to check the 
rise in wages. ^ 

For this decade, then, the evidence is conclusive in favor 
of the belief that the statutes were enforced and tends to 
show that they were by no means inoperative, but for the 
course of events during the remainder of Edward's reign, 

' Petrushevsky, reviewed by Savine in E. H, R,, xvii, 781. 



224 



ENFORCEMENT OF THE STATUTES OF LABOURERS 



except for the work of the upper courts, there is as yet very 
little definite information. The petitions in parliament in- 
dicate a possible falling-off in the energy with which the 
statutes were administered; certainly d priori, no officials 
would be as zealous as the justices of labourers, who had 
no other duties, and whose salaries depended directly on 
securing a goodly number of convictions; but all opinions 
are more or less of the nature of guess-work until the 
sources for the last part of the reign have been thoroughly 
examined. Only after such an examination will there be a 
possibility of understanding the precise relations of the 
statutes to the great revolt.* 

My main object has been to give an account of admin- 
istrative methods, and to call attention to the manuscript 
sources; there has proved to be an almost inexhaustible 
wealth of material for statistics of wages and prices, and 
for detailed information as to the manner of life of the 
ordinary people. It is to be hoped that in the near future 
some one better fitted for the task than is the present writer 
will make use of this material for the purpose of giving a 
vivid picture of this daily life, in order that " the thoughts 
of our forefathers, their common thoughts about common 
things, will have become thinkable once more.' 



» 2 



' Langland is worth quoting: 
* * And thanne curseth he the kynge and al his conseille after. 
Suche lawes to loke laboreres to greue." 
Vision of Piers the Plounnan, ed. Skeat, B. Passus vi, 318-319. 
Valuable results might be obtained if an investigator were to take a 
given county, Essex, for example, and examine all the material having 
to do with the statutes for the whole period from 1349 to 1381. 

' Maitland, Domesday Rook and Beyond^ 520. 



APPENDIX / 



I. ACCOUNT OF SOURCES 

II. DOCUMENTS. EXTRACTS FROM DOCUMENTS. LISTS 
AND TABLES 



I. ACCOUNT OF SOURCES 

The explanation of the inadequate treatment hitherto ac- 
corded the statutes of labourers lies in the scarcity of the 
printed sources. The contemporary writers, chroniclers and 
others (a convenient bibliography for the period is to be found 
in Tout's Polit. Hist, of Eng., 1216-1377, app. 451-460) have 
long been available and have been freely used by later com- 
mentators. They are important as reflecting the attitude of 
certain sections of the community, much as do the daily papers 
of the present ; but for the description of administrative meth- 
ods, they by no means take the place of the official records 
on which the preceding study of the enforcement of the stat- 
utes has been based. These official records fall into three 
main classes, belonging to, first, the central government; sec- 
ond, the old local courts, commtmal, seignorial, and municipal ; 
third, the church. 

For the church, the important records for my purpose are 
the episcopal registers preserved in the diocesan registries. 
For an account of these, cf. Gross, Sources of Eng, Hist., 402. 
For a list of those in print or calendared for this decade, cf. 
ibid., loc. cit.; and Tout, op. cit.^ app. 449-450. 

With the necessary limitation of the length of my stay in 
England, I decided to omit altogether a study of the admin- 
istration in the hands of the church, since the material for 
such a study is scattered throughout the country. Further, I 
have not attempted to deal thoroughly with the old local 
courts, since so small a proportion of their rolls are to be 
found in the Public Record Office. In the case of the central 
government, however, the sources, as far as they exist at all 
for the years 1349- 1359, are preserved in the Record Office. 

3* 



4 * APPENDIX 

Almost the only important exceptions are the manuscript Year 
Books, which must be sought in other archives ; cf. pt. ii, ch. ii, 
s. i of my text. It seemed wise, therefore, to concentrate my 
efforts on the endeavor to make as complete as possible an 
examination of these sources. 

The various classes of records and their contents have been 
analyzed and described by competent authorities ; for example, 
by Scargill-Bird in his invaluable Guide to the Public Records, 
by Gross, in the excellent summaries preceding the different 
sections of his Sources of Eng. Hist., or in less technical form 
by Tout in the appendix to Polit. Hist, of Eng. Further, the 
publications of the old Record Commission and the calendars 
in the annual reports of the deputy keeper cover a wide field, 
while the present official series of calendars and of lists and 
indexes will eventually constitute a complete catalogue of the 
documents in the Record Office. In the meantime many manu- 
script lists available only on the spot are of great assistance 
to the investigator. 

No general description of the material being needed, my 
plan in the following pages is to give brief summaries of the 
various classes of manuscript records important for my pur- 
pose, with references to any portions that are in print, and to 
note what proportion of each class has been included in my 
search; also to point out certain errors and inadequacies 
in the official calendars and lists and to call attention to a 
notable omission on the part of nearly all authorities of one 
whole class of records essential for my subject. 

These summaries and critical comments will serve as intro- 
ductions to the groups of documents and extracts from docu- 
ments constituting the bulk of this appendix. Except in a 
very few instances, these documents have not been hitherto 
printed and have been selected from each important class of 
records, the greater number being taken from those classes 
that are least likely in the near future to be calendared or 
printed. To these texts have been added certain lists and 
tables based on the manuscript sources. 



ACCOUNT OF SOURCES 5 * 

A word must be said in explanation of the method chosen 
for grouping the documents. The three great departments 
responsible for the enrollment and the custody of the records 
of the central government are chancery, the exchequer and the 
courts of law. For purposes of investigation it proved con- 
venient to consider separately the chief enactments of parlia- 
ment and council, to distinguish the judicial from the admin- 
istrative side of chancery, and to regard the courts as being 
of two types, local courts under crown-appointed justices, and 
upper courts, including the king's bench, common pleas, chan- 
cery and the council. To these must be added a third type — 
the old local courts already mentioned, communal, seig^orial 
and municipal — some of their rolls being also in the Public 
Record Office. 

The resulting classification — ^A. Parliament and council; B. 
Chancery on the administrative side; C. Lxxral courts under 
crown-appointed justices ; D. Exchequer ; E. Old local courts ; 
F. Upper courts; — is roughly analogous (except for A.) to the 
main divisions of my administrative study. The correspond- 
ence is not exact, the chief difficulty being the part played 
by the council, which has to be treated under every depart- 
ment. There are also frequent cross-classifications ; e. g,, par- 
dons for outlawry mark one step in the judicial system and 
yet are necessarily recorded on the Patent Rolls. On the whole, 
however, it is believed that the groups of documents as ar- 
ranged will serve to illustrate with some clearness the various 
phases of the administrative process, and it is hoped that they 
will be studied in connection with the corresponding sections 
of my text 



II. DOCUMENTS, EXTRACTS FROM DOCUMENTS, 

LISTS AND TABLES • 

A. Parliament and Council 

INTRODUCTORY NOTE 

Parliamentary and other Petitions (Chancery and Exchequer). 

These include almost all the extant petitions of the 
period to king, council, parliament, and chancellor 
in his executive capacity. Cf, ScargiU-Bird, op, cit,, 
284-285, and Maitland, Records of the Parliament of 
1305, introduction, xxvi. 

Index of Ancient Petitions of the Chancery and the Ex- 
chequer, Lists and Indexes, no. /. 

Merely a list of names of the petitioners, with no 
indication of the contents of the petitions; in many 
cases the latter are undated, and are, therefore, unin- 
telligible. About a tenth are printed in Rotuli Par- 
liamentorum. 

Throughout my account of administrative methods 
it has been emphasized that traces of the activity of 
the council in relation to the statutes of labourers 
are everywhere apparent; this fact thus confirms the 
truth of Mr. Baldwin's theory that before the era of 
the keeping of formal council records, its doings can 
be followed by a study of the records of other 
branches of government. It seems probable, there- 
fore, that an exhaustive examination of these petitions 
with a given subject in view, like the statutes of 
labourers, and in connection with other available 
6* 



DOCUMENTS, LISTS AND TABLES 7 * 

sources, would reveal the date and real significance of 
innumerable undated petitions, and would thus throw 
light on the working of mediseval machinery. My in- 
vestigation has included so few out of the mass of 
about 16,000 petitions that the results are not im- 
portant. 

Royal and Historical Letters, collected from various classes of 
documents; cf, Scargill-Bird, op. cit, 330-331. 

List of Ancient Correspondence of the Chancery and Ex- 
chequer, Lists and Indexes, no, xv. 

Undoubtedly some of these would also reveal coun- 
cil methods but have not been included in my search. 

Parliament Rolls. (Chancery.) 

Parliamentary and other Proceedings. (Chancery). 

Parliamentary Proceedings. (Exchequer, K. R.) 

Statute Rolls ; imperfect, supplemented by the above. 
Rotuli Parliamentorum. 

These include parliament rolls from various sources, 
some of the material contained in the second of the 
two series of " Parliamentary Proceedings," and 
many petitions from "Parliamentary and other Peti- 
tions." Cf. Maitland, Records of the Parliament of 
130S, introduction, xxvii, xxxii, Ixii. 
I have relied altogether on the printed Rotuli. 

The Statutes of the Realm. 

Tliese include the Statute Rolls, some of the ma- 
terial contained in the second of the two series of 
" Parliamentary Proceedings," and a number of 
British Museum transcripts of documents of various 
kinds. 

As illustrative of parliament and council action, 
the statutes and ordinances are, of course, the most 
important; in this case it has, therefore, seemed wise 
to depart from my plan of including in the appendix 



8 ♦ APPENDIX 

r 

only documents hitherto unprinted, and for conveni- 
ence to give the text of the labour legislation of the 
decade. The statutes have been reprinted from the 
Statutes of the Realm, but have been collated with 
the originals on the Statute Roll. The first ordinance, 
also reprinted from the Statutes, has been collated 
with the Qose Roll enrollment and has been grouped 
with the other enactments; but the second ordinance 
and the "Statutum de Forma, etc," which the editors 
of the Statutes took from British Museum transcripts, 
with some consequent errors, are now printed from 
exchequer enrollments and grouped with other ex- 
chequer documents.^ 

/. List of Parliaments 1349-1359* 

1351 25 Edw. Ill 9 Feb. — i March. 

1352 25-26 Edw. III. . ! . 13 Jan. — 11 Feb. 

1353 27 Edw. Ill 23 Sept. — 12 Oct. 

1354 28 " 28 April — 20 May. 

13SS 29 " 12 Nov. — 30 Nov. 

1356 30 " No parliament. 

1357 31 " 10 April — 16 May. 

1358 32 " 5 Feb.— 27 Feb. 

1359 33 " No parliament. 

2. Enactments. Extracts from Close Rolls and Statute Rolls. 

Rotuli Literarum Qausarum, 23 Edw. Ill, pt. i, m. 8 d. :* 

De proclamacione facienda de seruientibus. 

Rex vicecomiti Kanc',-salutem. Quia magna pars populi et 
maxime operariorum et seruientum iam in ista pestilencia est 

^App. D, I and 2. 

'Parry, Parliaments and Councils, introduction, Ivi. 

^Statutes, 23 Edw. Ill, cc. 1-7; Rymer, iii, pt. i, ig8; the latter gives 
the erroneous date of 24 Edw. iii. A summary appears in Cal. Close 
Rolls, ix, 87-88; and it is enrolled in London Letter Book F; cf. Cal.,. 
193. 



DOCUMENTS, USTS AND TABLES ' g^ 

def uncta, nonnulli videntes ^ necessitatem dominorum et pauci- 
tatem seruientum seruire nolunt nisi salaria recipiant excessiua, 
et alii mendicare malentes in ocio quam per laborem querere 
victum suum; nos pensantes grauia que ex carencia presertim 
cultorum et operariorum huiusmodi peruenire possent incom- 
moda, super hoc cum prelatis et nobilibus et peritis aliis nobis 
assistentibus deliberacionem habuimus et tractatum ; de quorum 
vnanimi consilio duximus ordinandum: 

Quod quilibet homo et femina regni nostri Anglie, cuius- 
cumque condicionis fuerit, libere vel seruilis, potens in corpore 
et infra etatem sexaginta annorum, non viuens de mercatura, 
nee certum excercens artificium, nee habens de suo proprio 
vnde viuere vel terram propriam circa culturam cuius se poterit 
occupare, et alteri non seruiens, si de seruiendo in seruicio 
congruo considerato statu suo fuerit requisitus, seruire teneatur 
illi qui ipsum sic duxerit requirendum; et percipiat dumtaxat 
vadia, liberaciones, mercedes, seu salaria, que in locis vbi ser- 
uire debeat consueta sunt prestari anno regni nostri Anglie 
vicesimo, vel annis communibus quinque vel sex proxime pre- 
cedentibus. Prouiso quod domini preferantur aliis in natiuis 
seu terram suam tenentibus sic in seruicio suo retinendis. Ita 
tamen quod huiusmodi domini sic retineant tot quot sibi fuerint 
necessarii et non plures ; et si talis vir vel mulier, sic de serui- 
endo requisitus vel requisita, hoc facere noluerit, hoc probato 
per duos fideles homines coram vicecomite, balliuo, domino, 
aut constabulario ville vbi hoc fieri contigerit, statim per eos 
vel eorum aliquem capiatur et mittatur proxime gaole, ibidem 
sub arta moretur custodia quousque securitatem inuenerit de 
seruiendo in forma predicta. 

Et si messor, falcator aut alius operarius uel seruiens, cuius- 
cumque status fuerit seu condicionis, in seruicio alicuius re- 
tentus, ante finem termini concordati, a dicto seruicio sine 
causa racionabili vel licencia recesserit, penam imprisonamenti 
subeat, et nuUus sub eadem pena talem in seruicio suo recipere 
vel retinere presumat. 

'MS. videndes. 



lO * APPENDIX 

NuUus eciam vadia, liberaciones, mercedes seu salaria maiora 
solito, sicut predictum est, alicui soluat vel soluere promittat; 
nee aliquis ea alio modo exigat vel recipiat, sub pena dupli 
illius quod sic solutum, promissum fuerit, aut exactum vel re- 
ceptum, illi qui ex hoc se senserit grauatum; et nuUo tali 
volenti prosequi, tunc cuicumque de populo qui hoc prosecutus 
fuerit applicandum ; et fiat huiusmodi prosecucio in curia 
domini loci quo talis casus acciderit; et si domini villarum vel 
maneriorum contra presentem ordinacionem nostram, per se 
vel ministros suos, in aliquo venire presumpserint, tunc in 
comitatibus, wapentachiis et trithingis, vel aliis curiis nostris 
huiusmodi, ad penam tripli per eos vel ministros suos sic soluti 
vel promissi, in forma predicta fiat prosecucio contra eos; et 
si forsan aliquis ante presentem ordinacionem cum aliquo de 
sic seruiendo pro maiori salario conuenerit, ipse racione dicte 
conuencionis ad soluendum vltra id quod alias tali consuetum 
est soluere minime teneatur ; immo soluere plus sub pena pre- 
dicta non presumat. 

Item, sellarii, pelletarii, allutarii, sutores, cissores, fabri, car- 
pentarii, cementarii, tegularii, batellarii, carectarii, et quicumque 
alii artifices et operarii, non capiant pro labore et artificio suo 
vltra id quod dicto anno vicesimo et aliis communibus annis 
precedentibus vt premittitur, in locis quibus eos operari con- 
tigerit talibus solui consueuit; et si quis plus receperit gaole 
proxime modo quo premittitur committatur. 

Item quod camifices, piscenarii, hostellarii, braciatores, pis- 
tores, puUettarii, et omnes alii venditores victualium quorum- 
cumque, teneantur huiusmodi victualia vendere pro precio ra- 
cionabili, habita consideracione ad precium quo huiusmodi vic- 
tualia in locis propinquis venduntur: ita quod habeant huius- 
modi venditores moderatum lucrum, non excessiuum, prout 
distancia locorum a quibus victualia huiusmodi cariantur dux- 
erit racionabiliter requirendum; et si quis victualia huiusmodi 
alio modo vendiderit, et inde in forma predicta conuictus fuerit, 
soluat duplum illius quod receperit dampnificato, vel in defectu 
illius alteri qui prosequi voluerit in hac parte; et habeant po- 



DOCUMENTS, LISTS AND TABLES 1 1 ♦ 

testatem maior et balliui ciuitatuum et burgorum, villarum 
mercatoriarum et aliarum, ac portuum et locorum maritimorum 
ad inquirendum de omnibus et singulis qui contra hoc in aliquo 
deliquerint et ad penam predictam ad opus illorum, ad quorum 
sectam huiusmodi delinquentes conuicti fuerint, leuandum; et 
in casu quo iidem maior et balliui execucionem premissorum 
facere neclexerint, et de hoc coram iusticiariis per nos assig- 
nandis convicti fuerint, tunc iidem maior et balliui ad triplum 
rei sic vendite huiusmodi dampnificato, vel alteri in defectu 
illius prosequenti, soluendum per eosdem iusticiarios compel- 
lantur, et nichilominus versus nos grauiter puniantur. 

Et quia multi validi mendicantes, quamdiu possent ex men- 
dicatis elemosinis viuere, laborare renuunt, vacando ociis et 
peccatis, et quandoque latrociniis et aliis flagiciis, nullus sub 
pena imprisonamenti predicta, talibus qui commode laborare 
poterunt, sub colore pietatis vel elemosine quicquam dare seu 
eos in sua desidia confouere presumat, vt sic compellantur 
pro vite necessario laborare. 

Tibi precipimus firmiter iniung^ntes quod premissa omnia et 
singula in civitatibus, burgis et villis mercatoriis, portubus 
maris et aliis locis in balliua tua vbi expedire videris, tam 
infra libertates quam extra, publice proclamari et teneri, et 
execucionem debitam inde fieri facias, sicut predictum est; et 
hoc sicut nos et communem vtilitatem regni nostri diligis et te 
ipse indempnem seruare volueris nuUatenus omittas. 

Teste Rege apud Westmonasterium, xviii die lunii per ipsum 
Regem et totum consilium. 

Consimilia breuia diriguntur singulis vicecomitibus per An- 
gliam. 

Rex venerabili in Christo patri W. eadem gracia episcopo 
W)mtoniensi, salutem. Quia magna pars populi etc. vt supra, 
usque pro vite necessario laborare, et tunc sic: et ideo vos 
rogamus quod premissa in singulis ecclesiis et locis aliis vestre 
diocesis quibus expedire videritis, publicari faciatis ; mandantes 
rectoribus, vicariis ecclesiarum huiusmodi, ministris et aliis sub- 



12 ♦ APPENDIX 

ditis vestrisy vt parochianos suos ad laborandum et ad tenendum 
ordinaciones predictas, sicut instans necessitas exigit, salu- 
taribus monitis solicitent et inducant: Vos eciam capellanos 
stipendiaries dicte vestre diocesis, qui similiter iam sine exces- 
siuo nolunt, vt dicitur, seruire salario, compescatis ; et ad serui- 
endum pro consueto salario prout expedit, sub pena suspen- 
sionis et interdicte compellatis. Et hoc sicut nos et communem 
vtilitatem dicti regni nostri diligitis, nuUatenus omittatis. 

Teste ut supra. 

per ipsum Regem et totum consilium. 

Consimile litere rogatiue diriguntur singulis episcopis An- 
glie ac custodi spiritualitatis archiepiscopatus Cantuariensis, 
sede vacante, sub eadem data. 

Ex magno Rotulo Statutorum . . . m. i8. 

Statuta in parliamento tento apud Westmonasterium in octabis 
Purificacionis beate Marie virginis anno regni domini Ed- 
wardi Regis Anglie . . . vicesimo quinto . . } 
Come nadgairs contra la malice de seruantz, queux furent 
preciouses et nient voillantz seruir apres la pestilence, sanz 
trop outrageouses lowers prendre, feut ordine par nostre seig- 
nur le Roi et par assent des prelatz, nobles et autres de son 
conseil, que tieux maners des seruantz, sibien hommes come 
femmes, fussent tenuz de seruir, receyuantz salaries et gages 
accustumez es lieus ou ils deueront seruir, Ian du regne le dit 
nostre seignur le Roi vintisme, ou cink ou sis annz deuant, et 
que mesmes les seruantz refusantz seruir par autiele manere 
fuissent punys par emprisonement de lour corps, sicome en 
mesme lordenance est contenuz plus au playn; Sur qoi com- 
missions furent faites as diuerses gentz en chescun counte den- 
quere et punir touz ceaux que venissent au contraire; Et ia 
par tant que done est entendre a nostre dit seignur le Roi en 
cest present parlement, par la petition de la commune, que les 
ditz seruantz nient eiantz regard a la dite ordenance, mes a 

^Statutes, 25 Edw. Ill, st. 2, cc. 1-7; Rot. Pari,, ii, 2J3b-235a; en- 
rolled in London Letter Book F; cf, Cal,y 232. 



DOCUMENTS, LISTS AND TABLES 13 ♦ 

lour eses et singulers couetises, se retreent de seniir as grantz 
ou as autres sils neyent liueresons et lowers au duble ou treble 
de ceo quils soloient prendre le dit an vintisme et deuant, a 
grant damage des grantz, et empouericement des touz ceux de 
la dite commune, dont il estoit prie par mesme la commune de 
remedie; par qoi en mesme le parlement, par assent des pre- 
latz, countes, barons, et autres grantz, et de la dite commune 
illoques assemblez, pur refreyndre la malice des ditz seruantz 
sont ordenes et estables les choses suzescriptz. Cest assauoir : 

Que chescun charetter, caruer, chaceour des carues, bercher, 
porcher, deye, et touz autres seruantz, preignent liueresons et 
lowers accustumes le dit an vintisme et quatre annz deuant; 
issint qen pays ou furment soleit estre done preignent pur le 
bussel X d. ou furment a la volimte le donur, tanques autre- 
ment soit ordeigne; et qils soient allowes de seruir par Ian 
entier ou autres termes vsuels, et nemye par ioumes, et que 
nul preigne en temps de sarcler ou feyns faire forsques i d. le 
iour; et fauchours des preez pur lacre v d. ou par la iourne 
V d., et sciours des blees en la primere symaigne daust ii d. et 
en la seconde iii d. et issint tanques au fyn Daust, et meyns 
en pays ou meyns soleit estre done, saunz mangier ou autre 
curtoysie demander, doner ou prendre; et que tieux ouerours 
portent ouertement en lour meyns as villes marchantz lour in- 
strumentz, et illoeques soient alowes en lieu commune et nemye 
priue. 

Item que nul preigne pur le batre de vn quarter de furment 
ou segle, outre ii d. ob., et pur le quarter dorge, feues, poys, 
et aueynes i d. ob. si tant soleit estre done; et en pays ou 
homme soleit scier pur certeyns garbes et batre pur certeyns 
busseux, ne preigne plus nen autre manere qil soleit le dit an 
vintisme et deuant ; et que mesmes les seruantz soient sermentez 
deux foitz par an deuant seignurs, seneschals, baillifs et cone- 
stables de chescime ville, a ceste chose tenir et faire, et que nul 
de eux irra hors de la ville ou il demoert en yuer, pur seruir 
en estce, sil puisse auoir seruice en mesme la ville, pemant 
come deuant est dit ; sauve que les gentz des countez de Staf- 



14 



APPENDIX 



ford, Lancastre et Derby, et gentz de Crauen et de la marche 
de Gales et Descoce, et autres lieux puissent venir en temps 
Daust, de laborer en autres countes, et saluement returner 
come lis soloient faire auant ses heures; et que ceux que re- 
fusent de faire tiel serement ou perfourner ceo qils ount iures, 
ou empris, soient mys en ceppes par les ditz seignurs, sene- 
schaux, baillifs et conestables des villes, par trois iours ou 
pluis, ou mandez a la procheyn gaole, a demorer illoeques 
tanques ils se voillent iusticer; et que ceppes soient faitz en 
chescune ville par celle encheson enter cy et la Pentecost. 

Item que carpenters, masons, teglers, et autres couerours des 
mesons, ne preignent le iour pur lour ouereygne forsque en 
thanere come ils soleient, cest assauoir, mestre carpenter iii d. 
et autre ii d. ; mestre meson de tranche peer iiii d. et autre 
mason iii d. et lour seruantz i d. ob. ; teguler iii d. et son gar- 
ceon i d. ob. et couerour de ros et estreym iii d. et son garceon 
i d. ob. 

Item plastrers et autres ouerours des mures darzill et lour 
garceons par mesme la manere, saunz mangier ou boire, cest 
assauoir, de la Pasche tanques a la Seynt Michel; et de eel 
temps meyns solonc lafferant et discrecion des lustices qi ser- 
ront a ce assignez ; et que ceux qui fount cariage, par terre ou 
par ewe, ne preignent pluis pur tiel cariage faire, qils ne 
soloient le dit an vintisme et quatre annz devant. 

Item que coiuoisers ne suours ne vendent botes, soulers, 
nautre chose touchant lour mister par autre manere qils ne 
soleint le dit an vintisme : et que orfeures, sellers, f errours des 
chiuaux, esporoners, tannours, correours, pelleters, taillours, et 
touz autres ouerours, artificiers, et laborers, et touz autres 
seruantz nient especifiez, soient sermentez deuant les dites ius- 
tices de faire et vser leur artes et offices en manere come ils 
fesoient le dit an vintisme et en temps deuant, sanz les refuser 
par cause de ceste ordinance; et si nul des ditz seruantz, la- 
borers, oeuerours, ou artificers apres tiel serment fait viegne 
encontre celle ordinance, soit puny par fin, ranceon, et cm- 
prisonement, selonc la discrecion des dites iustices. 



DOCUMENTS, LISTS AND TABLES 15 ♦ 

Item que les ditz seneschalx, baillifs et conestables des dites 
villes, soient sermentez deuant meismes les iustices denquere 
diligeanment, par totes les bones voies quils purront, de touz 
ceux qi vendront contre ceste ordinance, et de certifier meismes 
les iustices de lours nouns, a totes les foitz qils vendront en 
pays pur faire lour sessions; issint que les dites iustices ewe 
certificacion de meismes les seneschalx^ baillifs et conestables, 
des nouns de rebeaux, les facent attacher par lour corps, destre 
deuant meismes les iustices a respondre des tielx contemptz, 
issint qils facent fyn et raunceon au Roi en cas qils soient 
atteintz, et outre soient commandez a la prisone, a y demurer 
tanqils aueront troue seurete de seruir et prendre, et lour oue- 
reignes faire, et choses vendables vendre, en la manere auant- 
dite; et en cas que nul de eux viegne contre son serement, et 
de ce soit atteint, eit la prisone de xl iours, et si autrefoitz il 
soit conuict eit la prisone dun quarter del an, issint que a 
chescun foitz qil trespas, et soit conuict, eit la penance au 
double: et que meismes les iustices enquergent a chescune 
foitz qils vendront, des ditz seneschalx, baillifs et conestables 
sils eient fait bone et loiale certificacion ou nule concele, par 
doun, procurement, ou affinite, et les punir par fyn et ranceon 
sils soient trouez coupables : et que meismes les iustices eient 
poair denquere et faire due punissement des ditz ministres, 
ouerours, laborers, et autres seruantz queconques, et auxint 
des hostelers, herbergers, et ceux qi vendont vitailles en retaille^ 
et autres choses nient especifiez, si bien a la suite de partie, 
come par presentment, et doier et terminer et mettre la chose 
en execucion par Exigend apres le primer Capias, si mestier 
soit, et de deputer autres soutz eux, tantz et tielx come ils 
verront que mieltz soit, pur la garde de meisme ceste ordinance ; 
et que ceux qi vorront suir, vers tielx seruantz, ouerours, et 
laborers, pur excesse pris deux et ils soient de ce atteintz a 
lour suite, qils puissent reauoir eel excesse; et en cas que nul 
voudra suir pur tiel excesse reauoir, adonqes soit leue des ditr 
seruantz, ouerours, laborers et artificers et liuere as coillours 
de la quinzisme, en alleggeance des villes ou tiel excesse fut pris. 



1 6 ♦ APPENDIX 

Item que viscontes, conestables, baillifs, gaolers, et clercs des 
iustices ou des viscontes, nautres ministres queconqes, rienz ne 
preignent par cause de lour offices, de meismes les seruantz, 
pur fees, suete de prisone, nen autre manere; et sils eient 
rienz pris en tiele manere, qils les facent deliuerer as coillours 
des disme et quinzisme, en eide de la commune pur temps qe 
les disme et quinzisme courgent, auxibien pur tout le temps 
passe come pur le temps auenir; et que les dites iustices en- 
quergent en lour sessions si les ditz ministres eient rienz receuz 
de meismes les seruantz et ce quils troueront par tiels enquestes 
que les ditz ministres aueront receuz, facent meismes les ius- 
tices leuer de chescun des ditz ministres et liuerer as ditz coil- 
lours ensemblement od lexcesses, fins et ranceons faitz, et 
auxint les amerciementz de toux ceux qi serront amerciez 
deuant les ditz iustices, en allegeance des villes come desus est 
dit ; et en cas que lexcesse troue en vne ville passe la quantite 
de la quinzisme de meisme la ville, soit le remenant de tiel 
excesse leue, et paie par les ditz coillours a les plus proscheines 
villes poures, en eide de lour quinzisme, par auisement des ditz 
iustices; et que les fins, raunceons, excesses et amerciementz 
des ditz seruantz et laborers pur temps auenir, currante la dite 
quinzisme, soient liuerez as ditz coillours en la forme susdite, 
par endenture affaire entre eux et les ditz iustices, issint que 
meismes les coillours puissent estre chargez sur lour accompt 
par meismes les endentures, en cas que les ditz fins, raunceons, 
amerciementz et excesses, ne soient paiez en eide de la quin- 
zisme auantdite, et cessante meisme la quinzisme, soit leue al 
oeps le Roi et respondu a lui par le viscont du countee. 

Item que les ditz iustices facent lour sessions en touz les 
countes Dengleterre au meins quatre foitz par an, cest assauoir, 
a les festes del Annunciacion de nostre Dame, Seinte Mar- 
garete, Seint Michel, et Seint Nicholas, et auxint totes les 
foitz qil busoignera selonc la descrecion des iustices; et que 
ceux qi parlent en presence des dites iustices, ou autres choses 
facent en lour absence ou presence, en abaudissement ou mein- 
tenance des ditz seruantz et laborers, au contraire de cest ordi- 



DOCUMENTS, LISTS AND TABLES 17 * 

nance, soient greuement punys selonc la discrecion des dites 
iustices : et si nul des ditz laborers, artificers ou seruantz senfue 
dun countee tanques en autre, par cause de ceste ordinance, 
que les viscontes des countes ou tiels futiues serront trouez les 
facent prendre, au mandement des iustices des countes dont ils 
senfuerent, et le mesnent a la chief gaole de meisme eel counte, 
illoeques a demurer tanques a la proscheine session des meismes 
les iustices, et que les ditz viscontz retument tielx mandementz 
deuant meismes les iustices a lour proscheines sessions, et que 
ceste ordinance soit tenue et garde, sibien deinz la citee de 
Londres come en autres citees et burghs et aillours parmy la 
terre, sibien deinz franchise come dehors. 

Ex magno Rotulo Statu torum ... m. 15. 
Statutum contra adnuUatores iudiciorum curie Regis facttun 
anno XXVIlo.^ 

Ensement pur les grantz et outraieouses chiertees des vitail- 
les, que les hostelers des herbergeries et autres regraters de 
vitailles fount par tout le roialme, a grant damage du poeple 
qi passe parmie le roialme, accorde est et establi, que iustices 
sachantz de lei, qi soient bones et couenables soient de nouel 
€slutz denquere des faitx et des outrages de tieux hostelers, 
regraters, laborers, et touz autres compris en lestatut autre- 
foitz ent fait; et de les punir, et outre faire droit au Roi et 
au poeple: Sauuant totesfoitz a chescun seignur et autres leur 
franchises en toutz pointz. 

Ex magno Rotulo Statutorum . . . m. 14. 

Statutum de anno vicesimo octauo Regis Edwardi tercii.* 

Item, acorde est et establi, que feer fait en Engleterre, et 
feer mesne en Engleterre et illoeques vendu, ne soit mesne hors 
du roialme Dengleterre sur peine de forfaire le double deuers 
le Roi : 



^Statutes, 27 Edw. Ill, st. i, c. 3. 
•7W</„ 28 Edw. Ill, c. 5. 



l8 ♦ APPENDIX 

£t eient les iustices assignez denquere de laborers, et autres 
iustices queux le Roi vodra a ce assigner, poer denquere de 
ceux qui vendent le feer a trop cher pris et de les punir solonc 
la quantite de trespas. 

Ex magno Rotulo Statutorum ... m. 13. 
Statutum editum apud Westmonasterium die Lune proximo 
post septtmanam Pasche anno XXXI®.^ 

Item, coment que par estatut nadgairs fait fuist ordine, que 
les issues, fins et amercimentz des seruantz, artificers et autres 
ouerours, aiuggez deuant iustices des laborers, serroient au 
Roi apres les trois anns de la quinzisme triennale, adonqes 
grante au Roi par la commune de son roialme; acorde est et 
assentu, que les seignurs des fraunchises, qi ont fins, issues et 
amerciementz par point de chartre ou en autre manere, eient 
desore enauant les dites fins, issues, et amerciementz des la- 
borers, que a eux appartiegnent de droit, tant come la iusti- 
cerie des laborers dtwe : Issint totes voies que les ditz seignurs 
facent contribucion a paiement des feez de tieux iustices des 
laborers, selonc lafferant des profitz qils enprendront. 

Item, acorde est que lestatut des laborers soit aussibien tenuz 
en la citee et les suburbes de Loundres et en les cynk portz et 
autres franchises qeconqes come aillours en Englcterre. 

^Statutes, 31 Edw. Ill, st. i, cc. 6-7. 



DOCUMENTS, LISTS AND TABLES 19 ♦ 

B. Chancery (Administrative side; cf. pt. i, ch. i.) 

INTRODUCTORY NOTE 

Qose Rolls. 

Calendar; v. ix, 1349-1354. 

Rymer's Foedera contain a number of letters close. 
Patent Rolls. 

Calendars; v. viii, 1348-1350; v. ix, 1350-1354. 
Calendarium Rotulorum Patentium. 

Selections only; of no importance in comparison 
with the new series of calendars. 
Rymer's Foedera contain a number of letters patent. 
Calendar of Letter Books of the City of London; A-G. 
Contains enrollments of letters close and patent. 
(Cf. also Munimenta Gildhallae and Memorials of 
London.) 
Fine Rolls and Liberate Rolls have neither of them been ex- 
amined ; see Scargill-Bird, op. cit., 37 and 42. 
Originalia Rolls. 

Exchequer duplicates of enrollments on the Qose, 
Patent and Fine Rolls having to do with income due 
the exchequer; classed here for convenience. 
Rotulorum Originalium Abbreviatio. 
Chancery Lists. 

Chancery Files, Tower series. 

Writs, original and judicial. Letters Patent, orig- 
inal and uncancelled. 

Warrants for the Great Seal; series i; Writs of 
Privy Seal, Bills of Privy Seal, Warrants under the 
Signet. 
Miscellaneous Rolls, etc. Tower. 

Cf. Scargill-Bird, op. cit., 241-248. 
The Palatinates. 
Chester. 
Recognizance Rolls. 

Alphabetical calendar; R. D. K., xxxvi, app. 2. 
Durham. 



20 ♦ APPENDIX 

Cursitors' Records. 

Alphabetical calendar; R, D. K,, xxxi, app., 112 et seq. 

Lancaster. 

Chancery Rolls, Duchy of Lancaster. 

No. i ; 4 Henry, Duke of Lancaster. 

No. ii; 4- 1 1 Henry, Duke of Lancaster. 

Calendar; R. D. K., xxxii, app. i, 331 et seq. 
List of the Records of the Duchy of Lancaster, Lists 
and Indexes, no, xiv. 

In the case of the palatinate material and of 
the Close, Patent and Originalia rolls, my search 
has been exhaustive; but in the case of the 
Chancery Lists I have examined only the groups 
under Warrants for the Great Seal. 

It will appear that the bulk of the informa- 
tion on the topics included in pt. i, ch. i, is ob- 
tained from the various series of records just 
described, although some supplementary sources 
are also necessary. It is also clear that while 
there are some enrollments having to do with 
exchequer or judicial processes, the greater num- 
ber of the entries as to the statutes of labourers 
in any of these chancery records deal with the 
subjects of ch. i, namely, the form of the com- 
missions, the lists of justices appointed, exemp- 
tions, exonerations, removals, etc. 

When I began my work in London in the 
spring of 1905, the calendars of the Qose and 
Patent Rolls for the years 1349-1359 had not yet 
been published ; although through the courtesy of 
Mr. Scargill-Bird I had the opportunity of seeing 
the proof-sheets of v. viii of the Calendar of 
Patent Rolls. The two volumes issued since then 
cover about half of the decade, but as the printed 
calendars contain some rather serious errors in 
regard to my subject, it is not to be regretted 



DOCUMENTS^ LISTS AND TABLES 21* 

that I was forced to examine the rolls in manu- 
script. It seems advisable merely to point out 
these errors, and to print comparatively few of 
the enrollments, and instead, to supply from these 
' sources certain lists, which it is believed will aid 

in a clear understanding of the course of events, 
lists which would still have to be compiled even 
were the series of calendars complete and en- 
tirely free from mistakes. 

1. Extracts from Chancery enrollments, chiefly Patent Rolls, 

and corresponding documents for the palatinates. 

2. Chronological list of commissions to enforce the statutes of 

labourers issued during the years 1349- 1359. 

3. List of the 671 justices responsible for the enforcement of 

the statutes during the decade. 

4. List of territorial districts for which separate commissions 

for labourers were issued between 1352 and 1359. 

/. Extracts from Chancery enrollments, chiefly Patent Rolls, 
and corresponding documents for the palatinates, 

Rotuli Literarum Patencium, 25 Edw. Ill, pt. i, m. 15 d. ;^ 
De pace conseruanda. 

Rex dilectis et fidelibus suis, Willelmo de Q)mton, comiti 
Huntyngdon', lohanni de Cobham, Ricardo de Wylughby, Ot- 
toni de Grandissono, Henrico Grene, Willelmo de Notton, 
lohanni Bray et Roberto Vyneter, salutem. Sciatis quod as- 
signauimus vos, septem, sex, quinque, quatuor, tres et duos 
vestrimi ad pacem nostram necnon ad statuta apud Wyntoniam 
et Norhamptoniam pro conseruacione pacis eiusdem edita in 
omnibus et singulis suis articulis in comitatu Kancie custo- 
dienda et custodiri facienda, et ad omnes illos quos contra 
formam statutorum predictorum delinquentes inueneritis casti- 
gandos et puniendos prout secundum formam statutorum 
corundem fuerit faciendum, et ad ordinandum, superuidendum 

^Cal.f ix, 85, et seq. 



22* ' APPENDIX 

et faciendum quod omnes et singuli homines in comitatu pre- 
dicto infra libertates et extra iuxta eorum status et facultates 
armis competentibus muniantur, arraientur et parentur, et de 
incedendo et auxiliando vobis et cuilibet vestrum in hiis que 
pacis et statutorum predjctorum conseruacionem concernunt, 
sint compulsi, prout melius fore videbitur expedire. Assigna- 
uimus eciam vos, septem, sex, quinque, quatuor, tres et duos 
vestrum iusticiarios nostros ad inquirendum per sacramentum 
proborum et legalium hominum de comitatu predicto tam infra 
libertates quam extra per quos rei Veritas melius sciri poterit, 
qui vagabundi et alii aggregata sibi ingenti multitudine male- 
factorum et pacis nostre perturbatorum alligaciones, confed- 
eraciones et conuenticula illicita tam infra libertates quam extra 
de die et nocte facientes in comitatu predicto vagantur et dis- 
currunt, passus in boscis et aliis locis publicis et priuatis ob- 
seruantes et hominibus per partes illas transeuntibus insidiantes 
et quosdam de bonis et rebus suis depredantes, et ad ferias, 
mercata et alia loca vi armata accedentes homines verberantes, 
vulnerantes et male tractantes, et quosdam membris mutilantes, 
et quosdam nequiter interficientes, et quosdam capientes et 
penes se quousque fines et redempciones cum eis ad voluntatem 
suam fecerint, detinentes, et alia felonias, transgressioncs et 
maleficia in comitatu predicto perpetrantes, et qui dictos male- 
factores postmodum scienter receptarunt, seu manutenuerunt, 
seu ipsis assensum, consensum, vim aut auxilium ad hoc pre- 
buerunt, et qualiter et quo modo et de omnibus aliis articulis 
et circumstanciis premissa qualitercumque contingentibus ple- 
nius veritatem, et omnes illos quos inde indictari contigerit in- 
sequendos, arestandos et capiendos et in prisonis nostris saluo 
custodiri faciendos donee inde deliberentur secundum legem et 
consuetudinem regni nostri Anglie, ac eciam ad ordinaciones 
de operatoribus, artificibus et seruitoribus per nos et consilium 
nostrum pro communi vtilitate ipsius regni, tam in consilio 
nostro quam in vltimo parliamento nostro apud Westmonas- 
terium tentis, factas quas vobis mittimus sub pede sigilli nostri, 
in omnibus et singulis suis articulis in comitatu predicto infra 



DOCUMENTS, LISTS AND TABLES 23 * 

libertates et extra custodiendas et custodiri faciendas, et omnes 
illos quos contra formam earundem inueneritis in aliquo de- 
linquentes, castigandos et puniendos prout secundum formam 
earundem fuerit faciendum, et ad ordinandum, superuidendum 
et faciendum quod omnes et singuli articuli in dictis ordina- 
cionibus content! in comitatu predict© infra libertates et extra 
debite execucioni demandentur, et ad inquirendum de vice- 
comitibus, senescallis, balliuis, ministris et aliis quibuscumque 
qui colore ordinacionum predictarum huiusmodi operarios, arti- 
fices et seruitores ceperunt et eos per fines et redempciones ad 
vsus suos proprios applicandos auctoritate sua propria, con- 
dicionibus in dictis ordinacionibus contentis non obseruatis, 
deliberarunty et de taxatoribus et coUectoribus decime et quinte- 
decime nobis per laicos concessarum in comitatu predicto et 
eorum subtaxatoribus et subcoUectoribus villarum infra liber- 
tates et extra et deputandis ab eis in comitatu predicto, si ipsi 
omnes artifices, seruitores et operarios singularum villarum 
earundem ad totas illas summas quas vltra id quod anno regni 
nostri Anglie vicesimo vel annis communibus quinque vel sex 
proxime precedentibus pro laboribus, seruiciis et artificiis suis 
perceperunt in alleuiacionem villarum earundem in auxilium 
solucionis summarum ad quas eedem ville seu homines earun- 
dem ad decimam et quintamdecimam iam currentes assessi 
fuerunt, assederint et summas illas ab eis leuauerint iuxta 
tenorem commissionis nostre eisdem taxatoribus et coUectoribus 
inde facte nee ne, ac eciam de hiis qui huiusmodi artifices, 
seruitores et operarios pro laboribus, seruiciis et artificiis suis 
vel pro alio suo dando contra dictas ordinaciones vel aliquo in 
eisdem contento arte vel ingenio fouerunt vel nutrierunt, fouent 
vel nutriunt, in hac parte et ad ea omnia et singula que contra 
formam ordinacionum predictarum fuerint attemptata, tam ad 
sectam nostram et aliorum quorumcumque coram vobis con- 
queri vel prosequi volencium, quam ad transgressiones pre- 
dictas ad sectam nostram, tantum audiendas et terminandas 
secundum legem et consuetudinem regni nostri Anglie ac for- 
mam ordinaciontmi predictarum, et ad processus versus omnes 



24 



APPENDIX 



quos de homicidiis et feloniis huiusmodi contigerit indictari in 
hac parte quousque capiantur, reddantur vel vtlagentur faci- 
endos. Assignauimus eciam vos, septem, sex, quinque, qua- 
tuor, tres et duos vestrum, quorum aliquem vestrum vos prefati 
Ricarde, Henrice et Willelme de Notton vnum esse voliunus 
iusticiarios nostros ad homicidia et felonias predicta audienda 
et terminanda et ad omnia indictamenta feloniam tangencia 
coram vobis prefate comes et sociis vestris nuper iusticiariis 
nostris in hac parte vltimo assignatis facta, ad vos, septem, sex» 
quinque, quatuor, tres et duos vestrum iusticiarios nostros ad 
omnia alia indictamenta coram vobis prefate comes et dictis 
sociis vestris facta feloniam non tangencia ac recorda et pro- 
cessus in hac parte nondum terminata debito fine terminanda 
secundum legem et consuetudinem supradictas. Et ideo vobis 
mandamus quod ad certos dies et loca quos vos septem, sex, 
quinque, quatuor, tres vel duo vestrum ad hoc prouideritis, in- 
dictamenta ac recorda et processus predicta coram vobis venire 
et inquisiciones super premissis ac processus et puniciones 
huiusmodi faciatis et premissa omnia et singula audiatis et ter- 
minetis in forma predicta facturi etc. saluis etc. Mandauimus 
enim vicecomiti nostro comitatus predicti quod ad certos etc. 
quos etc. ei scire faciatis venire faciat coram vobis etc. tot etc. 
tam infra libertates quam extra per quos etc., et inquiri in 
forma supradicta. 

In cuius etc., teste Rege apud Westmonasterium, xv die 
Marcii. 

Per consilium. 

Consimiles commissiones habent subscripti in comitatibus sub- 
scriptis sub eadem data, videlicet : 

Rotuli Literarum Patencium, 30 Edw. Ill, pt. i, m. 17 d.; De 
inquirendo de operariis, artificibus et seruientibus in comitatu 
Derb'. 

Rex dilectis et iidelibus suis, Roberto Fraunceys et Thome 
Adam de Asshebourn, salutem. Sciatis quod assignauimus vos 
ad ordinacionem et statutum de operariis, artificibus et seru- 



/ 



DOCUMENTS, LISTS AND TABLES 25 * 

ientibus in consilio nostro ac parliamento nostro apud West- 
monasterium nuper tentis pro cotnmuni vtilitate regni nostri 
Anglie facta in omnibus et singulis suis articulis in comitatu 
Derb' infra libertates et extra custodienda et custodiri facienda, 
et ad inquirendum de vicecomitibus, senescallis, balliuis, min- 
istris et aliis quibuscumque qui colore ordinacionis et statuti 
predictorum huiusmodi operarios, artifices, et seruientes cepe- 
runt et eos per fines et redempciones ad vsus suos proprios 
applicandos, auctoritate sua propria, condicionibus in dictis 
ordinacione et statuto contends non obseruatis, deliberarunt, et 
ad omnia et singula que contra formam statuti et ordinacionis 
predictorum in comitatu predicto infra libertates et extra fuer- 
int attemptata, tam ad sectam nostram quam aliorum quorum- 
cumque, coram vobis prosequi vel conqueri volencium audienda 
et terminanda iuxta vim et effectum ordinacionis et statuti pre- 
dictorum. Assignauimus eciam vos iusticiarios nostros ad 
omnia indictamenta et processus huiusmodi operarios, artifices 
et seruientes tangencia coram iusticiariis nostris in eodem comi- 
tatu vltimo assignatis in hac parte facta et nondum terminata 
audienda et debito fine terminanda. Et ideo vobis mandamus 
quod circa premissa omnia et singula ad certos dies et loca 
quos vos ad hoc prouideritis intendatis et ea audiatis et termi- 
netis in forma predicta facturi inde quod ad iusticiam pertinet, 
secundum vim et effectum ordinacionis et statuti predictorum, 
saluis nobis amerciamentis et aliis ad nos inde spectantibus. 
Mandauimus enim vicecomiti nostro comitatus predicti quod 
ad certos etc. quos ei scire faciatis venire faciat coram vobis 
tot etc. tam infra libertates quam extra per quos etc. et inquiri. 

In cuius etc., teste Rege apud Westmonasterium, x die Marcii. 

Per consilium. 

Consimiles commissiones habent subscripti in comitatibus et 
villis subscriptis, videlicet : 

Rotuli Literarum Patencium, 31 Edw. Ill, pt. i, m. 20 d.; De 
inquirendo de excessibus operariorum et de abusu mensur- 
arum et ponderum. 

Rex dilectis et fidelibus suis Ricardo, comiti Arundell, An- 



26 * APPENDIX 

dree Peverell, Willelmo Fifhide et Roberto de Halsham, salu- 
tern. Sciatis quod assignauimus vos tres et duos vestrum 
iusticiarios nostros ad ordinaciones et statuta de operariis, arti- 
ficibus et seruientibus in consiliis, ac de ponderibus et mensuris 
in parliamentis nostris apud Westmonasterium nuper tentis pro 
communi vtilitate reg^i nostri Anglie facta in omnibus et sin- 
gulis suis articulis in comitatu Sussex' infra libertates et extra 
custodienda et custodiri facienda, et ad inquirendum de vice- 
comitibus, senescallis, balliuis, ministris et aliis quibuscumque, 
qui colore ordinacionum et statutorum predictorum huiusmodi 
operarios, artifices et seruientes ceperunt, et eos per fines et 
redempciones ad vsus suos proprios applicandos auctoritate sua 
propria, condicionibus in dictis ordinacionibus et statutis con- 
tentis non obseruatis, deliberarunt, et ad omnia et singula que 
contra formam statutorum et ordinacionum predictarum in 
comitatu predicto infra libertates et extra fuerint attemptata, 
tam ad sectam nostram quam aliorum quorumcumque coram 
vobis prosequi vel conqueri volencium audienda et terminanda 
iuxta vim et effectum ordinacionum et statutorum predictorum. 
Assignauimus eciam vos tres et duos vestrum iusticiarios nos- 
tros ad omnia indictamenta et processus huiusmodi operarios, 
artifices et seruientes tangencia coram iusticiariis nostris in 
eodem comitatu vltimo assignatis in hac parte facta et nondum 
terminata audienda et debito fine terminanda, necnon ad in- 
quirendum per sacramentum proborum et legalium hominum 
de comitatu predicto infra libertates et extra per quos rei Veri- 
tas melius sciri poterit de nominibus omnium et singulorum 
qui in abusu mensurarum et ponderum contra formam statu- 
torum inde editorum deliquerint, et ad dictos delinquentes 
castigandos et puniendos iuxta formam statutorum eorundem, 
et ad omnia et singula que contra formam dictorum statutorum 
de premissis attemptata fuerint in eodem comitatu similiter 
audienda et terminanda. Et ideo vobis mandamus quod circa 
premissa omnia et singula ad certos dies et loca quos vos tres 
et duo vestrum ad hoc prouideritis intendatis et ea audiatis et 
terminetis in forma predicta facturi inde quod ad iusticiam 



DOCUMENTS, LISTS AND TABLES 27 * 

pertinet secundum vim et effectum ordinacionum et statutorum 
predictorum, saluis etc. Mandauimus enim vicecomiti nostro 
comitatus predicti quod ad certos etc. quos etc. ei scire faciatis 
venire faciat coram vobis etc. tot etc. tam infra libertates quam 
extra per quos etc. et inquiri, et quascumque commissiones de 
inquirendo de huiusmodi operariis, artificibus et seruientibus 
ac mensuris ^ et ponderibus in comitatu predicto aliis ante hec 
tempora factas tenore presencium duximus reuocandas. 

In cuius etc., teste Rege apud Westmonasterium, quinto die 
Februarii. 

Per ipsum Regem et consilium. 

Consimiles commissiones habent subscripti in comitatibus sub- 
scriptis sub eadem data, videlicet : 

Exactly identical with the form of the above, mutatis mu- 
tandis, is the commission issued on 10 Oct. by the duke of 
Lancaster; De statuto operariorum conseruando necnon de 
statuto mensurarum conseruando. Duchy of Lancaster, Chan- 
cery Rolls of the Palatinate, ii, no. 24 d.* (7th year of the 
duke, 1357)- 

Durham, Cursitors' Records, 30, rot., i, Hatfield, ann. 5, m. 
5 d. ; no. 6.' 

Rotulus Cancellarii domini Thome de Hatfield, episcopi, de 
anno pontificatus sui quinto, quinto, quinto. 

Commissio de operariis iuxta proclamacionem domini Regis. 

Thomas Dei gracia episcopus Dunelmiensis, dilectis et fideli- 
bus suis Thome * Gray, Willelmo de Mordon, vicecomiti suo 

*MS. mesuris. 'i?. D, K,, xxxii, app., i. 

'The heading proves the nature of this enrollment and seems to have 
escaped the notice of Mr. Pike and Mr. Lapsley; for they both describe 
the document as a special commission for the better execution of justice 
within the county palatine, issued by the bishop in accordance with the 
king's commands. C/. R, D, K,, xxxi, app., 134, CaL Curs, Records , 
and The County Palatine of Durham, 178. 

* MS. Thomas. 



28 ♦ APPENDIX 

Dunelm', Willelmo de Wessyngton et lohanni de MeneuilU 
salutem. Cum dominus Rex racione superioris dominii sui 
breue suum quam plurimos continens articulos nobis nuper 
mandauerit supplicando vt congruum remedium tarn maioribus 
quam minoribus infra nostram regiam libertatem, veluti in 
regno suo vbique extra eandem libertatem exhibetur super arti- 
culis predictis adhibere velimus, Nos dicti domini Regis man- 
dato prout decet obedire et omnibus et singulis tam maioribus 
quam minoribus infra nostram regiam libertatem predictam 
fieri volentes quod est iustum, assignauimus vos quatuor, tres 
et duos vestrum iusticiarios nostros in warda de Cestria iuxta 
discreciones vestras super articulis vniuersis in predicto breui 
regio contentis plenius veritatem inquirendam ^ et ad eosdem 
articulos in warda predicta audiendos et terminandos. Et ideo 
vobis mandamus quod ad certos dies et loca quos vos quatuor, 
tres et duo vestrum ad hoc prouideritis, omnibus aliis preter- 
missis, super articulis vniuersis in predicto breui regio contentis 
per sacramentum proborum et legalium hominum warde pre- 
dicte diligenter inquiratis, et eisdem articulis audiatis et fine 
debito terminetis facturi inde quod ad iusticiam pertinet secun- 
dum legem et consuetudinem regni Anglie et nostre regie liber- 
tatis. Saluis nobis amerciamentis et aliis ad nos inde spectan- 
tibus. Damns autem vobis quatuor, tribus et duobus vestrum 
potestatem arrestandi, attachiandi et prisone nostre commit- 
tendi omnes et singulos qui coram vobis quatuor, tribus et 
duobus vestrum super articulis predictis in predicto breui regio 
contentis seu aliquo eorundem conuicti fuerint ibidem mora- 
turos quousque aliter de eis duxerimus ordinandum, libertate 
ecclesiastica in omnibus semper salua. Mandauimus enim vice- 
comiti nostro Dunelm' quod ad certos dies et loca quos vos 
quatuor, tres et duo vestrum ei scire faciatis coram vobis qua- 
tuor, tribus et duobus vestrum predictum breue regium seu 
eiusdem copiam recitari faciat, et de eisdem articulis coram 
vobis, quatuor, tribus et duobus vestrum seu de aliquo eorun- 

*Thc clerk has omitted the ** ad " before the gerundive, a rather fre- 
quent usage. 



DOCUMENTS, LISTS AND TABLES 29 * 

dem conuictos quodque per vos quatuor, tres vel duos vestrtim 
arrestatos et attachiatos a vobis quatuor, tribus vel duobus 
vestrum recipiat et in prisona nostra saluo custodiri faciat 
donee aliter duxerimus ordinandum. 

In cuius rei testimonium, has literas nostras fieri fecimus 
patentes. 

Date Dunelm' per manum Willelmi de Westle decani Auke- 
land' cancellarii nostri, xv die lunii anno pontificatus nostri 
quinto. 

Consimiles commissiones habent predicti Thomas et Willelmus 
vna cum aliis sibi associatis in wardis de Derlyngton, Stok- 
ton, et Esyngton, et in wapentachio Sadberg', in forma 
suprascripta, etc. 

Duchy of Lancaster; Chancery Rolls of the Palatinate; ii, no. 
10. De iusticiariis assignandis super statutum servientium. 

Dux dilectis et fidelibus lohanni Cokayn, Rogero de Faryng- 
ton, lohanni de Haueryngton, Ricardo de Radeclif, Willelmo 
de Radeclif, Roberto de Syngleton et Roberto de Prestecote, 
salutem. Cum per excellentissimum principem dominum nos- 
trum, dominum Edwardum, Regem Anglie, ac prelatos, duces, 
comites, barones et alios magnates ad parliamentum ipsius 
Regis nuper apud Westmonasterium conuocatos concessum 
fuisset communitati regni Anglie in auxilium decime et quinte- 
decime, quas eadem communitas dicto Regi, pro guerre sue 
Francie expedicione et regni predicti defensione pro tribus 
annis tunc proxime futuris concesserunt, fines, exitus, redemp- 
ciones, amerciamenta et omnia alia proficua que fuerunt seu 
essent leuata aut recepta de operariis, artificibus, hostelariis et 
omnibus aliis seruientibus, prout in statuto inde ad parliamen- 
tum dicti Regis in octabis Purificacionis beate Marie anno 
eiusdem Regis vicesimo quinto tentum edito, continetur, a festo 
Pasche tunc vltime preterito vsque ad vltimum terminum solu- 
cionis decime et quintedecime predictarum. Necnon concessum 
fuit cidem communitati quod si aliquod de dictis finibus, exi- 
tibus, redempcionibus, amerciamentis et proficuis predictis are- 



30* 



APPENDIX 



tro esset a confeccione eiusdem statu ti quod hominibus villarum 
et hamelettorum dicte communitatis in auxilium decime et 
quintedecime ante hec tempora currencium soluisse debuisset, 
seu de summis de quibus eidem Regi non fuit responsum, tunc 
eadem communitas haberet id quod sic aretro esset in auxilium 
decime et quintedecime ad dictum vltimum parliamentum con- 
cessarum; ita semper quod dictis decima et quintadecima ces- 
santibus, huiusmodi fines, exitus, redempciones, amerciamenta 
et omnia alia proficua que extunc de huiusmodi operariis, arti- 
ficibus et aliis seruientibus quibuscumque essent leuanda ad 
opus ipsius Regis leuarentur. Et quia vltimus terminus solu- 
cionis decime et quintedecime predictarum ad festiun Sancti 
Michaelis Archangeli proxime preteritum extitit pro certo, per 
quod huiusmodi fines, exitus, redempciones et amerciamenta 
ad nos et non ad alium iuxta libertates nobis per ipsum domi- 
num nostrum Regem ante hec tempora concessas infra duca- 
ttun predictum a dicto festo Sancti Michaelis sic proxime 
preterito vsque nunc et exnunc de iure pertinere debeant. As- 
signauimus vos, sex, quinque, quatuor, tres et duos vestrum 
iusticiarios nostros ad dictum statutum de seruientibus infra 
ducatum predictum custodiendum et custodiri faciendum, et ad 
inquirendum de operariis et aliis seruientibus quibuscumque et 
eorum factis tam a dicto festo Sancti Michaelis proxime pre- 
terito quam de tempore futuro secundum tenorem statuti, con- 
cessionis et ordinacionis predictorum, et ad audiendum et ter- 
minandum omnia quecumque facta fuerint contra statutum, 
concessionem et ordinacionem supradicta, tam ad sectam nos- 
tram quam aliorum conqueri volencium infra libertates et 
extra, et ad omnes illos quos contra formam eorundem inuen- 
eritis in aliquo delinquentes castigandos et puniendos secun- 
dum formam eorundem et legem et consuetudinem regni An- 
glic. Et ideo vobis mandamus quod ad certos dies et loca 
quos vos, sex, quinque, quatuor, tres vel duo vestrum ad hoc 
prouideritis, inquisiciones ac puniciones super premissis faciatis 
et premissa omnia et singula audiatis et terminetis in forma 
predicta prout ad iusticiam pertinet. Mandauimus enim vice- 



DOCUMENTS, LISTS AND TABLES 31 * 

cotniti nostro ducatus predict! quod ad certos dies et loca quos 
vos, sex, quinque, quatuor, tres vel duo vestrum ei scire facialis, 
venire faciat coram vobis sex, quinque, quatuor, tribus vel duo- 
bus vestrum tot et tales probos et legales homines de balliua 
sua tam infra libertates quam extra per quos rei Veritas super 
premissis melius sciri poterit et inquiri. 

In cuius etc., teste Henrico de Walton archidiacono Riche- 
mund' locum Ducis tenente in ducatu predicto apud Preston, 
primo die Augusti. Et mandattun est vicecomiti Lane' quod 
eisdem lohanni, Rogero, Ricardo, Roberto et Roberto in pre- 
missis faciendis intendens sit et respondens, sub eadem data. 
(Sth year of the duke, 1355.)^ 

Writs of Privy Seal, Chancery, Series I ; File 369, no. 23335. 

Edward par la grace de Dieu Roi Dengleterre et de France 
et Seignur Dirlande a lonurable piere en Dieu leuesque de 
Wyncestre nostre chanceller saluz. Porce que tout plein des 
mals et errours sont auenuz par cause des especiales commis- 
sions que ont este faites piecea en diuerses franchises et villes 
pur enquere des exces des laborers si auons ordene et volons 
qe desore toutes tieles commissions especiales grantees en qe- 
cunqes franchises et villes de nostre roialme soient repellees et 
qe certeines gentz bones et loialx soient assignez generalment 
parmy touz les countez du dit roialme, les queux et nuls autres 
facent les sessions des ditz laborers, si vous mandons qe repel- 
lees les dites especiales commissions come dessus est dit, facent 
assigner suffisantes gentz pur meismes les sessions parmy les 
countez dessusditz. 

Done souz notre priue seal a Westmonster le viii jour de 
feuerer, Ian de nostre regne dengleterre trente primer et de 
France disoytisme.* 

Rotuli Literarum Qausarum, 33 Edw. Ill, m. 10 d; 

'*^R, D, K,y xxxii, app., i; the reference to the ending of the subsidy- 
seems to me to prove the date conclusively. 

'C/. the final clause of the commission, app., 2T. 



32 * APPENDIX 

De supersedendo execucioni commissionis iusticiariorum ad 
statutum de operariis factum faciende. 

Rex dilectis et fidelibus suis lohanni de Lyouns et sociis suis 
iusticiariis ad ordinacionem et statutum de operariis, seruien- 
tibus et artificibus ac de ponderibus et mensuris in comitatu 
Norht' custodienda, salutem. Quibusdam certis de causis nos 
mouentibus, vobis mandamus quod execucioni commissionis 
nostre vobis in hac parte facte vlterius faciende supersedeatis 
quousque aliud a nobis inde habueritis in mandatis. 

Teste Thoma filio nostro carissimo custode Anglie apud 
Wodestok, quarto die Nouembris, 

Per ipsum custodem et consilium. 

Consimilia breuia diriguntur singulis iusticiariis ad statutmn 
predictum in singulis comitatibus per Angliam custodiendtun 
assignatis quod execucioni commissionis Regis eis inde facte 
supersedeant in forma predicta. 
Teste vt supra. 

2, Chronological list of commissions to ^enforce the statutes of 
labourers issued during the years 134P-135P and enrolled 
among the letters patent. 

In cases where commissions are duplicated almost abso- 
lutely, both as to date and names (evidently by a clerical 
error), the second has been omitted from the lists and merely 
indicated in a note; but although there are usually several 
districts (in one instance, nineteen) that receive two or three 
commissions annually, these repeated districts are counted over 
again. Divisions of counties, e. g. Holland, etc, are counted 
as counties; the palatinates are omitted, removals are not re- 
ferred to, and vacated commissions only in the notes; asso- 
ciations are given merely as totals for each regnal year. 

For the first and second periods the marginal headings on 
the Patent Rolls are misleading; they contain no reference to 
the labour legislation, but are : " De custodia pacis," or " De 
pace conseruanda," or "De audiendo et terminando felonias," 
etc, Cf. my article in E. H. R., 522, for the exact phraseology. 



DOCUMENTS, LISTS AND TABLES 33 ♦ 

For the third period, 1352- 1359, * * shows that a commis- 
sion of the peace was appointed on the same date for the same 
district; * shows that a commission of the peace was ap- 
pointed for the same district during the same regnal year ; the 
result of this comparison appears in the table in pt. i, ch. i, s. 2. 
The references to the Patent Rolls for the separate commis- 
sions for labourers are usually under the headings : " De in- 
quirendo de operariis," or "De inquirendo de excessibus oper- 
ariorum" (the lists are duplicated in the Originalia almost 
without variation). Three of these commissions are referred 
to in Cal. Rot. Pat., Rec. Comm., 167 a and b, 170 a; six of 
them are noted in Rot. Orig. Abbreviation Rec. Comm., ii, 233, 
238, 242, 246, 249 and 255. 

The references for the separate commissions of the peace 
are as follows, under the headings " De pace conseruanda," 
or "De custodia pads" (duplicated in Originalia) : 26, pt. 3, 
m. 4 d {Cal, ix, 394) ; 27, pt. i, m. 25 d {Cal, ix, 449-450), 
pt. 2, m. 26 d {Col., ix, 508) ; 28, pt. i, m. 21 d, pt. 2, m. 14 d; 
29, pt. I, m. 29 d; 30, pt. I, ms. 20, 19 and 16 d; 31, pt. i, 
ms. 17 and 11 d; 32, pt. i, m. 31 d; 33, pt. i, m. 18 d, pt. 2, 
m. 12 d, pt. 3, m. 4 d (Rymer, iii, pt. i, 463-464). 

Period i. Separate commissions for labourers, except when 

indicated. 
^3> P*- 3> m. 8 d. 6 Dec. University and city of Ox- 
ford.^ 

(Joint commissions of the peace and for labourers.) 

24, pt. I, m. 23 d.* 20 Feb. Bedford, Bucks., Camb., 

Holland and Kesteven 
(Line), Hunts., Leices- 
ter, Norfolk. 

* Col., viii, 458; assigned by an error to m. 9 d. A commission to 
the mayor and sheriffs of London, 8 Dec. of the same year, is enrolled 
in Letter Book F; Ca/., 199. 

' Bucks, is griven twice; there is also an unfinished commission with 
no county noted. In Cal., viii, 526, the summary of the form of this 
commission fails to include the clause in regard to the ordinance of 
labourers; moreover Dorset is printed for Bedford. 



34* APPENDIX 

24, pt. 3, m. 13 d.^ 20 Oct. Lancaster. 
24, pt. 3, m. 10 d.* 12 Nov. Lindsey (Line). 

18 Nov. Suffolk. 

Period ii. Joint commissions of the peace and for labourers. 

25 Edw. in. 

pt. I, ms. 15 and 14. 15 March.* Bedford, Berks., Bucks.,. 
Camb., Cumberland, Derby, Devon, Dorset, Elssex^ 
Gloucester, Hereford, Herts., Hunts., Kent, Leicester,. 
Holland, Kesteven and Lindsey (Line), Midd., Nor- 
folk, Northants., Northumberland, Notts., Oxford, Rut- 
land, Shropshire, Somerset, Southampton, Stafford,* 
Suffolk, Surrey, Sussex, Warwick, Westmoreland, 
Wilts., Worcester, E. R., N. R. and W. R.» (York),, 
town of Stamford, 
pt. I, m. 19 d, 27 March. City of Lincoln.* 
pt. 3, m. 19 d. 3 Nov. City of York.^ 

27 associations; pt. i, m. 13 d.* 

26 Edw. HI. 

pt. I, m. 28 d.* 8 Feb. Newcastle-on-Tyne. 
m. 15 A}^ IS Feb. Kingston-on-HuU. 
m. 21 d.^^ 20 Feb. Scarborough, Lib. of Hol- 

demess. 

^CaL, ix, 26. 

^Hfid,, 27^-26; printed in full, although with slight mistakes, by 
Rymer, iii, pt. i, 210-21 1. 

*Cal., ix, 85-91; cf, app., B, i, for form of the commission. 

^Repeated on 6 Dec. with almost the same names. 

* Repeated on 20 May with almost the same names but a slightly dif* 
ferent form of commission. 

* CaL, ix, 83; the summary fails to include the clause as to thestatutes^ 
of labourers. 

^ Ibid., 201, ^IHd.ygi~q2. 

•Ibid., 274-275. "TWrf., 281. "TWi/., 278. 



Bucks. 

* Berks., * Oxford. 

* * Carlisle. 



DOCUMENTS, LISTS AND TABLES 35 ♦ 

pt. I, m. 9 d.^ 20 April. Warwick, Worcester. 

15 May. Shropshire, 

pt. 2, m. 20 d.* 25 June. Beverley, 

pt. I, m. 9 d.* 2 July, Worcester. 

15 July. Cornwall. 

5 associations: 26, pt. i, m. 8 d.* 

Period iii. Separate commissions for labourers. 

26 Edw. III. 

pt. 3, m. 7 d." 17 Dec. 

m. 4 d.* I Jan. 

m. I d.' I Jan. 

3 counties, i town. 

:^ Edw. III. 

pt. I, m. 24 d,* 12 Feb. * Worcester, * * Kingston- 

on-Hull, * * Stamford. 
4 May. * Kesteven (Line). 
27 May. Wilts. 
3 June. * * Essex. 
20 June. * * Retford-in-the-Qay. 
3 July. * W. R. (York). 

* * Devon. 

* * Gloucester, * ♦ Worces- 
ter." 

25 Aug. * ♦ Beverley. 

26 Oct. ♦ Lindsey (Line), West- 
moreland. 

3 Nov. * * Camb. 
8 Nov. Essex. 



pt. 2, m. 25 d.* 



20 July. 
3 Aug. 



' Cal,, ix, 2847-265; the summary fails to include the cUrnse as to the 
statutes of labourers. 
^Ibid., 332. ^IHd., 284-295. 

*/W/., 285. ^IHd., 303. •Ibid., 394. 

^Ilnd., 395. •Ibid., 4$!. •Ibid., 508-509- 

** Essex also, but vacated. 



36 ♦ APPENDIX 

22 Nov. Bedford, Norfolk. 

26 Nov. * Northants. 

I Dec * * Hunts. 

15 Jan. * * Grimsby. 

20 Jan. Holland ( Line ) . 

9 associations: 2 on 25, pt. i, m. 13 d; i on 26, pt i, m. 
8 d; 2 on 27, pt. i, m. 23 d; 4 on 27, pt. 2, m. 25 d.^ 

17 counties, 5 towns; Worcester and Essex twice. 



28 Edw. in. 






pt. I, m. 22 d. 


10 Feb. 


Wap. of Claro, Ewcros, Sky- 


and 




rack, and Staincliffe, 


pt 2, m. 13 d. 




(York), * Ub. of Kich- 
mond. 




18 Feb. 


* ♦ Leicester. 




28 Feb. 


* ♦ Coventry. 




20 March. 


Town & Lib. of Ripon. 




26 April. 


Northants. 




8 May. 


Holland, Lindsey and * Kes- 
teven (Line), * Somerset. 




14 May. 


Suffolk. 




18 May. 


* * Warwick, * * Worcester. 




20 June. 


Shropshire, * Surrey, * * 
Sussex, Lib. of abbot of 


^. ••..•« , * 




Peterborough. 


• 


26 June. 


* Norfolk. 




28 June. 


* * Coventry. 




I July. 


Worcester. 




2 July. 


Bucks., * * Derby, Essex, 
* * Leicester, * * Holland 
(Line), * * Notts., * * 
Oxford, ♦ * Rutland, * * 
Southampton, * ♦ Wilts., 



* Col., ix, g2, a8s, 4Sa, S09. 



DOCUMENTS, USTS AND TABLES ^y ♦ 

* * Wap.* of HcrthiU and 
Hovedenshire, * * Wap. of 
Dickering, Sucrose, Ouse 
and Dcrwent (York, E. 
R.), * * Wap. of Allerton, 
Birdforth and Richmond, 

* * Wap. of Bulmer and 
Rydale, * * Wap. of Qeve- 
land and Pickering (York, 
N. R.), * * Wap. of Ain- 
sty, Barkston and Clare 
(York, W. R.), * Lib. of 
Holdemess. 

3 July. * Lindsey (Line.).* 
26 Sept. ♦ * Kent.' 

3 Oct. * * Scarborough. 
20 Oct. * * Leicester. 

8 Nov. Lib. of dean and chapter of 

St. Peter of York. 
26 Nov. * * Northants. 
16 Dec. ♦ ♦ Cornwall. 
20 Jan. * ♦ Bedford, ♦ Dorset, * * 

town of Huntingdon. 

10 associations: 7 on pt. i, m. 22 d; 2 on pt. 2, m. 13 d, 
and I on pt. 3, m. 15 d. 

31 counties, 4 towns, 5 liberties, 7 groups of wapentakes. 
Leicester and Northants. three times; Holland and 
Lindsey (Line), Worcester and Coventry twice. 

29 Edw. in. 

pt I, m. 28 d. 26 Jan. * * Notts. 

^ I have counted the following six groups of wapentakes as correspond- 
ing to the peace commission of the same date for Yorkshire. 

'On 25 July there was also a commission for Northants., but it was 
vacated. 

* Repeated with almost the same names. 



30* 



APPENDIX 



tro esset a confeccione eiusdem statu ti quod hominibus villarum 
et hamelettorum dicte communitatis in auxilium decime et 
quintedecime ante hec tempora currencium soluisse debuisset, 
seu de summis de quibus eidem Regi non fuit responsum, tunc 
eadem communitas haberet id quod sic aretro esset in auxilium 
decime et quintedecime ad dictum vltimum parliamentum con- 
cessarum; ita semper quod dictis decima et quintadecima ces- 
santibus, huiusmodi fines, exitus, redempciones, amerciamenta 
et omnia alia proficua que extunc de huiusmodi operariis, arti- 
ficibus et aliis seruientibus quibuscumque essent leuanda ad 
opus ipsius Regis leuarentur. Et quia vltimus terminus solu- 
cionis decime et quintedecime predictarum ad festum Sancti 
Michaelis Archangeli proxime preteritum extitit pro certo, per 
quod huiusmodi fines, exitus, redempciones et amerciamenta 
ad nos et non ad alium iuxta libertates nobis per ipsum domi- 
num nostrum Regem ante hec tempora concessas infra duca- 
tum predictum a dicto festo Sancti Michaelis sic proxime 
preterito vsque nunc et exnunc de iure pertinere debeant. As- 
signauimus vos, sex, quinque, quatuor, tres et duos vestrum 
iusticiarios nostros ad dictum statutum de seruientibus infra 
ducatum predictum custodiendum et custodiri faciendum, et ad 
inquirendum de operariis et aliis seruientibus quibuscumque et 
eorum factis tam a dicto festo Sancti Michaelis proxime pre- 
terito quam de tempore futuro secundum tenorem statuti, con- 
cessionis et ordinacionis predictorum, et ad audiendum et ter- 
minandum omnia quecumque facta fuerint contra statutum, 
concessionem et ordinacionem supradicta, tam ad sectam nos- 
tram quam aliorum conqueri volencium infra libertates et 
extra, et ad omnes illos quos contra formam eorundem inuen- 
eritis in aliquo delinquentes castigandos et puniendos secun- 
dum formam eorundem et legem et consuetudinem regni An- 
glie. Et ideo vobis mandamus quod ad certos dies et loca 
quos vos, sex, quinque, quatuor, tres vel duo vestrum ad hoc 
prouideritis, inquisiciones ac puniciones super premissis faciatis 
et premissa omnia et singula audiatis et terminetis in forma 
predicta prout ad iusticiam pertinet. Mandauimus enim vice- 



DOCUMENTS, LISTS AND TABLES 31 * 

comiti nostro ducatus predict! quod ad certos dies et loca quos 
vos, sex, quinque, quatuor, tres vel duo vestrum ei scire faciatis, 
venire faciat coram vobis sex, quinque, quatuor, tribus vel duo- 
bus vestrum tot et tales probos et legales homines de balliua 
sua tarn infra libertates quam extra per quos rei Veritas super 
premissis melius sciri poterit et inquiri. 

In cuius etc., teste Henrico de Walton archidiacono Riche- 
mund' locum Ducis tenente in ducatu predicto apud Preston, 
primo die Augusti. Et mandatum est vicecomiti Lane' quod 
eisdem lohanni, Rogero, Ricardo, Roberto et Roberto in pre- 
missis faciendis intendens sit et respondens, sub eadem data. 
(Sth year of the duke, 1355.)^ 

Writs of Privy Seal, Chancery, Series I; File 369, no. 23335. 

Edward par la grace de Dieu Roi Dengleterre et de France 
et Seignur Dirlande a lonurable piere en Dieu leuesque de 
Wyncestre nostre chanceller saluz. Porce que tout plein des 
mals et errours sont auenuz par cause des especiales commis- 
sions que ont este faites piecea en diuerses franchises et villes 
pur enquere des exces des laborers si auons ordene et volons 
qe desore toutes tides commissions especiales grantees en qe- 
cunqes franchises et villes de nostre roialme soient repellees et 
qe certeines gentz bones et loialx soient assignez generalment 
parmy touz les countez du dit roialme, les queux et nuls autres 
facent les sessions des ditz laborers, si vous mandons qe repel- 
lees les dites especiales commissions come dessus est dit, facent 
assigner suffisantes gentz pur meismes les sessions parmy les 
countez dessusditz. 

Done souz notre priue seal a Westmonster le viii jour de 
feuerer, Ian de nostre regne dengleterre trente primer et de 
France disoytisme.* 

Rotuli Literarum Clausarum, 33 Edw. Ill, m. 10 d; 

^R. D, K,, xxxii, app., i; the reference to the ending of the subsidy 
seems to me to prove the date conclusively. 

'C/. the final clause of the commission, app., 27. 



38 



♦ 


APPENDIX 




14 Feb. 


Scarborough. 




I March. 


Lib. of Holdemess. 




21 March. 


Herts. 




26 April. 


Northants. 




15 May. 


Wap. of Ainsty, Barkston and 
Claro (York, W. R.). 




16 May. 


* Stafford. 




20 June. 


* * Town of Huntingdon, 
Lib. of abbot of St. Mary 
of York. 




4 July. 


Scarborough. 




12 July. 


* * Rutland. 




20 July. 


* * Lynn. 


pt. 2| m. 8 d. 


I Aug. 


Leicester, Northants., Notts., 
Oxford, Warwick (except 
Coventry). 




28 Aug. 


Essex. 




I Oct. 


Midd. 




2 Oct. 


Hereford. 




16 Oct. 


Boston. 




20 Oct. 


* Bedford, * Kent. 




2 Nov. 


* Stafford. 




30 Nov. 


Cumberland, Herts., * Nor- 
folk (except Lynn). 




I Dec. 


Lindsey (Line). 




3 Dec. 


Worcester. 




10 Dec. 


* * Cornwall. 




20 Dec* 


Bedford (n. d.), Berks, (n. 


• 




d.), Bucks, (n. d.), Camb., 
Cumberland, Cornwall, Der- 
by, Devon, Dorset, Essex, 
* Gloucester, * Hereford, 
Herts., Kent (n. d.), * Hoi- 



^The counties marked "n. d." are undated but follow immediately 
after those those of 20 Dec, and in the Originalia duplicates are all 
thus dated. 



DOCUMENTS, LISTS AND TABLES 39 ♦ 

land, Kesteven, Lindsey 
(Line), Midd., Norfolk 
(except Lynn), * North- 
ants., Notts., Oxford (n. 
d.), Rutland, Shropshire, * 
Somerset, Southampton (n. 
d.), Stafford, * Suffolk, 
Surrey, Warwick, * West- 
moreland, Wilts, (n. d.), 
Worcester, E. R., N. R., 
W. R. (York).i 

pt. 3, m. 4 d. 12 Jan. Lib. of abbot of Reading. 

pt. 2, m. 8 d. 17 Jan. Westmoreland. 

7 associations. 

59 counties, S towns, 3 liberties, i group of wapentakes, 
Herts., Northants., Notts, and Stafford three times. 
Bedf., Cornwall, Cumberland, Essex, Hereford, Kent, 

Lindsey, Midd., Norfolk, Oxford, Rutland, Warwick. 

Westmoreland, Worcester, Scarborough, twice. 

30 Edw. III. 

pt. I, m. 17 d. ID March. * * Derby. 

12 March. Sussex. 
15 March. Boston. 

20 March. Manors, etc., of Cheshunt and 

Bassingbourn of earl of 
Richmond, borough of Wy- 
combe. 
26 March. * * Northants., Honours of 

Wallingford, etc., and hun- 
dreds, towns, etc., in vari- 
ous counties, of duke of 
Cornwall. 
I April. * Worcester. 

^ Northumberland but not acted upon. 



40 



♦ 




APPENDIX 




• 


6 April. 


City of Lincoln. 






IS April. 


* Notts. 






28 April. 


Lib. of Ripon of archbishop of 
York. 






I May. 


T.ih. of Leominster of abbot of 
Reading. 






8 May. 


Lib. of prior of Bustlesham. 






20 May. 


Prince of Wales' manor of 
Kirton. 






25 May. 


Town of Nottingham. 






27 May. 


* Newark. 






28 May. 


* * Shrewsbury. 






30 May. 


Southwell. 






8 June. 


Lib. of King's free chapel of 
Windsor. 






8 July. 


Manors, etc., of duke of T-an- 
caster in Lincolnshire. 


pt. 3, m. 


17 d. 


10 July. 


Lib. of Queen Isabel in towns 
of Cambridge and Chester- 
ton. 


pt. I, m. 


17 d. 


12 July. 


* Derby, N. R. (York). 






15 July. 


Southwell. 






20 July. 


Lib. of Hospital of St. Leon- 
ard of York. 






26 July. 


Queen Philippa's Lib. of 
Knaresborough. 






1 1 Sept. 


Manors, etc., of church of St» 
Paul in various counties. 






16 Sept. 


Lib. of archbishop of Canter- 
bury in Kent. 






18 Sept. 


* Shrewsbury. 






12 Oct. 


Bishop of Durham's Lib. of 
Howden. 






16 Oct. 


* * Southampton, Lib. of duke 
of Lancaster in W. R. 


' 






(York). 






20 Oct. 


* Somerset. 



DOCUMENTS, LISTS AND TABLES 41 ♦ 

27 Oct. Lib. of St. Mary's church of 

Lincohi. 
pt. 3, m. 22 d. 28 Oct. Lib. of duke of Lancaster in 

various counties, 
pt. 3, m. 17 d. 30 Oct. Lib. of Pickering and wap. 

of Rydale (York, N. R), 
. Scarborough. 
8 Nov. Warwick. 

15 Nov. Prince of Wales' manor of 

Kirton. 

16 Nov. * * Town of Leicester. 
20 Nov. City of Exeter. 

1 1 Dec. * Derby. 

21 associations. 

II counties, 12 towns, i8 liberties, i group of wapentakes. 

Derby three times; Shrewsbury and Southwell twice. 

31 Edw. IIL 

pt. I, m. 20 d. 5 Feb. Bedford, Berks., Bucks., 

Camb., Cumberland, Derby, 
* Devon, Dorset, Essex, 
Gloucester, * Hereford, 
Herts., Hunts., Isle of 
Wight, * Kent, Leicester, 
Holland, Kesteven and 
Lindsey (Line), Midd., * 
Norfolk, Northants., North- 
umberland, * Notts.,* Ox- 
ford, Rutland, Shropshire, * 
Somerset, * Southampton, 
Stafford, Suffolk, Surrey, 
Sussex, Warwick, West- 
moreland, Wilts., Worces- 
ter, E. R., N. R. and W. R. 
(York). 

^ Repeated with slight variations in the names. 



I 



42 



APPENDIX 



pt. I, m. 19 d. 


12 March. 


Town of Oxford. 


pt. I, m. 20 d. 


I Aug. 


London. 




26 Nov. 


N. R. (York). 


5 associations; 


pt. I, m. 20 


d. 


41 counties, 2 towns. 




N. R. (York), 


twice. 




32 Edw. III. 






pt. I, m. 34 d. 


26 Jan. 


* Somerset. 




16 Feb. 


* Leicester. 




20 Feb. 


* Cornwall. 


• 


16 May. 


Herts. 




18 June. 


W. R. (York).. 




14 July. 


Lib. of bishop of Ely. 




16 July. 


W. R. (York). 




20 Oct. 


Lib. of Cinque Ports.* 




20 Nov. 


E. R. (York). 




28 Nov. 


* Northants. 




. I Dec. 


Town of Oxford. 




IS Dec. 


* Worcester. 



10 associations. 

9 counties, 2 towns, i liberty. 

W. R. (York), twice. 



33 Edw. in. 

pt. I, m. 27 d. 



6 March. 
26 March. 

4 May. 
18 May. 
28 May. 

4 Aug. 
10 Aug. 
12 Sept. 

6 Oct. 



* 
* 



Essex. 

Holland (Line). 

Bucks. 

Dorset. 

Oxford, * W. R. (York) 

Berks. 

Herts. 

N. R. (York). 



Town of Oxford. 



pt. 3, m. 21 d. 

9 counties, i town. 

5 associations; pt. i, m. 27 d. 

99 associations for the decade. 

^ Included under towns but counted as one. 



DOCUMENTS, LISTS AND TABLES 43 * 

J. List of the 671 justices responsible for the enforcement of 
the statutes during the decade. 

The difference in number between 671 and 664 as given in 
my article in E. H, /?., 527, is due to the addition to the list 
of the names from two cancelled commissions and also of a 
name from a source other than the Patent Rolls, and to the 
decision in two instances that the same name belonged to 
more than one man. The total number is really somewhat 
greater than even this present list: the mayor of Oxford and 
also the mayor and sheriffs of London had on several occa- 
sions received commissions, although these officials are not in- 
cluded here. Further, the lists for the first uncertain period 
are by no means complete ; e, g. Mauny and Thorpe both had 
colleagues whose names I have not yet discovered. 

Unless otherwise specified, the manuscript references are to 
the Patent Rolls, the first number in each case meaning the 
regnal year. The list of justices whose names are derived 
from other sources are given in pt. i, ch. i, s. 2. In some 
cases the date of an appointment is not recorded on the Patent 
Rolls but is supplied from the Originalia duplicate enrollment. 

The names given are of justices appointed on a separate 
commission for labourers, except when the name is preceded 
by the letters L. and P. ; these show that the appointment was 
for a joint commission of the peace and for labourers. \ shows 
that a justice of labourers was during the years 1352-1359 ap- 
pointed on a separate commission of the peace; f shows that 
at some time during his career a given justice of labourers 
served as judge in one of the upper courts. Removals and 
associations are indicated. A bracket around "de" or "le," 
etc, indicates that the word sometimes, but not invariably, 
occurs with the name. 



44 * APPENDIX 

% Adam, Thomas, of Assheboum 
Derby 
L. & P. 25 pt. I, m 14 d; 15 March. 

30 pt. I, m 17 d; 10 March; ibid.y 12 July. 
{ibid,, 8 Aug. "dominus Rex ... a commis- 
sione ilia duxit amouendum." H. de la Pole 
assoc. in his place.) 
% Alanby, Thomas de 
Carlisle 

26 pt. 3, m I d ; I Jan. 
% Albert, Alberd, Richard 

Hunts, (except the town of Huntingdon) 

29 pt. 2, m 8 d; 15 Oct. (assoc.) 
Hunts. 

31 pt. I, m 20 d; 5 Feb. 
Aldestowe. See Oldestowe. 
Aleyn, John, of Wonford 
Exeter 

30 pt. 3, m 17 d ; 20 Nov. 

Alkebarowe, Alkebarwe, John de, clerk (parson of the church 
of Sibseye) 
Lindsey (Line) 

27 pt. 2, m 25 d; 12 Jan. (assoc.). 

28 pt. I, m 22 d; 8 May; ibid.y 3 July. 
Manors, etc., of duke of Lancaster in Lincolnshire 

30 pt. I, m 17 d ; 8 July. 
% Allerstan, John de 

Lib. of Pickering and wap. of Rydale, N. R. 
30 pt. 3, m 17 d ; 30 Oct. 
% Alveton, John de 
Oxford 

L. & P. 25 pt. I, m 14 d; 15 March 
Honours, towns, etc., of the Duchy of Cornwall in vari- 
ous counties. 
30 pt. I, m 17 d; 26 March. 
Angus, Earl of. See Umframvill. 



DOCUMENTS, LISTS AND TABLES 4c * 

Apcthorp, William de 
Stamford 
L. & P. 25 pt. I, m 14 d; 15 March. 

Apoldrefeld, William de 

Lib. of archbishop of Canterbury in Kent 
30 pt. I, m 17 d; 16 Sept. 

Ardale, Adam de 
Essex 
L. & P. 26 pt. I, m 8 d; 16 May (assoc.). 

% Arserugge, Assherugge, Thomas de 
Kent 
28 pt. 2, m 13 d; 26 Sept. (repeated). 

% Artureth, William de 
Carlisle 
26 pt. 3, m I d ; I Jan. 

Arundel, Earl of. See Fitz Alan. 

% Ask, Richard de 

Bishop of Durham's Lib. of Howden 
30 pt. I, m 17 d ; 12 Oct. 
% Aspale, John de, (knight) 
Suffolk 

24 pt. 3, m 10 d; 18 Nov. 
L. & P. 25 pt. I, m 14 d; 15 March. 
28 pt. I, m 22 d; 14 May. 
Assh, Robert de 
Northants. 
32 pt. I, m 34 d; 20 Feb. (in place of William Broun), 
Void. 

X Asshewell, Assewell, Eustace de 
Stamford 
L. & P. 25 pt. I, m 14 d; 15 March. 
27 pt. I, m 24 d; 12 Feb. 

% Asteleye, Thomas de 
Leicester 
28 pt. I, m 22 d ; 2 July. 



46 * APPENDIX 

J Aston, Hugh de 
Leicester 

L. & P. 25 pt. I, m 13 d; 20 May (assoc.). 
Northampton 
L. & P. 26 pt. I, m 8 d; 20 May (assoc; apparently 
an error in the list of names to which this name is 
added). 
Shropshire 

L. & P. 26 pt. I, m 9 d; 15 May. 
Stafford 
29 pt. I, m 28 d; 16 May. 

29 pt. 2, m 8 d ; 2 Nov. ; ibid,, 20 Dec. 
Warwick 

L. & P. 25 pt. I, m 15 d; 15 March. 
L. & P. 26 pt. I, m 9 d ; 20 April. 
Worcester 

27 pt. 2, m 25 d ; 3 Aug. 
Coventry 

28 pt. I, m 22 d; 28 Feb.; ibid,, 28 June. 
Shrewsbury 

30 pt. I, m 17 d; 28 May; ibid,, 18 Sept. 

X Aston, Roger de 
Stafford 

29 pt. I, m 28 d; 16 May. 

31 pt. I, m 20 d; 5 Feb. 

% Aton, William de 

Wap. of Qeveland and Pickering, N. R. 

28 pt. I, m 22 d; 2 July. 
Scarborough 

29 pt. I, m 28 d; 4 July. 

Lib. of Pickering and Wap. of Rydale, N. R. 

30 pt. 3, m 17 d ; 30 Oct. 

t'Ayrmynne, William de 
Kesteven (Line.) 
27 pt. I, m 24 d ; 4 May. 



DOCUMENTS, LISTS AND TABLES 47 ♦ 

Baa, Thomas de 
Norfolk 

28 pt. I, m 22 d; II July (assoc.). 
Bacon, Robert 

Suffolk 
31 pt. I, m 20 d; 5 Feb. 
Bampton, John de 
Essex 

27 pt. I, m 23 d; 8 July (assoc.). 
X Banastre, William, (of Hadenhale) 

Shropshire 
L. & P. 26 pt. I, m 9 d; 15 May. 

28 pt. I, m 22 d; 20 June. 

29 pt. 2, m 8 d ; 20 Dec. 
31 pt. I, m 20 d; 5 Feb. 

Shrewsbury 

30 pt. I, m 17 d; 28 May; ibid.y 18 Sept. 
% Bardolff, Bardolf, John, (of Wyrmegeye) 

Norfolk 
L. & P. 24 pt. I, m 23 d ; 20 Feb. 
28 pt. I, m 22 d; 26 June. 
Barentyn, Thomas 
Oxford 

31 pt. I, m 20 d; 5 Feb. 
Barton, Henry de, clerk 

Lib. of Ripon of archbishop of York 
30 pt. I, m 17 d; 28 April. 
Barton, John de 
Scarborough 

29 pt. I, m 28 d ; 14 Feb. 
% Barton, Roger de 

Scarborough 

28 pt. 2, m 13 d ; 3 Oct. 

29 pt. I, m 28 d; 14 Feb. ' ^ 
% Basset, Simon 

Gloucester 
28 pt. 2, m 13 d; 3 Feb. (29th year; assoc.)* 



48 * APPENDIX 

f % Basset, William 
Cumberland 

L. & P. 25 pt. I, m 14 d; 15 March. 
Lancashire 

24 pt. 3, m 13 d; 20 Oct. 
Northumberland 

L. & P. 25 pt. I, m 14 d; 15 March. 
Westmoreland 

ditto 
York, E. R. 

ditto 
' York, N. R. 

ditto 
York, W. R. 

ditto (repeated, 20 May) 
Beverley 

L. & P. 26 pt. 2, m 20 d ; 25 June. 
27 pt. 2, m 25 d ; 25 Aug. 
Kingston-on-HuU 

L. & P. 26 pt. I, m IS d; 15 Feb. 
Scarborough 

L. & P. 26 pt. I, m 21 d; 20 Feb. 
City of York 

L. & P. 25 pt. 3, m 19 d ; 3 Nov. 

Bathelay, Batheleye, William de 
Southwell 

30 pt. I, m 17 d; IS July. 
Nottingham 

31 pt. I, m 20 d; s Feb. 
Bayard, William 

Boston 
29 pt. 2, m 8 d ; 16 Oct. 

Beauchaump, John de, of Somerset 
Somerset 
L. & P. 2S pt. I, m IS d; IS March. 



DOCUMENTS, LISTS AND TABLES 49 ♦ 

Beauchaump, Roger de 

wats. 

L. & P. 25 pt. I, m 15 d; 15 March. 
% Beauchautnp, Bello Campo, Thomas de, earl of Warwick 
Warwick 

L. & P. 25 pt. I, m 15 d; 15 March. 

L. & P. 26 pt. I, m 9 d ; 20 April. 
Worcester 

L. & P. 25 pt. I, m 14 d; 15 March. 

L. & P. 26 pt. I, m 9 d; 20 April ; ibid., 2 July. 

27 pt I, m 24 d; 12 Feb. 
% Beauchaump, Bello Campo, William de 

Worcester 
L. & P. 25 pt. I, m 14 d; 15 March. 
L. & P. 26 pt. I, m 9 d; 20 April (de Campo merely). 
(Granted a general patent of exemption on account 
of age; 26 pt. 2, m 21 ; 13 June. Exonerated from 
service in Worcester, "certis de causis coram con- 
silio;" Gaus. 26 m. 15; 28 Aug.). 

27 pt. I, m 24 d ; 12 Feb. 
% Beek, Henry de 

Derby 
31 pt. I, m 20 d; 16 Dec. (assoc.). 
Beek, James atte 
Lindsey (Line) 

24 pt. 3, m 10 d; 12 Nov. 
Beek, Nicholas de 
Leicester 

L. & P. 24 pt. I, m 23 d; 20 Feb. 
Stafford 
L. & P. 25 pt. I, m 14 d; 15 March. 
% Bekwell, Henry de 
Surrey 
L. & P. 25 pt. I, m 15 d; 15 March. 

28 pt. I, m 22 d; 20 June. 
t Belesby, William de 

Lindsey (Line.) 

28 pt. I, m 22 d; 3 July. 



i 



50 ♦ APPENDIX 

Belewe, Belowe, John 
Southwell 
30 pt. I, m 17 d; 30 May; ibid., 15 July, 
f Belknappe, Robert de 

Lib. of abbot of Battle in Surrey 
Assize Rolls, Surrey, 907 ; spring of 25 Edw. Ill ; app.^ 
C, I. 
Belkthorp, William de 
York, E. R. 
32 pt. I, m 34 d; 20 Nov. 
Bello Campo. See Beauchaump. 
J Benteleye, Bentele, John de 
York, E. R. 
L. & P. 25 pt. I, m 14 d; 15 March. 

(His place is taken by lUard de Usfeld; 26 pt i^ 
m 8 d; 6 May.) 
Beverley 
L. & P. 26 pt. 2, m 20 d ; 25 June. 
27 pt. 2, m 25 d ; 25 Aug. 
Bishop of Durham's Lib. of Howden. 

30 pt. I, m 17 d; 12 Oct. 
Kingston-on-Hull 

26 pt. I, m 15 d; 15 Feb. 
Scarborough 

26 pt. I, m 21 d; 20 Feb. 
Berdeseye, William 

Cumberland 

31 pt. I, m 20 d; 5 Feb. 
Bere, Richard de la 

Hereford 
L. & P. 25 pt. I, m 14 d; 15 March. 
J Berewe, Bergh, Walter atte • ; 

Wilts. 

27 pt. 2, m 25 d; 24 Jan. (assoc.). 

28 pt. 2, m 13 d; 2 July. 

29 pt. 2, m 8 d; no date. 20 Dec. Orig. 
31 pt. I, m 20 d; 5 Feb. 



DOCUMENTS, LISTS AND TABLES 51 * 

% Berewyk, Berwyk, Gilbert de 
Wilts. 
L. & P. 25 pt. I, m 15 d; 15 March. 

27 pt. I, m 24 d; 27 May. 

28 pt. 2, m 13 d; 2 July. 

Berewyk, Berewik, Berwyk, Hugh de 
Lancashire 

24 pt. 3, m 13 d ; 20 Oct 
York, W. R. 

L. & P. 25 pt. I, m 14 d ; 15 March (repeated : 20 May). 

Bergh, Martin de 

Manors and towns of Qieshunt and Bassingboum of the 
earl of Richmond. 
30 pt. I, m 17 d; 20 March. 

Bergh. See Berewe. 

Berkele, Thomas de 
Gloucester 
L. & P. 25 pt. I, m 14 d; 15 March. 

J Berkele, Thomas de, of Coberle 
Gloucester 
L. & P. 25 pt. I, m 14 d 
27 pt. 2, m 25 d 
31 pt. I, m 20 d 

Berland, John de 
Essex 
L. & P. 26 pt. I, m 8 d; 6 May (assoc.). ^ 

J Bernard, Gilbert 
Cambridge 
L. & P. 24 pt. I, m 23 d; 20 Feb. 
L. & P. 25 pt. I, m 15 d; 15 March. 
27 pt. 2, m 25 d; 3 Nov. 

29 pt. 2, m 8 d; 20 Dec. 
31 pt. I, m 20 d; 5 Feb. 

Lib. of bishop of Ely 
32 pt. I, m 34 d; 14 July. 



15 March. 
3 Aug. 
5 Feb. 



52 ♦ APPENDIX 

Bernard, Richard, the elder 

Lib. of Pickering and Rydale, N. R. 

30 pt. 3» m 17 d ; 30 Oct. 
% Berneye, John de 

Norfolk 
L. & P. 24 pt. I, m 23 d; 20 Feb. 
L. & P. 25 pt. I, m 14 d; 15 March. 
27 pt. 2, m 25 d ; 22 Nov. 
("quibusdam . . . certis de causis commissiones 
. . . duximus revocandas'' (includes W. de Wych- 
yngham) ; Claus. 28 m. 29; i Feb.). 
(Except Lynn) 

29 pt. 2, m 8 d ; 30 Nov. ; iWd., 20 Dec. 
Norfolk 

31 pt. I, m 20 d; s Feb. 

Berton, John de, the elder 

Lib. of archbishop of Canterbury in Kent 

30 pt. I, m 17 d ; 16 Sept. 
% Beseby, Robert de 

Grimsby 

27 pt. 2, m 25 d; IS Jan. 
% Beverleye, John de 
Beverley 

27 pt. 2, m 25 d ; 25 Aug. 
Bifeld, Thomas de 

Northants. 

28 pt. I, m 22 d; 20 Feb. (assoc). 
% Birton, Richard de 

Berks. 

L. & P. 25 pt. I, m 14 d; 15 March. 
Cornwall 

L. & P. 26 pt. I, m 9 d; 15 July. 
Devon 

L. & P. 25 pt. I, m 14 d ; 15 March. 
Dorset 

L. & P. 25 pt. I, m 15 d; 15 March. 



DOCUMENTS, USTS AND TABLES 53 ♦ 

Oxford 

L. & P. 25 pt. I, m 14 d; 15 March. 
Somerset 

L. & P. 25 pt. I, m 15 d; 15 March. 
Southampton 

ditto 
Surrey 

ditto 

28 pt. I, m 22 d; 20 June. 
Wilts. 

L. & P. 25 pt. I, m 15 d; 15 March. 
J Biteryng, William dc 
Lynn 

29 pt. I9 m 28 d; 20 July. 
Blake, John 

Herts. 
29 pt. I, m 28 d; 21 March. 
Blankeneye, John de 

Manors, etc., of duke of Lancaster in Essex, Kent, Midd. 
and Sussex. 

30 pt. 3, m 22 d; 28 Oct. 
Blaykeston, Blaikeston, Roger de 
Cumberland 

L. & P. 25 pt. I, m 14 d; 15 March. 
Lancashire 

24 pt. 3, m 13 d ; 20 Oct. 
Westmoreland 

L. & P. 25 pt. I, m 14 d; 15 March. 
York, E. R. 

ditto 
York, N. R. 

ditto 
Kingston-on-Hull 

L. & P. 26 pt. I, m IS d; 15 Feb. 
Newcastle-on-Tyne 

L. & P. 26 pt. I, m 28 d; 8 Feb. 
Scarborough 

L, & P. 26 pt. I, m 21 d; 20 Feb. 



54 * APPENDIX 

Blenkansopp, Thomas 
Westmoreland 

31 pt I, m 20 d; 5 Feb. 
Blundell, Richard 
Northants. 

L. & P. 25 pt. I, m 14 d; 15 March. 
Blyton, William de 
City of Lincoln 

L. & P. 25 pt. I, m 19 d; 27 March. 
Bockyng, Ralph de 
Suffolk 

24 pt. 3, m 10 d; 18 Nov. 
L. & P. 25 pt. I, m 13 d; 24 June (assoc). 
X Bohun, John de 
Sussex 

L. & P. 25 pt. I, m 15 d; 15 March. 
28 pt. I, m 22 d; 20 June. 
BoUe, Ranulf 

Holland (Line.) 

33 pt. I, m 27 d; 26 March. 
% Botetourt, Butetourt, Buttetourt, John 
Warwick 

L. & P. 25 pt. I, m 13 d; 20 Sept. (assoc.). 
L. & P. 26 pt. ly m 9 d ; 20 April. 
28 pt. I, m 22 d; 18 May. 
Worcester 

L. & P. 25 pt. I, m 13 d; 20 Sept. (assoc.). 

C'certis de causis coram consilio'' ... he is 
appointed to Warwick; therefore "exonerandus" 
from service in Worcester; Claus. 26 m. 19, 15 
April.) 
L. & P. 26 pt. I, m 9 d ; 2 July. 

(Again "cxonerandus" from service in Wor- 
cester by a writ very similar to the above; 
Claus. 26 m. 15; 28 Aug.) 
27 pt. I, m 24 d; 12 Feb. 

29 pt. 2, m 8 d; 3 Dec. 

30 pt. I, m 17 d; I April. 



DOCUMENTS, LISTS AND TABLES 55 * 

Botheby, John de, (clerk) 
Lib. of Holderness 

L. & P. 26 pt. I, m 21 d; 20 Feb. 
29 pt. I, m 28 d; I March. 
X Botiller, Thomas le 
Gloucester 

29 pt. 2, m 8 d; 20 Dec. 
Worcester 

31 pt. I, m 20 d; 5 Feb. 
I Boure, Hugh de la 
Westmoreland 

27 pt. 2, m 25 d ; 26 Oct. 

29 pt. 2, m 8 d, 20 Dec. ; ibid., 17 Jan. 
Bowode, Robert de 

Stafford 

30 pt. I, m 17 d, 28 May (assoc.) ; ibid., 26 Oct. (in 
place of Roger de Hillary, who has died). 

31 pt. I, m 20 d; 5 Feb. 
4: Bozoun, Bozon, John 

Notts. 

28 pt. 2, m 13 d ; 2 July. 

29 pt. I, m 28 d; 26 Jan. 

30 pt. I, m 17 d; 15 April. 

31 pt. I, m 20 d; 10 Nov. (in place of Thomas de 
Neumarche). 

X Bracy, Robert 
Worcester 

32 pt. I, m 34 d; 15 Dec. 
Bradenham, Leonet de 

Essex 

29 pt. 2, m 8 d, 28 Aug. ; ibid., 20 Dec. 
X, Bradeston, Thomas de 
Gloucester 

L. & P. 25 pt. I, m 14 d ; 15 March. 
27 pt. 2, m 25 d; 3 Aug. 
Braibrok. See Braybrok. 



56 



APPENDIX 



^ Brankescombe, Brauncecombe, Braunkescombe, Braunkes- 
coumbe, Richard (de) 
Devon 

L. & P. 25 pt. I, m 14 d; 15 March. 
27 pt. I, m 24 d; 20 July. 
29 pt. 2, m 8 d; 20 Dec 
31 pt. I, m 20 d; 5 Feb. 
Brauncescombe, Walter de 
Devon 

33 pt. I, m 27 d; 9 Feb. (with R. de Chiselden ia 
place of Thomas de Crouthom and William de 
Luscote). 
|Braunche, Robert 
L3mn 

29 pt. I, m 28 d; 20 July. 
% Bray, Braye, John (de) 
Kent 

L. & P. 25 pt. I, m 15 d; 15 March. 
Middlesex 

L. & P. 25 pt. I, m 14 d; 15 March. 

29 pt. 2, m 8 d ; i Oct. ; ibid.^ 20 Dec. 
31 pt. I, m 20 d; 5 Feb. 
Bray, William 

Lindsey (Line.) 

29 pt. 2, m 8 d; i Dec. 
X Braybrok, Brabrok, Braibrok, Gerard de 
Bedford 

24 pt. I, m 23 d; 20 Feb. 

25 pt. I, m 15 d; 15 March. 



L. &P. 
L. &P. 
Bucks. 

L.&P. 
L. &P. 



24 pt. I, m 23 d; 20 Feb. 

25 pt. I, m 15 d; 15 March. 
31 pt. I, m 20 d; 5 Feb. 

J Braylesford, Henry de 
Derby 

28 pt. 2, m 13 d ; 2 July. 

29 pt. 2, m 8 d; 20 Dec. 



DOCUMENTS. USTS AND TABLES 57 » 

Brewes, Thomas de 
Surrey 

County Placita, no. 8; spring of 24 Edw. Ill; app., 
C, 2. 
X Brian, Bryan, Bryenc, Guy de 
Berks. 

26 pt. 3, m 4 d ; I Jan. 
Gloucester 

27 pt. 2, m 25 d; 3 Aug. 
Oxford 

L. & P. 26 pt. I, m 8 d; 3 May (with G. Chasteleyn 
in place of J. de Grey and J. Golafre). 
26 pt. 3, m 4 d; I Jan. 
Worcester 

27 pt. 2, m 25 d ; 3 Aug. 

28 pt. I, m 22 d; I July. 

29 pt. 2, m 8 d; 20 Dec. 

30 pt. I, m 17 d; I April. 
Brigeham, John de 

Gunbridge 

L. & P. 25 pt. I, m 15 d; 15 March. 
Broun, William 
Northants. 

28 pt. I, m 22 d; 26 April. 

31 pt. I, m 20 d; 5 Feb. 

(because he cannot attend to his office, Robert 
Assh is appointed in his place; 32 pt. i, m 34 d; 
20 Feb. Void.) 
Lib. of abbot of Peterborough 
28 pt. I, m 22 d; 20 June. 
X Brugge, Brugges, Roger de 
Worcester 

28 pt. I, m 22 d; 18 May; ibtd.^ 1 July. 
30 pt. I, m 17 d; I April. 
Bruggeford, John de 

Town of Nottingham 

30 pt. I, m 17 d; 25 May. 



58 



APPENDIX 



Bruyn, John (de), (Ic) 
Bucks. 

L. & P. 24 pt. I, m 23 d; 20 Feb. (repeated). 
28 pt. 2, m 13 d; 2 July. 
Warwick 

L. & P. 25 pt. I, m 15 d; 15 March. 
L. & P. 26 pt. i/m 9 d; 20 April. 

Bruys, Robert 

Lib. of Pickering and wap. of Rydale, N. R. 
30 pt. 3, m 17 d; 30 Oct. 
Buketot, Philip (de) 
Bucks. 

L. & P. 24 pt. I, m 23 d; 20 Feb. (repeated). 
L. & P. 25 pt. I, m 15 d; 15 March. 
% Bures, Andrew de 
Suffolk 

24 pt. 3, m 10 d ; 18 Nov. 
L. & P. 25 pt. I, m 14 d; 15 March. 

28 pt. I, m 22 d; 14 May. 

29 pt. 2, m 8 d; 20 Dec. (his place is taken 
by M. de Bures and T. Morieux; 30 pt 
I, m 17 d; 13 Oct.). 

% Bures, Michael de 
Suffolk 

30 pt. I, m 17 d; 13 Oct (with T. Morieux in place 
of A. de Bures). 
Brughbrigg, John, son of Nicholas de 

Lib. of Knaresborough of Queen Philippa 
30 pt I, m 17 d; 26 July. 
Bumel, Nicholas 
Shropshire 

L. & P. 26 pt I, m 9 d; 15 May. 

J Burton, William (de), (of Burton) 
Rutland 

28 pt 2, m 13 d; 2 July. 

29 pt I, m 28 d; 12 July. 



DOCUMENTS, USTS AND TABLES 59 » 

York, E. R. 

30 pt. I, m 17 d; 12 May (assoc.)- 

32 pt. I, m 34 d; 8 Feb. (in place of Robert de Hal- 
denby). 

33 pt I, m 27 d; 6 April (assoc.). 
Wap. of Herthill and Hovedenshire, E. R. 

29 pt. I, m 28 d; 6 March (30th year; assoc.). 
Burwell, John de 
Gunbridge 

L. & P. Claus. 25 m. 16; 12 July (writ for wages). 
t Bussy, John, of Lavyngton 

Holland and Kesteven (Line.) 

L. & P. 24 pt. ly m 23 d ; 20 Feb. 
Kesteven (Line.) 

L. & P. 25 pt. I, m 14 d; 15 March. 

27 pt. I, m 24 d; 4 May. 

28 pt. I, m 22 d; 8 May. 

29 pt. 2, m 8 d; 20 Dec. 
Bustiler, Robert 

Cambridge 

L. & P. 24 pt. I, m 23 d; 20 Feb. 
Butetourt, Buttetourt. See Botetourt. 
Byngham, William de 
Notts. 

L. & P. 25 pt. I, m 13 d; 12 Feb. (27th year; 
assoc.). 
Byntre, Walter de 
Suffolk 

28 pt. I, m 22 d; 14 May. 
Carbonel, William 
Suffolk 

24 pt. 3, m 10 d ; 18 Nov. 
L. & P. 25 pt. I, m 14 d; 15 March. 
Careles, William 

Palatinate of Lancaster 

(Referred to) Duchy of Lane, Chanc. Rolls, ii, no. 
19 d; 3 May, 6 duke Henry (in assoc. of R. de 
Singleton). 



I 



6o * APPENDIX 

% GuTue, Nicholas de 
Surrey 

29 pt. 2, m 8 d; 20 Dec. 
X Cary, Thomas 

Dorset 

28 pt. 2, m 13 d; 20 Jan. 
% Catesby , William de 
Warwick 

L. & P. 25 pt. I, m 13 d; 20 June (assoc.), 
28 pt. I, m 22 d ; 18 May. 
X Causton, Robert de, (knight) 
Norfolk 

28 pt. I, m 22 d; 26 June. 
Lib. of bishop of Ely 

32 pt. I, m 34 d; 14 July. 

f % Cavendissh, John de 
Essex 

L. & P. 25 pt. I, m 15 d; 15 March. 

27 pt. I, m 24 d; 3 June. 
Suffolk 

L. & P. 25 pt. I, m 14 d; 15 March. 

28 pt. I, m 22 d; 14 May. 

29 pt. 2, m 8 d; 20 Dec. 
31 pt. I, m 20 d; 5 Feb. 

Caynton, William de 
Shropshire 

28 pt. I, m 22 d; 20 June. 

Cecill, William, of Howden 

Bishop of Durham's Lib. of Howden 

30 pt. I, m 17 d; 12 Oct. 
X Oiabham, Thomas de 

Essex 

27 pt. I, m 24 d; 3 June. 
X Charnels, John 

Leicester 

28 pt. 2, m 13 d; 20 Oct. 



DOCUMENTS, LISTS AND TABLES 6l * 

Charnels, Nicholas 
Warwick 

30 pt. 3, m 17 d; 8 Nov. 
X Chasteleyn, Gilbert 
Oxford 

L & P. 26 pt. I, m 8 d; 3 May (assoc. with Guy 
Brian in place of J. de Grey and. J. Golafre). 
Southampton 

30 pt. I, m 17 d; 16 Oct. 
Warwick 

L. & P. 25 pt. I, m 15 d; 15 March. 
L. & P 26 pt. I, m 9 d; 20 April. 
Worcester 

L. & P. 26 pt. I, m 9 d; 2 July. 

27 pt. I, m 24 d; 12 Feb. 

28 pt. I, m 22 d; 18 May; tWd., i July. 
Lib. of Holderness 

29 pt. I, m 28 d; I M^ch. 

X Chastilleyn, Hugh 
Bucks. 

33 pt. I, m 27 d; 4 May. 
Chastilloun, John 
Bucks. 

L. P. 24 pt. I, m 23 d; 20 Feb. 

% Chaumont, Chaumon, John (de), (knight) 
York, W. R. 

30 pt. 3, m 17 d; 26 Oct. (assoc.). 

32 pt. I, m 34 d; 16 July. 

33 pt. I, m 27 d; 28 May, 

Wap. of Ainsty, Barkston and Claro, W. R. 

28 pt. I, m 22 d; 2 July {ibid,, 20 Jan.; his place is 
taken by John de Shirburn, "quibusdam certis de 
causis"). 

29 pt. I, m 28 d; 15 May. 
Lib. of duke of Lancaster in W. R. 

30 pt. I, m 17 d; 16 Oct. 



62 ♦ APPENDIX 

Chaundos, Roger 

Hereford 

L. & P. 25 pt. I, m 14 d; 15 March. 
X Chaworth, Thomas de, the elder 

Leicester 

28 pt. I, m 22 d; 18 Feb. 

29 pt. 2, m 8 d; i Aug. 
J Chelereye, Edmund 

Lib. of abbot of Reading 

29 pt. 3, m 4 d ; 12 Jan. 
Cherleton, John de 

Shropshire 

28 pt, I, m 22 d; 20 June. 
J Chesterton, Robert de 

Lib. of Queen Isabel in towns of Cambridge and Chesterton 

30 pt. 3, m 17 d ; 10 July. 
Chestre, John de 

Stamford 

L. & P. 25 pt, I, m 14 d; 15 March. 
Cheyny, Edmund de 
Somerset 

L. & P. 25 pt. I, m 15 d; 15 March. 
J Cheyny, John 
Cambridge 

31 pt. I, m 20 d; 5 Feb. 
J Chiltenham, William de 

Gloucester 

L. & P. 25 pt. I, m 14 d; IS March. 
27 pt. 2, m 25 d; 3 Aug. 
29 pt. 2, m 8 d ; 20 Dec. 
31 pt. I, m 20 d; 5 Feb. 
Hereford 

L. & P. 25 pt. I, m 14 d; 15 March. 
Leicester 

L. & P. 24 pt. I, m 23 d; 20 Feb. 
Shropshire 

L. & P. 25 pt. I, m 14 d; 15 March. 



DOCUMENTS, LISTS AND TABLES 63 * 

Stafford 

ditto 
Worcester 

ditto 

L. & P. 26 pt. I, m 9 d; 20 April. 
J Chilterne, John de 
Herts. 

29 pt. 2, m 8 d ; 20 Dec. 

31 pt. I, m 20 d; 5 Feb. 

32 pt. I, m 34 d; 16 May. 
% Qiiselden, Richard de 

Devon 

33 pt. I, m 27 d; 9 Feb. (with W. de Braunkescombe 
in place of T. de Crou thorn and W. de Luscote). 

Chorley, William de, clerk 
Palatinate of Lancaster 

Duchy of Lane, Chanc. Rolls, ii, no. 38 d ; 26 April, 
9 duke Henry. 
Cirgeaux, Richard (le piere) 
Cornwall 

29 pt. 2, m 8 d, 10 Dec. ; tbid.j 20 Dec. 
32 pt, I, m 34 d; 20 Feb. 
% Qaymond, Cleymond, John 
Holland (Line.) 

L. & P. 25 pt. I, m 14 d; 15 March. 

28 pt. I, m 22 d, 3 March (assoc.) ; ibid., 8 
May; ibid., 2 July. 

29 pt. 2, m 8 d ; 20 Dec. 
X Qere, Robert 

Norfolk 

L. & P. 24 pt. I, m 23 d; 20 Feb. 
L. & P. 25 pt. I, m 14 d; 15 March. 
•27 pt. 2, m 25 d; 22 Nov. 

28 pt. I, m 22 d; 26 June. 
(Except Lynn) 

29 pt. 2, m 8 d ; 30 Nov. 



i 



A 



64 ♦ APPENDIX 

(Except Lynn) 

29 pt. 2, m 8 d; 20 Dec. 
31 pt. I, m 20 d; 5 Feb. 

% Clerk, Andrew 
Grimsby 

27 pt. 2, m 25 d; 15 Jan. 

Qotherum, Clotherom, John de 

Town and Lib. of Ripon of archbishop of York 

28 pt. I, m 22 d ; 20 March 
30 pt. I, m 17 d; 28 April. 

Qynton, Ivo de 
Kent 

L. & P. 25 pt. I, m 13 d; 20 April (assoc.). 
Qynton, William de, earl of Huntingdon 
Kent 

L. & P. 25 pt. I, m 15 d; 15 March. 
% Clyvedon, Edmund de 
Somerset 

L. & P. 25 pt. I, m 15 d; 15 March. 
28 pt. I, m 22 d; 8 May. 

30 pt. I, m 17 d ; 20 Oct. 

31 pt. I, m 20 d; 5 Feb. 

32 pt. I, m 34 d; 26 Jan. 
Cobham, John de 

Kent 

L. & P. 25 pt. I, m 15 d; 15 March. 
J Cod)mgton, John de 
Leicester 

28 pt. I, m 22 d; 2 July. 
28 pt. 2, m 13 d ; 20 Oct. 
Coggeshale, John de 
Essex 

L. & P. 25 pt. I, m 15 d; 15 March. 
Coka)m, John 
Derby 

L. & P. 25 pt. I, m 14 d; 15 March. 



DOCUMENTS, LISTS AND TABLES 6$ * 

Palatinate of Lancaster 

Duchy of Lane, Chanc. Rolls, ii, no. lo; i Aug., 5 

duke Henry. 
Ibid,, ii, no. 24 d ; 10 Oct., 7 duke Henry. 
Ibid., ii, no. 38 d ; 26 April, 9 duke Henry. 

4: Cokeseye, Cogeseye, Hugh de 
Worcester 

L. & P. 25 pt. I, m 14 d; 15 March. 

L. & P. 26 pt. I, m 9 d; 20 April; ibid., 2 July. 

27 pt. 2, m 25 d; 3 Aug. 

28 pt. I, m 22 d; 18 May; ibid., i July. 

29 pt. 2, m 8 d ; 3 Dec. ; ibid., 20 Dec. 

Colbrok, William de 
Middlesex 

28 pt. I, m 22 d; 12 April (with J. de Tamworth in 
place of R. atte Watre and J. de Munden). 

X Colby, John de 
Norfolk 

28 pt. I, m 22 d; 26 June. 
(Except Lynn) 

29 pt. 2, m 8 d; 30 Nov. 

Coliere, Richard 

Town of Nottingham 

30 pt. I, m 17 d; 25 May. 

X ColviU, John 
Norfolk 

31 pt. I, m 20 d; 5 Feb. (" certis de causis "... his 
place is taken by R. de Eccles; 32 pt. i, m 34 d; 
4 July). 

J: ColviU, Robert de 

Holland and Kesteven (Line.) 

L. & P. 24 pt. I, m 23 d; 20 Feb. 
Kesteven (Line.) 

L. & P. 25 pt. I, m 14 d; 15 March. 
27 pt. I, m 24 d; 4 May. 



66 * APPENDIX 

$ Colvill, Coluyll, William de - ^ 

Holland and Kesteven (Line.) 

L. & P. 24 pt. I, ra 23 d; 20 Feb. 
Kesteven (Line.) 

L. & P. 25 pt. I, m 14 d; 15 March. 

28 pt. I, m 22 d; 8 May. 
Col)mgbum, Roger de 

Prior of Bustleham's Lib. at Bustleham and elsewhere m 
Berks. 

30 pt I, m 17 d; 8 May. 
I Conestable, Marmaduke 

York, E. R. 

L. & P. 25 pt. I, m 14 d; 15 March. 

29 pt. 2, m 8 d ; 20 Dec. 
Wap. of Herthill and Hovedenshire, E. R. 

28 pt. I, m 22 d; 2 July, 
Conyngesby, John de 
Warwick 

31 pt. I, m 20 d; 5 Feb. 
Cotyngham, John de 

Lib. of St. Peter of York 

28 pt. 2, m 13 d ; 8 Nov. 
J Cbudeshale, John de 

Lynn 

29 pt. I, m 28 d; 20 July. 
Coupeland, John de 

Westmoreland 

L. & P. 25 pt. I, m 14 d; 15 March. 
Courtenay, Hugh de, earl of Devon 
Devon 

L. & P. 25 pt. I, m 14 d; 15 March. 
Cradelegh, Adam de 
Notts. 

L. & P. 25 pt. I, m 13 d ; 8 April (27th year; assoc)^ 
Cranesle, John de 
Northants. 

L. & P. Claus. 25 m 16; 12 July (writ for wages) ^ 



DOCUMENTS, LISTS AND TABLES 67 ♦ 

^ Croft, Hugh de 
Hunts. 

L. & P. 24 pt. I, m 23 d; 20 Feb. 
L. & P. 25 pt. I, m 14 d; 15 March. 

27 pt. 2, tn 25 d; I Dec. (At his death his 
place is taken by R. de Elyngton ; 28 pt. 
3, m 15 d; 12 Nov.) 

J Crouthorn, Thomas (de) 
Devon 

29 pt. 2, m 8 d ; 20 Dec. 
31 pt. I, m 20 d; 5 Feb. 

[Because he is infirm, his place and that of W. 
de Luscote (for other reasons) are taken by W. 
de Braunkescombe and R. de Chiselden ; 33 pt. i, 
m 27 d ; 9 Feb.] 

Croyser, William 
Bedford 

L. & P. 24 pt. I, m 23 d; 20 Feb. 

Croxford, John de 
Oxford 

33 pt. I, m 27 d ; 28 May. 

Cubeldik, Roger de 
Holland (Line.) 

L. & P. 25 pt. I, m 14 d; 15 March. 

J Daber, Roger 
Sussex 

28 pt. I, m 22 d; 20 June. 

J Dabemoun, John 
Cornwall 

L. & P. 26 pt. I, m 9 d; 15 July. 
Devon 

L. & P. 25 pt. I, m 14 d; 15 March. 
27 pt. I, m 24 d; 20 July. 
Exeter 

30 pt. 3, m 17 d ; 20 Nov. 



68 * APPENDIX 

Dalderby, Robert de, of Lincoln 
City of Lincoln 

30 pt. I, m 17 d; 6 April. 
X Dale, William de 
Southampton 

30 pt. I, m 17 d ; 16 Oct 
% Daneys, Dauneys, Roland 
Rutland 

L. & P. 25 pt. I, m 14 d; 15 March. 

28 pt. 2, m 13 d; 2 July. 

29 pt. I, m 28 d; 12 July. 
% Daumarle, William 

Devon 

L. & P. 25 pt. I, m 14 d; 15 March. 

27 pt. I, m 24 d; 20 July. 
Da)mcourt. See Deyncourt. 

Dayvill, Adam de, of Laxton 

Bishop of Durham's Lib. of Howden 
30 pt. I, m 17 d; 12 Oct. 
Dayvill. See Deyvill. 
X Debenham, Depenham, Gilbert de 
Suffolk 

24 pt. 3, m 10 d; 18 Nov. 
L. & P. 25 pt I, m 14 d; 15 March ("quibusdam 
. . certis de causis . . commissiones . . . duximus 
revocandas;" Gaus. 28 m. 29; i Feb.). 
29 pt. 2, m 8 d; 20 Dec. 
31 pt I, m 20 d; 5 Feb. 
f % Delves, John 
Leicester 

L. & P. 24 pt. I, m 23 d; 20 Feb. 
Shropshire 

L. & P. 25 pt I, m 14 d; 15 March. 
L. & P. 26 pt I, m 9 d; 15 May. 

28 pt I, m 22 d; 20 June. 
29 pt. 2, m 8 d ; 20 Dec. 

Stafford 

L. & P. 25 pt I, m 14 d; 15 March. 



DOCUMENTS, LISTS AND TABLES 69 

Dene, William atte, of Wycombe 
Wycombe 

30 pt. I, m 17 d; 20 March. 
X Dengayn, Dengeyne, John 
Hunts. 

L. & P. 25 pt. I, m 14 d; 15 March. 

27 pt. 2, m 25 d; I Dec. 

Dersham, William de (iuxta Donewych) 
Suffolk 

28 pt. I, m 22 d; 14 May. 

29 pt. 2, m 8 d; 16 Feb. (30th year; assoc.). 
(Repeated) 30 pt. i, m 19 d; 16 Feb. 

Dcrwentewater, John de 
Westmoreland 

L. & P. 25 pt. I, m 14 d; 15 March. 
DeschalerSy Thomas 
Cambridge 

L. & P. 24 pt. I, m 23 d ; 20 Feb. 
Devon, earl of. See Courtenay. 

J Deyncourt, Dayncourt, William 
Notts. 

L. & P. 25 pt. I, m 15 d; 15 March. 

28 pt. 2, m 13 d; 2 July. 

29 pt. I, m 28 d; 26 Jan. 
29 pt. 2, m 8 d ; i Aug. 

% Deyvill, Dayvill, de Eyvill, John, (of Tokwyth) 
York, W. R. 

30 pt 3, m 17 d; 26 Oct. (assoc.). 

32 pt. I, m 34 d; 16 July. 

33 pt. I, m 27 d; 28 May. 

Wap. of Ainsty, Barkston and Qaro, W. R. 

28 pt. I, m 22 d; 2 July. 

29 pt. I, m 28 d ; 15 May. 
Disny, William 

Holland and Kesteven (Line.) 

L. & P. 24 pt. I, m 23 d; 20 Feb. 



70 * APPENDIX 

Ditton, Benedict de 
Essex 

27 pt. 2, m 25 d ; 22 Jan. (with Goldyngham in place 
of Tyrel). 

Doily, Thomas 

Bucks. 

29 pt. 2, m 8 d ; no date. 20 Dec. Orig. 
J Drewe, Geoflfrey 

Lynn 

29 pt. I, m 28 d ; 20 July. 
Duxfeld, Gilbert 

Newcastle-on-T)me 

L. & P. 26 pt. I, m 28 d; 8 Feb. 
Dyk, Reginald de 

Lib. of archbishop of Canterbury in Kent 

30 pt. I, m 17 d; 16 Sept. 
Dynelay, John de 

Lib. of duke of Lancaster in York, W. R. 
30 pt I, m 17 d; 16 Oct. 

% Eccles, Reginald de 
Norfolk 

L. & P. 25 pt. I, m 13 d; 20 Nov. (assoc.). 

27 pt. 2, m 25 d; 22 Nov. 

28 pt. I, m 22 d; 10 July (assoc.). 

32 pt. I, m 34 d; 4 July (in place of John 
Colvill). 
J Eleford, Elleford, Robert de 
Cornwall 

L. & P. 26 pt. I, m 9 d; 15 July. 
28 pt. 2, m 13 d ; 16 Dec. 
Exeter 

30 pt. 3, m 17 d ; 20 Nov. 
X Eleford, Elford, Elleford, Thomas (de) 
Oxford 

29 pt. 2, m 8 d ; 2 Dec. (in place of John de Laundels). 
(Repeated: no date. 20 Dec. Orig.) 



DOCUMENTS, LISTS AND TABLES 71 * 

Manors and towns of Duchy of G)rnwall in various coun- 
ties 
30 pt. I, m 17 d; 26 March. 

Elkyngton, Robert de 
Holland (Line.) 

28 pt. I, m 22 d; 8 May. 
Lindsey (Line.) 

28 pt. I, m 22 d; 8 May. 

29 pt. 2, m 8 d ; i Dee. 

Manors, etc., of duke of Lancaster in Lincolnshire 

30 pt. I, m 17 d; 8 July. 

t Ellesfeld, Gilbert de 
Herts. 

29 pt. I, m 28 d; 21 March. 

% Elstede, Elsted, Robert de 
Sussex 

L. & P. 25 pt. I, m IS d; 15 March. 
28 pt. I, m 22 d ; 20 June. 

Elyngton, Roger de 
Hunts. 

28 pt. 3, m 15 d ; 12 Nov. (in place of Hugh de Croft 
who is dead). 

% Elys, John, (of Thame) 
Bucks. 

31 pt. I, m 20 d; 5 Feb. 
33 pt. I, m 27 d; 4 May. 

Oxford 

28 pt. 2, m 13 d ; 2 July. 

29 pt. 2, m 8 d; I Aug. (repeated: no date. 20 Dec. 
Orig.) 

31 pt. I, m 20 d ; 5 Feb. 
33 pt. I, m 27 d; 28 May. 

4: Estbury, John de 
Southampton 

30 pt. I, m 17 d; 16 Oct. 



i 



72 * APPENDIX 

% Estfeld, William de, (of Tykhull) 
York, W. R. 

L. & P. 25 pt. I, m 14 d; 15 March. 
27 pt. I, m 24 d ; 3 July. 
I Estham, Richard de 
Worcester 

30 pt. I, m 17 d; I April. 

31 pt. I, m 20 d; 20 Nov. (assoc.). 

32 pt. I, m 34 d; 15 Dec. 
% Eston, John de 

Northants. 

L. & P. 25 pt. I, m 13 d; 8 Nov. (assoc.). 

30 pt. I, m 17 d; 26 March. 
X Eston, Roger de 

Wap. of Qaro, Ewcross, Skyrack and Staincliffe, W. R- 

28 pt. I, m 22 d; 10 Feb. 
County of Richmond 

28 pt. I, m 22 d; 10 Feb. 
J Everard, John 
Wilts. 

L. & P. 25 pt. I, m 13 d; 28 May (assoc). 

29 pt. 2, m 8 d ; no date. 20 Dec. Orig. 

31 pt. I, m 20 d; 5 Feb. 
Everyngham, Adam de, of Rokeleye 

York, W. R. 

L. & P. 25 pt. I, m 14 d; 15 March (repeated: 20 
May.) 
Eyvill, de. See De)rvill. 
Fairfax, William 
York, W. R. 

32 pt. I, m 34 d; 3 Nov. (assoc.). 
Faryngton, Roger de 

Palatinate of Lancaster 

Duchy of Lane, Chanc. Rolls, ii, no. 10; i Aug., 5- 

duke Henry. 
Ibid,, ii, no. 24 d ; 10 Oct., 7 duke Henry. 
Ibid,, ii, no. 38 d ; 26 April, 9 duke Henry. 



DOCUMENTS, LISTS AND TABLES 73 = 

% Faucomberge, Fauconberge, John de 
Lib. of Holderness 

L. & P. 26 pt. I, m 21 d ; 20 Feb. 

28 pt. I, m 22 d; 2 July. 
% Felton, William de 

Northumberland 

L. & P. 25 pt. I, m 14 d; 15 March. 

29 pt. 2, m 8 d ; 20 Dec. Void, 
f % Fencotes, Thomas de 

Cumberland 

L. & P. 25 pt. I, m 14 d; 15 March. 
Lancashire 

24 pt. 3, m 13 d ; 20 Oct. 
Northumberland 

L. & P. 25 pt. I, m 14 d; 15 March. 
Westmoreland 

ditto 
York, E. R. 

ditto 
York, N. R. 

ditto 
Beverley 

L. & P. 26 pt. 2, m 20 d ; 25 June. 
27 pt. 2, m 25 d ; 25 Aug. 
County of Richmond 

28 pt. I, m 22 d; 10 Feb. 
Fenton, John de, the younger 
Town and Lib. of Ripon 

28 pt. I, m 22 d; 20 March. 
Fenton, William de, (master) 
York, W. R. 

27 pt. I, m 24 d; 3 July. 

Wap. of Claro, Ewcross, Skyrack and Staincliffe, W. R. 

28 pt. I, m 22 d; 10 Feb. • 

Wap. of Ainsty, Barkston and Qaro, W. R. 

28 pt. I, m 22 d; 2 July 
Town and Lib. of Ripon 

28 pt. I, m 22 d; 20 March. 



74 * APPENDIX 

Fenwyk, John de 
Northumberland 

L. & P. 25 pt. I, m 14 d; 15 March. 
% Ferers, Ferrers, Ralph de 
Leicester 

L. & P. 25 pt. I, m 13 d; 2y Oct (assoc.). 
28 pt. I, m 22 d; 2 July. 
% Feriby, John de 
Beverley 

27 pt. 2, m 25 d ; 25 Aug. 
Lib. of St. Peter of York 

28 pt. 2, m 13 d ; 8 Nov. 
Ferumbaud, Thomas 

Bucks. 

L. & P. 25 pt. I, m 13 d; 27 Nov. (assoc.). 
% Fifhide, Fifide, William (de) 
Southampton 

L. & P. 25 pt. I, m IS d; 15 March. 

28 pt. 2, m 13 d; 2 July. 

29 pt. 2, m 8 d ; no date. 20 Dec. Orig. 
Sussex 

L. & P. 25 pt. I, m 15 d; 15 March. 
28 pt. I, m 22 d; 20 June. 

30 pt. I, m 17 d; 12 March. 

31 pt. I, m 20 d; 5 Feb. 
X Fillilod, William de 

Lib. of Holderness 

29 pt. I, m 28 d; 26 June (assoc.). 
% Fitz Alan, Richard, earl of Arundel 

Shropshire 

L. & P. 25 pt. I, m 14 d; 15 March. 

L. & P. 26 pt. I, m 9 d; 15 May. 
Sussex 

L. & P. 25 pt. I, m 15 d; 15 March. 
28 pt. I, m 22 d ; 20 June. 

30 pt. I, m 17 d; 12 March. 

31 pt. I, m 20 d; 5 Feb. 



DOCUMENTS, LISTS AND TABLES 75 * 

J Fitz Jatnes, Thomas 
Somerset 

30 pt I, m 17 d; 20 Oct. 

31 pt. I, m 20 d; 5 Feb. 

32 pt. I, m 34 d; 26 Jan. 
Fitz Payn, Robert 

Dorset 

(Referred to) L. & P., 24 Edw. Ill, Mem. L. T. R., 

31, Hill., Recorda, rot. 9. 
L. & P. 25 pt. I, m 15 d; 15 March. 
Fitz S3anond, Hugh 
Herts. 

L. & P. 25 pt. I, m 15 d; 15 March. 
Fitz Waryn, William 
Berks. 

L. & P. 25 pt. I, m 14 d; 15 March. 
% Flemmyng, Alan 
Newark 

30 pt. I, m 17 d; 27 May. 
Foljambe, Godfrey 

Derby 

31 pt. I, m 20 d; 5 Feb. 

i Folvill, Folevill, John de 
Leicester 

L. & P. 25 pt. I, m 14 d; 15 March. 

(For reference to his removal, see Pakeman.) 
28 pt. I, m. 22 d; 18 Feb. 

Forster, Reginald 
Surrey 

County Placita, no. 8, spring of 24 Edw. HI; app., 
C, 2. 
^ Foucher, John 
Derby 

31 pt. I, m 20 d; 5 Feb. 
Newark 

30 pt. I, m 17 d; 27 May. 



yS * APPENDIX 

Fraunceys, Adam 

London 

31 pt I, m 20 d; I Aug. 
J Fraunceys, Robert 

Derby 

30 pt. I, m 17 d; 10 March; ibid., 12 July. 
X Frebern, Richard 

Coventry 

28 pt. I, m 22 d, 28 Feb. ; ibid., 28 June. 
Fren)mgham, Ralph de, (knight) 
Kent 

31 pt. I, m 20 d; 5 Feb. 

Lib. of archbishop of Canterbury in Kent 

30 pt. I, m 17 d; 16 Sept. 
Frere, John, of Doncaster 

York, N. R. 

31 pt. I, m 20 d; 5 Feb. 
Fresel, Thomas 

Bucks. 

33 pt. I, m 27 d ; 4 May. 
Freysel, Froysel, Richard 
Suffolk 

24 pt« 3> "^ 10 d ; 18 Nov. 
L. & P. 25 pt I, m 14 d; 15 March. 
Frivill, John de 
Cambridge 

L. & P. 24 pt. I, m 23 d; 20 Feb. 

J Frome, William de 
Hereford 

L. & P. 25 pt. I, m 14 d; 15 March. 

29 pt 2, m 8 d, 2 Oct. ; ibid., 20 Dec. 
31 pt I, m 20 d; 5 Feb. 

J Frost, Thomas, (of Beverley) 
Beverley 

L. & P. 26 pt. 2, m 20 d ; 25 June. 
27 pt. 2, m 25 d ; 25 Aug. 



DOCUMENTS, LISTS AND TABLES yy * 

% Frowyk, Thomas de 

Middlesex 

L. & P. 25 pt. I, m 14 d; 15 March. 
Frylond, John 

Lib. of abbot of Reading 

29 pt. 3, m4 d; 12 Jan. 
X Fulthorp, John de 

York, N. R. 

31 pt. I, m 20 d; 5 Feb.; iWd., 26 Nov. 
33 pt. I, m 27 d; 12 Sept. 

f X Fyncheden, William de, (the younger) 
Notts. 

30 pt. I, m 17 d; 3 June (assoc.)* 
York, W. R. 

L. & P. 25 pt. I, m 14 d; 15 March (repeated: 20 
May.) 
27 pt. I, m 24 d; 3 July. 
29 pt. 2, m 8 d ; 20 Dec. 
Wap. of Ainsty, Barkston and Claro, W. R. 

28 pt. I, m 22 d; 2 July. 

29 pt. I, m 28 d; 15 May. 

Wap. of Claro, Ewcross, Skyrack and Staindiffe, W. R. 

28 pt. I, m 22 d; 10 Feb. 
Retford-in-the-Qay 

27 pt. I, m 24 d ; 20 June. 

Lib. of duke of Lancaster, in York, W. R. 

30 pt. I, m 17 d; 16 Oct. 
X Gaddesby, Richard de 

Leicester 

32 pt. I, m 34 d ; 16 Feb. 
X Gaunt, John (de) 

Lindsey (Line.) 

28 pt. I, m 22 d ; 3 July. 
City of Lincoln 

30 pt. I, m 17 d; 6 April. 
Manors, etc., of duke of Lancaster in Lincolnshire 
30 pt. I, m 17 d; 8 July. 



78 * APPENDIX 

Gervays, Thomas 
Wycombe 

30 pt. I, m 17 d; 20 March. 
Manors and towns of Duchy of Cornwall in various 
counties. 
30 pt. I, m 17 d; 26 March. 
Prior of Bustlesham's Lib. of Bustlesham and elsewhere 
in Berks. 
30 pt. I, m 17 d; 8 May. 
GifFard, John (le Boef) 
Bucks. 

L. & P. 24 pt. I, m 23 d; 20 Feb. (repeated). 
L. & P. 25 pt. I, m IS d; 15 March. 
Gilljmg, Richard de 

Lib. of St. Peter of York 
28 pt. 2, m 13 d; 8 Nov. 
Gist, John 
Exeter 

30 pt. 3, m 17 d; 20 Nov. 
Godhestre, Godester, Godestre, Roger (de) 
Kent 

28 pt. 2, m 13 d ; 26 Sept. 

29 pt. 2, m 8 d ; 20 Oct. 

Lib. of archbishop of Canterbury in Kent 

30 pt. I, m 17 d; 16 Sept. 

Manors, etc., of duke of Lancaster in Kent, Essex, Sus- 
sex and Midd. 
30 pt. 3, m 22 d ; 28 Oct. 
Golafre, John 
Oxford 

L. & P. 25 pt. I, m 14 d; 15 March. 

(" Nos certis de causis coram consilio . . . ab 
officio . . duximus exonerandum . . ;" 26 pt. i, m 
8 d; 3 May. J. de Grey likewise; their places 
taken by G. de Brian and G. Chasteleyn.) 
% Goldsmyth, William 
Town of Leicester 

30 pt. 3, m 17 d ; 16 Nov. 



DOCUMENTS, LISTS AND TABLES 79 ^ 

Goldyngy John, of Beverley 
Beverley 

L. & P. 26 pt. 2, m 20 d ; 25 June. 

Gold3mgham, John de, (knight) 
Essex 

L. & P. 25 pt. I, m 15 d; 15 March. 

27 pt. 2, m 25 d; 22 Jan. (with Ditton itr 
place of Tyrel). 

Gosenargh, Thomas de 
Lancashire 

24 pt. 3, m 13 d ; 20 Oct. 

Gosynton, William 

Lib. of Leominster of abbot of Reading 
30 pt. I, m 17 d; I May. 

% Gour, John 
Hereford 

32 pt. I, m 34 d; 8 March (assoc.). 
Lib. of Leominster of abbot of Reading 

30 pt. I, m 17 d; I May. 

% (jower, Nicholas 
York, N. R. 

L. & P. 25 pt. I, m 14 d; 15 March. 

29 pt. 2, m 8 d; 20 Dec. 

30 pt. I, m 17 d; 12 July. 

Wap. of Allerton, Birdforth and Richmond, N. R. 

28 pt. I, m 22 d; 2 July. 
Wap. of Buhner and Rydale, N. R. 

28 pt I, m 22 d; 2 July. 
Wap. of Cleveland and Pickering, N. R. 

28 pt. I, m 22 d; 2 July. 

Wap. of Herthill and Hovedenshire, E. R. 

(Referred to) 28 pt. 2, m 13 d; 12 Oct. (in assoc. of 
T. de Metham). 
Scarborough 

29 pt. I, m 28 d; 4 July. 



8o* APPENDIX 

I Grandissono, Otto de 
Kent 

L. & P. 25 pt. I, m 15 d; 15 March. 

28 pt. 2, m 13 d; 26 Sept. (repeated). 

29 pt. 2, m 8 d; 20 Oct. (repeated: no date. 
20 Dec. Orig.) 

Grandissono, Peter de 
Hereford 

L. & P. 25 pt. I, m 14 d; 15 March. 
Grave, John de la 
Essex 

L. & P. 25 pt. I, m 15 d; 15 March. 
28 pt I, m 22 d; 2 July. 
Gray, Thomas 

Palatinate of Durham; wards of Chester, Darlington, 
Stockton and Easington, and wapentake of Sadberg. 
Cursitors' Records, 30, rot. i, Hatfield, m. 5 d, no. 6; 
15 June, Sth year, 
f % Grene, Henry (de) 
Essex 

L. & P. 25 pt. I, m IS d; 15 March. 
Herts. 

ditto 
Kent 

ditto 
Northants. 

L. & P. 25 pt. I, m 14 d; 15 March. 

27 pt. 2, m 25 d; 26 Nov. 

28 pt. I, m 22 d; 26 April. 

28 pt. 2, m 13 d; 26 Nov. 

29 pt. I, m 28 d; 26 April. 

29 pt. 2, m 8 d ; i Aug. ; ibid., 20 Dec. 

30 pt. I, m 17 d; 26 March. 
Surrey 

L. & P. 25 pt. I, m 15 d; 15 March. 
Sussex 
ditto 



DOCUMENTS, LISTS AND TABLES gl * 

Lib. of abbot of Peterborough 
28 pt. I, m 22 d; 20 June. 

Clrey, John de, of Codenore 
Derby 

L. & P. 25 pt. I, m 14 d; 15 March. 

Grey, John de, of Rotherfield 
Oxford 

L. & P. 25 pt. I, m 14 d; 15 March. 

(" Nos certis de causis coram consilio . . ab 
officio duximus exonerandum . . . ;" 26 pt. i, m 
8 d; 3 May. J. Golafre likewise. Their places 
taken by G. de Brian and G. Chasteleyn.) 

% Grey, Ralph de 
Berks. 

L. & P. 25 pt. I, m 14 d; 15 March. 
26 pt. 3, m 4 d; I Jan. 
31 pt. I, m 20 d; 5 Feb. 
33 pt. I, m 27 d; 4 Aug. 

J Grey, Gray, Greye, Richard (de), of Landford 
Derby 

L. & P. 25 pt. I, m 13 d; 15 July (assoc.). 
28 pt. 2, m 13 d; 2 July. 
Leicester 

L. & P. 25 pt. I, m 13 d; 15 July (assoc.). 
Holland and Kesteven (Line.) 

L. & P. 24 pt. I, m 23 d; 20 Feb. 
Kesteven (Line.) 

L. & P. 25 pt. I, m 13 d; 18 July (assoc.). 
Lindsey (Line.) 

L. & P. 25 pt. I, m 13 d ; 18 July (assoc.). 
Notts. 

L. & P. 25 pt. I, m 15 d; 15 March. 

28 pt. 2, m 13 d; 2 July. 

29 pt. 2, m 8 d ; i Aug. ; ibid., 20 Dec. 

30 pt. I, m 17 d; 15 April. 



[ 



82 * APPENDIX 

York, W. R. 

L. & P. 25 pt I, m 13 d; 18 July (assoc.). 
Retford-in-the-Qay 

27 pt. I, m 24 d; 20 June. 
Grey, Greye, Roger de 
Bedford 

L. & P. 24 pt. I, m 23 d; 20 Feb. 
L. & P. 25 pt. I, m 15 d; 15 March. 
% Grey, William de, of Sandyacre 
Derby 

30 pt. 3, m 17 d; II Dec. 
Grete, Groete, Groot, Peter (de) 
Worcester 

L. & P. 25 pt. I, m 14 d; 15 March. 
L. & P. 26 pt. I, m 9 d; 20 April; ibid., 2 July. 
Grove, John atte 
Essex 

27 pt. 2, m 25 d; 8 Nov. 

29 pt. 2, m 8 d ; 28 Aug. ; iWd., 20 Dec. 

J Gr3miniesby, Peter de 
Lib. of Holdemess 

L. & P. 26 pt. I, m 8 d ; 20 April (27th year ; assoc), 
29 pt. I, m 28 d; I March. 
York, E. R. 

32 pt. I, m 34 d ; 20 Nov. 

Gyenne, Robert 

Somerset 

L. & P. 25 pt. I, m 13 d; 2 May (assoc.). 
% Hadresham, John de 

Surrey 

28 pt. I, m 22 d; 20 June. 
Lib. of abbot of Battle 

Assize Roll, 907, Surrey; 27 Edw. Ill; app. C, i. 
Hagh, John de 

Holland (Line.) 

29 pt. I, m 28 d; 7 July (30th year; assoc.). 



DOCUMENTS, LISTS AND TABLES 83 * 

Haket, Thomas 
Isle of Wight 

31 pt. I, m 20 d; 5 Feb. 
Haldenby, Robert de 
York, E. R. 

31 pt. I, m 20 d; 5 Feb. 

("Certis de causis coram nobis et consilio nos- 
tro propositis ....," his place is taken by W. 
de Burton; 32 pt. i, m 34 d; 8 Feb.) 
% Hale, John de la, knight 
Dorset 

33 pt. I, m 27 d; 18 May. 
Halsale, Oto de 

Palatinate of Lancaster 

Duchy of Lane, Qianc. Rolls, ii, no. 38 d ; 26 April, 
9 duke Henry. 
Halsham, Robert de 
Sussex 

L. & P. 25 pt. I, m 15 d; 15 March. 

30 pt. I, m 17 d; 12 March. 

31 pt. I, m 20 d; 5 Feb. 
X Hamby, Geoffrey de 

Kingston-on-HuU 

L. & P. 26 pt I, m IS d; 15 Feb. 
27 pt. I, m 24 d ; 12 Feb. 

^ Hamden, Hammeden, John de 
Bucks. 

29 pt. 2, m 8 d ; no date. 20 Dec. Orig. 
31 pt. I, m 20 d; 5 Feb. 

Hardy, William 

Hospital of St. Leonard of York 

30 pt. I, m 17 d; 20 July. 

J Harewedon, Haroughdon, Harwedon, John de 
Hunts. 

31 pt. I, m 20 d; 3 Nov. (in place of John de Sty- 
uecle, who has died). 



84* APPENDIX 

Northants. 

L. & P. 25 pt. I, m 14 d; 15 March. 

27 pt. 2, m 25 d ; 26 Nov. 

28 pt. I, m 22 d; 26 April. 

28 pt. 2, m 13 d ; 26 Nov. 

29 pt. I, m 28 d; 26 April. 

29 pt. 2, m 8 d; i Oct. (assoc.). 
Lib. of abbot of Peterborough 

28 pt. I, m 22 d; 20 June. 

Harewedon, William de 
Northants. 

31 pt. I, m 20 d; 5 Feb. 

32 pt. I, m 34 d; 28 Nov. 

Haryngton, Haveryngton, John de, (Luncle) 
Cumberland 

L. & P. 25,pt. I, m 14 d; 15 March. 
Lancashire 

24 pt. 3, m 13 d; 20 Oct. 
Palatinate of Lancaster 

Duchy of Lane, Chanc. Rolls, ii, no. 10; i Aug., 5 

duke Henry. 
Ibid,, ii, no. 24 d; 10 Oct., 7 duke Henry. 

Haryngton, Roger de 
Lancashire 

24 pt. 3, m 13 d; 20 Oct. 

Hatton, William de 
Herts. 

29 pt. I, m 28 d; 21 March. 

29 pt. 2, m 8 d; 30 Nov.; ibid,, 20 Dec. 

31 pt. I, m 20 d; 5 Feb. 

32 pt. I, m 34 d; 16 May. 

33 pt. I, m 27 d; 10 Aug. 
Middlesex 

29 pt. 2, m 8 d ; I Oct. ; ibid,, 20 Dec. 
31 pt. I, m 20 d; 5 Feb. 



DOCUMENTS, LISTS AND TABLES 85 ♦ 

:( Hauberk, Lawrence 
Leicester 

28 pt. I, m 22 d; 18 Feb.; ibid., 2 July. 

28 pt. 2, m 13 d; 20 Oct. 

29 pt. 2, m 8 d ; i Aug. 
Haydok, Gilbert de 

Lancashire 

24 pt. 3, m 13 d; 20 Oct. 
Heppescotes, William de 
Northumberland 

31 pt. I, m 20 d; 5 Feb. 
Herdewyk, John de 
Oxford 

L. & P. 25 pt. I, m 14 d; 15 March. 
% Herlaston, Roger de 

Lib. of Queen Isabel in towns of Cambridge & Chesterton 

30 pt. 3, m 17 d ; 10 July 
X Herle, Robert de 

Leicester 

28 pt. 2, m 13 d; 20 Oct. 
Heven)mgham, John de 
Essex 

L. & P. 26 pt. I, m 8 d; 6 May (assoc.). 
f % Hillary, Roger 
Gloucester 

L. & P. 25 pt. I, m 14 d; 15 March. 
Hereford 
ditto 
Leicester 

L. & P. 24 pt. I, m 23 d; 20 Feb. 
Shropshire 

L. & P. 25 pt. I, m 14 d; 15 March (non). 
L. & P. 26 pt. I, m 9 d; 15 May. 
Stafford 

L. & P. 25 pt. I, m 14 d; 15 March. 
29 pt. I, m 28 d; 16 May. 
29 pt. 2, m 8 d ; 2 Nov. ; ibid,, 20 Dec. 



86 * APPENDIX 

(By 26 Oct., 30^ year, he has died, and his 
place is taken by R. de Bowode; 30 pt i, m 

17 d.) 

Worcester 

L. & P. 25 pt. I, m 14 d; 15 March. 
L. & P. 26 pt. I, m 9 d ; 20 April ; ibid., 2 July. 
I Hilton, Robert de 
Lib. of Holdemess 

L. & P. 26 pt. I, m 8 d; 20 May (in place of J. de 
Sutton). 
28 pt. I, m 22 d; 2 July. 
Hoghton, Adam de 
Lancashire 

24 pt. 3, m 13 d; 20 Oct. 
Hoke, John 

Lib. of archbishop of Canterbury in Kent 
30 pt. I, m 17 d; 16 Sept. 
J Holand, Robert de 
Northants. 

28 pt. 2, m 13 d; 25 July. 

(Vacat quia restitute sunt.) 
Homptone, Thomas de 

Lib. of Leominster of abbot of Reading 
30 pt. I, m 17 d; I May. 
Hopton, Adam de 
York, W. R. 

L. & P. 25 pt. I, m 14 d; 15 March. 
% Hopton, Walter de 
Shropshire 

L. & P. 25 pt. I, m 14 d; 15 March. 
L. & P. 26 pt. I, m 9 d; 15 May. 

28 pt. I, m 22 d; 20 June. 

29 pt. 2, m 8 d; 20 Dec. 
31 pt. I, m 20 d; 5 Feb. 

J Hopwell, Roger de 

Town of Nottingham 

30 pt. I, m 17 d; 25 May. 



DOCUMENTS, LISTS AND TABLES 87 * 

X Horwode, Horewod, Horewode, William de, of Cambridge, 
(mayor) 
Cambridge 

L. & P. 25 pt. I, m 13 d; 3 Nov. (assoc.). 
27 pt. 2, m 25 d; 15 Dec. (assoc). 
30 pt. I, m 17 d; 20 May (assoc.). 
Hoton, Richard de 
Cumberland 

29 pt. 2, m 8 d, 30 Nov. ; ibid.^ 20 Dec. 
31 pt. I, m 20 d; 5 Feb. 

Houel, John 
Essex 

Assize Roll, 267; for 24 Edw. Ill; app., D, i. 

House, John atte 
Essex 

L. & P. 26 pt. I, m 8 d; 6 May (assoc.). 
Hubert, Thomas 
Essex 

L. & P. 26 pt. I, m 8 d; 6 May (assoc.). 

("Quibusdam . . certis de causis coram con- 
silio nostro propositis, te ab officio illo duximus 
amovendum ....'* Claus. 26 m. 2; 10 Jan.) 
Huddeswell, William de 
York, N. R. 

31 pt. I, m 20 d; 26 Nov. 
% Hugon, Huguyn, John 
Somerset 

28 pt. I, m 22 d; 8 May. ' * 

29 pt. 2, m 8 d; 20 Dec. 
J Humbercolt, Thomas 

Beverley 

L. & P. 26 pt. 2, m 20 d ; 25 June. 
27 pt. 2, m 25 d; 25 Aug. 
Hungerford, Walter de 
Wilts. 

L. & P. 25 pt. I, m 13 d; 28 May (assoc). 



88 * APPENDIX 

Hungerford, Thomas de 
Wilts. 

27 pt. I, m 24 d; 27 May. 
J Hunt, Hunte, Theobald le 

Rutland 

29 pt. I, m 28 d; 12 July. 
29 pt. 2, m 8 d; 20 Dec. 
Huntingdon, earl of. See Clynton. 
% Huse, Husee, Roger 
Surrey 

L. & P. 25 pt. I, m 15 d; 15 March, 
28 pt. I, m 22 d; 20 June. 
f Husee, James 
Somerset 

L. & P. Claus. 25 m. 16; 12 July (writ for wages) 
L. & P. Claus. 26 m. 16; I May (writ for wages) 
32 pt. I, m 34 d; 26 Jan. 
% H)mton, Osbert de 

Town of Huntingdon 

28 pt. 2, m 13 d; 20 Jan. 

29 pt. I, m 28 d; 20 June. 

t % Ingell^y* Thomas de 
York, N. R. 

29 pt. 2, m 8 d ; 20 Dec. 

30 pt. I, m 17 d; 12 July. 

Wap. of Ainsty, Barkston and Qaro, W. R. 

28 pt. I, m 22 d; 2 July. 

29 pt. I, m 28 d; 15 May. 

Wap. of Claro, Ewcross, Sk)Tack and Staincliffe, W. R^ 

28 pt. I, m 22 d ; 10 Feb. 
Lib. of abbot of St. Mary of York 

29 pt. I, m 28 d; 20 June. 
% Inkepenn, Inkepenne, John 

Southampton 

L. & P. 25 pt. I, m 15 d; 15 March. 

28 pt. 2, m 13 d; 2 July. 

29 pt. 2, m 8 d ; no date. 20 Dec. Orig.. 
31 pt. I, m 20 d; 5 Feb. 



DOCUMENTS, USTS AND TABLES 89 

Isle^ John del, of Kent 
Cambridge 

L. & P. 24 pt. I, m 23 d; 20 Feb. 
James, John 

Cinque Ports 

32 pt. I, m 34 d; 20 Oct. 

Kegworth, Keggeworth, Robert de 
Leicester 

L. & P. 25 pt. I, m 13 d; 27 Oct. (assoc.). 

31 pt. I, m 20 d; 5 Feb. 

32 pt. I, m 34 d; 16 Feb. 

X Kegworth, Keggeworth, Simon (de) 
Kent 

28 pt 2, m 13 d; 26 Sept. (repeated). 

29 pt. 2, m 8 d ; 20 Oct. 
Leicester 

L. & P. 25 pt. I, m 13 d; 27 Oct. (assoc.). 
Kelby, Walter de, of Lincoln 
City of Lincoln 

L. & P. 25 pt. I, m 19 d; 27 March. 
30 pt. I, m 17 d; 6 April, 
f % KelleshuU, Richard de 
Bedford 

24 pt. I, m 23 d; 20 Feb. 

25 pt. I, m 15 d; 15 March. 

24 pt. I, m 23 d; 20 Feb. (repeated). 

25 pt. I, m 15 d; 15 March. 

24 pt. I, m 23 d; 20 Feb. 

25 pt. I, m 15 d; 15 March. 
27 pt. 2, m 25 d ; 3 Nov. 
29 pt. 2, m 8 d; 20 Dec. 

24 pt. I, m 23 d; 20 Feb. 

25 pt. I, m 14 d; 15 March. 



L. &P. 


L.&P. 


Bucks. 


L. &P. 


L.&P. 


Cambridge 


L.&P. 


L.&P. 


Hunts. 


L.&P. 


L.&P. 



1 



90 * APPENDIX 

Norfolk 

L. & P. 24 pt. I, m 23 d; 20 Feb. 
L. & P. 25 pt. I, m 14 d; 15 March. 
Suffolk 

L. & P. 25 pt. I, m 14 d; 15 March. 
X Kendale, Edward de 
Herts. 

L. & P. 25 pt. I, m 15 d; 15 March. 
29 pt. I, m 28 d; 21 March. 
Kerdeston, William de 
Norfolk 

L. & P. 24 pt. I, m 23 d; 20 Feb. 
X Kerseye, Kereseye, Henry (de) 
Berks. 

33 pt. I, m 27 d; 4 Aug. 
Lib. of abbot of Reading 
^9 pt- 3> m 4 d; 12 Jan. 
Kirketon, John de 
Lindsey (Line.) 

L. & P. 25 pt. I, m 13 d; 10 July (assoc). 
X Knyghton, John de 
Northants. 

28 pt. 2, m 13 d; 26 Nov. 

29 pt. I, m 28 d; 26 April, 
f X Knyvet, John 

Northants. 

L. & P. 25 pt. I, m 14 d; 15 March. 
27 pt. 2, m 25 d; 26 Nov. 
Lib. of abbot of Peterborough 
28 pt. I, m 22 d ; 20 June. 
Knyvet, Richard 
Rutland 

L. & P. 25 pt. I, m 14 d; 15 March. 
Stamford 

L. & P. 25 pt. I, m 14 d; 15 March. 
Langeford, Nicholas de 
Derby 

L. & P. 25 pt. I, m 14 d; 15 March. 



DOCUMENTS, LISTS AND TABLES 91 ♦ 

% Langele, Eangeleye, Thomas de 
Kent 

31 pt. I, m 20 d; 5 Feb. 
Oxford 

L. & P. 25 pt. I, m 14 d; 15 March. 
26 pt. 3, m 4 d ; I Jan. 

28 pt. 2, m 13 d; 2 July. 

29 pt. 2, m 8 d ; i Aug. (repeated : no date. 
20 Dec. Orig.) 

31 pt. I, m 20 d; 5 Feb. 
33 pt. I, m 27 d; 28 May. 

Langele, William de 
Kent 

31 pt. I, m 20 d; 5 Feb. 

Langeton, Thomas de 
Bedford 

30 pt. I, m 17 d; 6 July (assoc.). 

Lanum, John de 
Notts. 

31 pt. I, m 20 d; 5 Feb. (repeated). 
Southwell 

30 pt. I, m 17 d; 30 May; ibid., 15 July. 

LascelSy John 

Lib. of abbot of St. Mary of York 

29 pt. I, m 28 d; 20 June. 

% Lasyngcroft, Lays)mgcroft, John de 
York, N. R. 

33 pt. I, m 27 d; 12 Sept. 
York, W. R. 

30 pt. 3, m 17 d; 26 Oct. (assoc.). 
Lib. of duke of Lancaster in York, W. R. 

30 pt. I, m 17 d; 16 Oct. 

Lathum, Thomas de 
Lancashire 

24 pt. 3, m 13 d; 20 Oct. 



92 * APPENDIX 

Launde, Thomas de la 
Holland (Line.) 

33 pt. I, m 27 d; i8 Feb. (assoc. with R. de Meres 

in place of W. de Surflet). 
33 pt. I, m 27 d; 26 March. 

% Laundels, Laundeles, John (de) 
Berks. 

26 pt. 3, m 4 d ; I Jan. 
Oxford 

26 pt. 3, m 4 d ; I Jan. 

28 pt. 2, m 13 d; 2 July. 

29 pt. 2, m 8 d ; i Aug. 

(Made sheriflF of Oxford and Berks.; there- 
fore his place is taken by T. de Eleford; ibid., 
2 Dec.) 
Cinque Ports 

32 pt. I, m 34 d ; 20 Oct. 
Laurence, William 

Palatinate of Lancaster 

Referred to for years 26, 27 and 28; Lay Subs., 
130/21, Lancaster. App. D, 4. 

I Lavenham, William de 
Cambridge 

L. & P. 25 pt. I, m 15 d; 15 March. 
27 pt. 2, m 25 d ; 3 Nov. 
Essex 

L. & P. 25 pt. I, m 13 d; 20 May (assoc.). 
J Lee, John atte 
Herts. 

29 pt. I, m 28 d; 21 March. 

29 pt. 2, m 8 d ; 30 Nov. ; ibid., 20 Dec. 

31 pt. I, m 20 d; 5 Feb. 

J Lee, John de (de la, du) 
Staflford 

29 pt. I, m 28 d; 16 May. 
29 pt. 2, m 8 d; 2 Nov. 



DOCUMENTS, LISTS AND TABLES 93 ♦ 

Warwick 

L. & P. 25 pt. I, m 15 d; 15 March. 

L. & P. 26 pt. I, m 9 d ; 20 April. 
Worcester 

(Referred to) L. & P., Qaus. 26 m. 19; 15 April. 
% Leek, Lek, Lawrence de 
Holland (Line.) 

27 pt. 2, m 25 d ; 20 Jan. 

28 pt. I, m 22 d; 8 May; ibid., 2 July. 

29 pt. 2, m 8 d; 20 Dec. 
31 pt. I, m 20 d; 5 Feb. 

Leek, Matthew de 

Holland (Line.) 

L. & P. 25 pt. I, m 14 d; 15 March. 
Legburn, William de 

Lib. of St. Mary's church of Lincoln 

30 pt. I, m 17 d; 27 Oct. 
Legh, Leghe, Robert de 

Palatinate of Qiester 

Eyre Roll, 13; Indictment Roll, 19; Indictment Roll, 
4; for years 26, 27, 30, 31, 32 and 33. App. C, i. 
Lellay, Thomas 

Lib. of abbot of St. Mary of York 

29 pt. I, m 28 d; 20 June. 
% Leukenore, John de 

Oxford 

28 pt. 2, m 13 d; 2 July. 
% Leycester, Richard de 
Northants. 

28 pt. 2, m 13 d ; 25 July. ( Vacat quia restitute sunt) 
Ligon. See Lygon. 
Lilbom, Roger de 
York, W. R. 

33 pt. I, m 27 d; 28 May. 
f I Lodelowe, Thomas de 

Lib. of archbishop of Canterbury in Kent 

30 pt. I, m 17 d; 16 Sept. 



1 



94 



APPENDIX 



% Longevill, George 
Northants. 

28 pt. 2, m 13 d ; 25 July. ( Vacat quia restitute sunt.) 
Louthe, Roger de 

Herts. 

32 pt. I, m 34 d; 16 May. 

33 pt. I, m 27 d ; 10 Aug. 
% Loveday, John 

Berks. 

L. & P. 25 pt. I, m 14 d; 15 March. 

26 pt. 3, m 4 d; I Jan. 

29 pt. 2, m 8 d ; no date. 20 Dec. Orig. 
31 pt. I, m 20 d; 5 Feb. 
Lovel, John 
Middlesex 

L. & P. 25 pt. I, m 14 d; 15 March. 
Lovely Richard 
Somerset 

L. & P. Mem. L. T. R., 26, Hill., Recorda, rot. 4; 
per Orig. an. 25. (He has died and the exchequer 
is trying to secure his estreats.) 

% Lovelaunce, Levelaunce, Thomas 
Lindsey (Line.) 

L. & P. 25 pt. I, m 14 d; 15 March. 

27 pt. 2, m 25 d ; 26 Oct. 

28 pt. I , m 22 d ; 8 May ; ibid., 3 July. 
31 pt. I, m 20 d; 5 Feb. 

Lovell, Thomas 

Lib. of abbot of St. Mary of York 

29 pt. I, m 28 d; 20 June. 
Lovet, John 

Kesteven (Line.) 

31 pt. I, m 20 d; 5 Feb. 

Lowet, Thomas 
Cambridge 

L. & P. 24 pt. I, m 23 d; 20 Feb. 



DOCUMENTS, LISTS AND TABLES 95 ♦ 

Loxleye, Henry de ' 

Surrey 

L. & P. 25 pt. I, m 13 d; 27 Nov. (assoc.). 
% Lucy, Geoffrey de 

Bedford 

27 pt 2, m 25 d; 22 Nov. 

28 pt. 2, m 13 d; 20 Jan. 
Bucks. 

26 pt. 3, m 7 d; 17 Dec. 

28 pt. 2, m 13 d; 2 July. 

29 pt. 2, m 8 d ; no date. 20 Dec. Orig. 

Lucy, Thomas (de) 
Cumberland 

L. & P. 25 pt. I, m 14 d; 15 March. 
Holland (Line.) 

L. & P. 25 pt. I, m 14 d; 15 March. 

% Luffenham, Robert de 
Rutland 

31 pt. I, m 20 d ; 5 Feb. 

Luscote, William de 
Devon 

31 pt I, m 20 d; 5 Feb. 

(When he is made steward of various lord- 
ships, his place, and that of T. de Crouthom for 
other reasons, are taken by R. de Chiselden and 
W. de Braunkescombe ; 33 pt. i, m 27 d ; 9 Feb.) 

Lutteleton, Thomas de 
Worcester 

28 pt I, m 22 d; I July. 

Lye, Lyee, Richard de 
Gloucester 

28 pt 2, m 13 d; 3 Feb. (29*** year; assoc.). 
31 pt I, m 20 d; 5 Feb. (At his death his place is 
taken by J. Serjant; ibid,, 12 Feb.) 



96 * APPENDIX 

% Lygon, Ligon, Lygoun, John 
Essex 

27 pt. 2, m 25 d ; 3 Aug. ( Vacat quia aliter inferius.) 

27 pt 2, m 25 d; 8 Nov. 

28 pt. I, m 22 d; 2 July. 
31 pt. I, m 20 d; 5 Feb. 

J Lyouns, John de 
Northants. 

27 pt. 2, m 25 d ; 26 Nov. 

28 pt. I, m 22 d; 26 April. 

28 pt. 2, m 13 d; 26 Nov. 

29 pt. I, m 28 d; 26 April. 

29 pt. 2, m 8 d ; i Aug. ; ibid,, 20 Dec. 

30 pt. I, m 17 d; 26 March. 

31 pt. I, m 20 d; 5 Feb. 

32 pt. I, m 34 d; 28 Nov. 

J Lysens, John 
Notts. 

29 pt. I, m 28 d; 26 Jan. 
Lyverpull, William de 

Palatinate of Lancaster 

Duchy of Lane, Chanc. Rolls, ii, no. 24 d; 10 Oct., 
7 duke Henry. 
J Mal3ms, Edmund de 
Oxford 

L. & P. 25 pt. I, m 14 d; 15 March. 
26 pt. 3, m 4 d; I Jan. 
28 pt. 2, m 13 d; 2 July. 
Makenad, William 
Kent 

29 pt. 2, m 8 d ; no date. 20 Dec. Orig. 
Malesors, Thomas 
Leicester 

31 pt. I, m 20 d; 5 Feb. 

32 pt. I, m 34 d; 16 Feb. 
Manny. See Mauny. 



DOCUMENTS, LISTS AND TABLES 97 ♦ 

Mare, Geoffrey de la 

Holland and Kesteven (Line.) 

L. & P. 24 pt. I, m 23 d; 20 Feb. 
Rutland 

L. & P. 25 pt. I, m 14 d; 15 March. 
:j: Mareschal, Marchal, Marescall, John (le), (of Wotton) 
Bedford 

L. & P. 24 pt. I, m 23 d; 20 Feb. 
L. & P. 25 pt. I, m 15 d; 15 March. 

27 pt. 2, m 25 d ; 22 Nov. 

28 pt. 2, m 13 d; 20 Jan. 

29 pt. 2, m 8 d; 20 Oct. (repeated: no date. 
20 Dec. Orig.). 

31 pt. I, m 20 d; 5 Feb. 
Martel, Hugh, of Chilwell 
Notts. 

L. & P. 25 pt. I, m 15 d; 15 March. 
% Martyn, Robert 
Dorset 

28 pt. 2, m 13 d ; 20 Jan. 

29 pt. 2, m 8 d ; 20 Dec. 
31 pt. I, m 20 d; 5 Feb. 

Mauny, Walter de 
Herts. 

L. & P. 25 pt. I, m 15 d; 15 March. 
Northants. 

(Referred to) L. & P., Orig. 24 m. 33, 12 June. 
Ma)mwar3mg, Maynwaring, William de 
Palatinate of Chester 

Indictment Roll, 19; for years 27, 30 and 31. App. 
C, I. 
Meaux, John de 

Wap. of Bucrose, Derwent, Dickering and Ouse, E. R. 
28 pt. I, m 22 d; 2 July. 
Meaux, Meux, Thomas de 

Holland and Kesteven (Line.) 

L. & P. 24 pt. I, m 23 d ; 20 Feb. 



98 * APPENDIX 

Kestevcn (Line.) 

L. & P. 25 pt. I, m 13 d; I May (assoc.). 

27 pt. I, m 24 d; 4 May. 

28 pt. I, m 22 d; 8 May. 
Melbum, Henry de 

Lib. of St. Peter of York 

28 pt. 2, m 13 d; 8 Nov. 
Mcnevill, John de 

Palatinate of Durham; wards of Chester, Darlington, 
Stockton and Easington, and wapentake of Sad- 
berg. 
Cursitors' Records, 30, rot. i, Hatfield, m 5 d, no. 6; 
15 June, 5<^** year. 

X Menill, Menyl, Hugh de 
Derby 

L. & P. 25 pt. I, m 14 d; 15 March. 
30 pt. I, m 17 d; 12 July. 

f % Mere, Meers, Meres, Roger de, (of Kirketon) 
Holland (Line.) 

L. & P. 25 pt. I, m 14 d; 15 March. 

27 pt. 2, m 25 d; 20 Jan. 

28 pt. I, m 22 d; 8 May; tfrtd., 2 July. 

29 pt. 2, m 8 d; 20 Dee. 
33 pt. I, m 27 d; 18 Feb. 

(assoc. with T. de la Launde in place 
of W. de Surflet.) 
Boston 

29 pt. 2, m 8 d ; 16 Oct. 

30 pt. I, m 17 d; 15 March. 
Merke, Ralph atte 

Manors, etc., of St. Paul's church in Essex, Herts., and 
Midd. 
30 pt. I, m 17 d; II Sept 
Merkford, Robert de 
Town of Leicester 

30 pt. 3, m 17 d ; 16 Nov. 



DOCUMENTS, LISTS AND TABLES 99 ♦ 

J Meiyngton, John de 

Warwick, except Coventry 

29 pt. 2, m 8 d; i Aug. 
Warwick 

29 pt. 2, m 8 d; 20 Dec 

30 pt. 3, m 17 d; 8 Nov. 
Coventry 

28 pt. I, m 22 d; 28 Feb.; ibid., 28 June. 

Meryngton, Mer3mton, William de 
City of York 

L. & P. 25 pt. 3, m 19 d ; 3 Nov. 
Lib. of Ripon of archbishop of York 

30 pt. I, m 17 d; 28 April. 
Lib. of St. Peter of York 

28 pt. 2, m 13 d ; 8 Nov. 
Lib. of Hospital of St. Leonard of York 
30 pt. I, m 17 d; 20 July. 
% Metham, Thomas de 

Wap. of Herthill and Hovedenshire, York, E. R. 
28 pt. 2, m 13 d; 12 Oct. (assoc.). 
% Michel, Nicholas 
Coventry 

28 pt. I, m 22 d; 28 Feb.; ibid., 28 June. 

J Michel, Michiel, Roger (de), (of Breideston) 
Derby 

L. & P. 25 pt. I, m 14 d; 15 March. 

30 pt. 3, m 17 d; II Dec. 

31 pt. I, m 20 d; 5 Feb. 

(Having been made sheriff of Derby, 
his place is taken by H. de Beek. Ibid., 
16 Dec.) 
(Referred to) 33 pt. i, m 27 d, 12 July, in assoc. of 
W. de Steynton. 
Middelham, Robert de 

Lib. of abbot of St. Mary of York 

29 pt. I, m 28 d; 20 June. 



100 * APPENDIX 

% Middelneye, Middelnye, Ralph de 
Somerset 

28 pt. I, m 22 d; 8 May. 

29 pt. 2, m 8 d; 20 Dec. 

30 pt. I, m 17 d; 20 Oct. 
J Middelton, John de 

York, E. R. 

31 pt. I, m 20 d; S Feb. 
Middelton, William de, clerk 

Dorset 

31 pt. I, m 20 d; 28 July (assoc.). 
33 pt. I, m 27 d; 12 Aug. (assoc.). 
Mikelfeld, Hamo de 
Suffolk 

29 pt. 2, m 8 d; 16 Feb. (30**^ year; assoc.). 
(Repeated) 30 pt. i, m 19 d. 
J Mirfeld, William de 
York, W. R. 

L. & P. 25 pt. I, m 14 d; 15 March (repeated: 20 
May). 
27 pt. I, m 24 d; 3 July. 
Molyns, John de 
Bedford 

L. & P. 24 pt. I, m 23 d ; 20 Feb. 
Bucks. 

L. & P. 24 pt. I, m 23 d; 20 Feb. (repeated). 
Montfort, Monte Forti, Peter de 
Warwick 

L. & P. 25 pt. I, m 15 d; 15 March. 
L. & P. 26 pt. I, m 9 d; 20 April. 
Except Coventry 

29 pt. 2, m 8 d ; i Aug. 
Warwick 

Ibid., 20 Dec. 
J Mon3rton, Hugh de 
Hereford 

29 pt. 2, m 8 d; 2 Oct.; ibid., 20 Dec. 
31 pt. I, m 20 d; 5 Feb. 



DOCUMENTS, LISTS AND TABLES loi ♦ 

Mordon, William de, sheriff 

Palatinate of Durham; wards of Chester, Darlington, 
Stockton and Easington, and wapentake of Sad- 
berg. 
Cursitors' Records, 30, rot i, Hatfield, m 5 d, no. 6; 
15 June, 5**» year. 
Morice, Moryce, John 
Bedford 

L. & P. 24 pt. I, m 23 d ; 20 Feb. 
L. & P. 25 pt. I, m 15 d; 15 March. 
% Morieux, Thomas 
Suffolk 

30 pt. I, m 17 d; 13 Oct. (with M. de Bures in place 
of A. de Bures). 
X Moritz, Stephen, the younger 

Lib. of Queen Isabel in towns of Cambridge and Ches- 
terton 

30 pt. 3, m 17 d; 10 July. 
Moritz, Moricz, Thomas 

Essex 

28 pt. I, m 22 d; 2 July. 
London 

31 pt. I, m 20 d; I Aug. 
% Morle, Robert de 

Norfolk 

L. & P. 24 pt. I, m 23 d; 20 Feb. 
28 pt. i; m 22 d ; 26 June. 
Mortimer. See Mortuo Mari and Mortymer. 
Mortuo Mari, Constantine de, le fitz 
Cambridge 

L. & P. 24 pt. I, m 23 d ; 20 Feb. 
Mortjrmer, Roger de 
Shropshire 

L. & P. 25 pt. I, m 14 d ; 15 March. 
Mor3m, John de 

Wap. of Qeveland and Pickering, N. R. 
28 pt. I, m 22 d; 2 July. 



I02* APPENDIX 

f JMotelowe, Henry, de 
Shrewsbury 

30 pt. I, m 17 d; 18 Sept. 
f % Moubray, John (de) 
Derby 

L. & P. 25 pt. I, m 14 d; 15 March. 
Leicester 

ditto 
Holland (Line.) 

ditto 
Lindsey (Line.) 

ditto 
Northants. 

ditto 
Notts. 

Ibid,, m 15 d; 15 March. 
Rutland 

Ibid,, m 14 d; 15 March. 
Warwick 

L. & P. 25 pt. I, m 15 d; 15 March. 

L. & P. 26 pt. I, m 9 d; 20 April. 
York, N. R. 

L. & P. 25 pt. I, m 14 d; IS March. 

29 pt. 2, m 8 d ; 20 Dec. 

30 pt. I, m 17 d; 12 July. 

Wap. of Allerton, Birdforth and Richmond, N. R. 

28 pt. I, m 22 d; 2 July. 
Wap. of Bulmer and Rydale, N. R. 

28 pt. I, m 22 d; 2 July. 
Wap. of Qeveland and Pickering, N. R. 

28 pt. I, m 22 d; 2 July. 
Wap. of Herthill and Hovedenshire, E. R. 

28 pt. I, m 22 d; 2 July. 
Wap. of Bucrose, Derwent, Dickering and Ouse, E. R^ 

28 pt. I, m 22 d; 2 July. 
County of Richmond 

28 pt. I, m 22 d; 10 Feb. 



DOCUMENTS, LISTS AND TABLES 103 * 

Lib. of Holdemess 

28 pt. I, m 22 d; 2 July. 
Lib. of St. Peter of York 

28 pt. 2, m 13 d; 8 Nov. 

Lib. of Hospital of St. Leonard of York 

30 pt. I, m 17 d; 20 July. 
City of Lincoln 

L. & P. 25 pt. I, m 19 d; 27 March. 
Scarborough 

29 pt. I, m 28 d; 4 July. 

30 pt. 3, m 17 d ; 30 Oct. 
City of York 

L. & P. 25 pt. 3, m 19 d ; 3 Nov. 
Stamford 

L. & P. 25 pt. I, m 14 d; 15 March. 
Mounceauxy Martin 
Bucks. 

L. & P. 24 pt. I, m 23 d; 20 Feb. 
Mountkoy, Mouncoy, Munkoye, Roger 
Essex 

30 pt. I, m 19 d; 14 Feb. (assoc.). 

29 pt. I, m 28 d; 10 July (30'** year, in place of J. 

de Staunton, who has died). 
32 pt. I, m 34 d; 10 July (assoc.). 
^ Munden, John (de) 
Dorset 
(Referred to) L. & P. 24 Edw. Ill; Mem. L. T. R., 

31, Hill., Recorda, rot. 9. 
L. & P. 25 pt. I, m 15 d; 15 March. 

28 pt. 2, m 13 d; 20 Jan. 

29 pt. 2, m 8 d; 20 Dec. 
31 pt. I, m 20 d; 5 Feb. 
33 pt. I, m 27 d; 18 May. 

Middlesex 

L. & P. 25 pt. I, m 14 d; 15 March. 

(His place, and that of R. atte Watre, are 
taken by J. de Tamworth and W. de Colbrok; 
28 pt I, m 22 d; 12 April.) 



104* APPENDIX 

X Musard, John 
Worcester 

27 pt. I, m 24 d; 12 Feb. 

28 pt. I, m 22 d; 18 May; tftid., i July. 
X Musgrave, Thomas de 

Westmoreland 

L. & P. 25 pt. I, m 14 d; 15 March. 
27 pt. 2, m 25 d; 26 Oct. 
Nessefeld, John de 
Boston 

30 pt. I, m 17 d; 15 March. 
Nessefeld, Thomas de 

Wap. of Claro, Ewcross, Skyrack and Staincliffe, W. R* 
28 pt. I, m 22 d; 10 Feb. 
Nessefeld, William de 

Lib. of Knaresborough of Queen Philippa 

30 pt. I, m 17 d; 26 July. 
X Neudegate, William 

Surrey 

31 pt. I, m 20 d; 5 Feb. 
Neuport, John de 

Essex 

33 pt. I, m 27 d; 6 March. 
Nevil, Alexander de 

Wap. of Bulmer and Rydale, N. R. 
28 pt. I, m 22 d; 2 July. 
Nevill, Philip de 
Lindsey (Line.) 

L. & P. 25 pt. I, m 14 d; 15 March. 
Nevill, Ralph de 
York, N. R. 

(Referred to) L. & P. Claus., 26, m 25 d; 10 March* 
X Nevill, William de 
Grimsby 

27 pt. 2, m 25 d; 15 Jan. 
Newcastle. See Novo Castro. 



DOCUMENTS, LISTS AND TABLES 105 * 

Newmarche. See Novo Mercato. 
Newmarket. See Novo Mercato. 
Northburgh, Hugh de 
Northants. 

31 pt. I, m 20 d; 5 Feb. 
J Northland, John de 
York, W. R. 

L. & P. 25 pt. I, m 14 d; 20 May. 
27 pt. I, m 24 d; 3 July. 

31 pt. I, m 20 d; 5 Feb. 

32 pt. I, m 34 d; 18 June. 
Northo, William de 

Sussex 

28 pt. I, m 22 d; 20 June. 
Northtoft, Northtuft, Nortoft, Nortot, Edmund de 
Essex 

Assize Roll, 267; for 24 Edw. Ill; app. D, i. 
J Norton, Vincent de 
Norfolk 

28 pt. I, m 22 d; 26 June. 
Norwich, Norwiche, John de 
Norfolk 

L. & P. 24 pt. I, m 23 d; 20 Feb. 
L. & P. 25 pt. I, m 14 d; 15 March, 
f % Notton, William de 
Essex 

L. & P. 25 pt. I, m 15 d; 15 March. 
Herts. 

L. & P. 25 pt. I, m 15 d; 15 March. 
29 pt. I, m 28 d; 21 March. 
29 pt. 2, m 8 d; 30 Nov. 
Kent 

L. & P. 25 pt. I, m 15 d; 15 March. 
Surrey 

ditto 
Sussex 
ditto 



I06 * APPENDIX 

York, W. R. 

L. & P. 25 pt. I, m 14 d; 20 May. 

27 pt. I, m 24 d; 3 July. 
29 pt. 2, m 8 d; 20 Dec. 

Wap. of Ainsty, Barkston and Qaro, W. R. 

28 pt. I, m 22 d; 2 July. 

29 pt. I, m 28 d; 15 May. 
Beverley 

27 pt. 2, m 25 d ; 25 Aug. 

:f Novo Castro, Richard de, (of Scarborough) 
Scarborough 

L. & P. 26 pt. I, m 21 d ; 20 Feb. 

28 pt. 2, m 13 d; 3 Oct. 

29 pt. I, m 28 d; 14 Feb. 

30 pt. 3, m 17 d ; 30 Oct. 

J Novo Mercato, Newemarche, Thomas de 
Notts. 

31 pt. I, m 20 d; S Feb. (Repeated. When he is 
appointed collector of the subsidy, his place is taken 
by J. Bozon. Ibid., 10 Nov.) 
Nuthirst, Walter 

Lib. of King's Chapel of Windsor 

30 pt. I, m 17 d; 8 June. 
Oldecastel, Oldcastell, Oldcastle, John de (del) 

Hereford 

29 pt. 2, m 8 d; 2 Oct.; ibid., 20 Dec. 

31 pt. I, m 20 d; S Feb. 
J Oldestowe, Aldestowe, John de 

Cornwall 

L. & P. 26 pt. I, m 9 d; 15 July. 
28 pt. 2, m 13 d; 16 Dec. 
Orreby, John de 
Cumberland 

L. & P. 25 pt. I, m 14 d; 15 March. 
Lindsey (Line.) 
ditto 



DOCUMENTS, LISTS AND TABLES 107 * 

Otewy, Alexander 
Herts. 

L. & P. 25 pt. I, m 15 d; 15 March. 
Oughtred. See Ughtred. 
Ousseflete. See Usflet. 
Overbury, William de 
Gloucester 

32 pt. I, m 34 d; 26 Feb. (assoc.). 
Overton, William de 
Southampton 

L. & P. 25 pt. I, m 15 d; 15 March. 

t Pakeman, Pageman, Simon 
Leicester 

L. & P. 25 pt. I, m 14 d; 15 March. 

("Et licet postmodum certis de causis nos tunc 
mouentibus vos ac prefatum lohannem de Foluill 
. . . duxerimus amouendos. Quia tamen dili- 
gentia et fidelitas vestre in execucione nego- 
ciorum nostrorum per vos exequende per certos 
fideles nostros quibus fidem adhibemus, testificate 
existunt . . . /' he is restored ; Qaus. 26 m. 29 ; 
6 Feb.) 
28 pt. I, m 22 d; 18 Feb.; fWJ., 2 July. 

28 pt. 2, m 13 d ; 20 Oct. 

29 pt. 2, m 8 d; i Aug. 

Papeworth, John de 

Hunts. 

L. & P. 24 pt. I, m 23 d; 20 Feb. 
Paries, Waller 

Northants. 

28 pt. 2, m 13 d; 26 Nov. 

29 pt. I, m 28 d; 26 April. 
29 pt. 2, m 8 d; i Aug. 

Parys, Randolf de 

Holland and Kesteven (Line.) 

L. & P. 24 pt. I, m 23 d; 20 Feb. 



Io8 * APPENDIX 

• 

Pavely, John 
Wilts. 

L. & P. 25 pt. I, m 15 d; IS March. 
Payn, Walter 
Leicester 

31 pt. I, m 20 d; s Feb. 
J Pentelowe, Thomas de 
Berks. 

26 pt. 3, m 4 d ; I Jan. 
29 pt. 2, m 8 d ; no date. 20 Dec. Orig. 
31 pt. I, m 20 d; 5 Feb. 
33 pt. I, m27 d; 4 Aug. 
f Percy, Henry de 
Northumberland 

L. & P. 25 pt. I, m 14 d; 15 March. 
Petygard, Roger 
Norfolk 

L. & P. 24 pt. I, m 23 d; 20 Feb. 
Peverel, Andrew 
Sussex 

L. & P. 25 pt. I, m 15 d; 15 March. 

30 pt. I, m 17 d; 12 March. 

31 pt. I, m 20 d; 5 Feb. 
X Peyto, John de 

Warwick 

. 28 pt. I, m 22 d; 18 May. 
Piperel, Roger 
Devon 

L. & P. 25 pt. I, m 14 d; 15 March, 
t Playce, Plays, William 
York, E. R. 

29 pt. 2, m 8 d ; 20 Dec. 
Wap. of Bucrose, Derwent, Dickering and Ouse, E. R* 

28 pt. I, m 22 d; 2 July. 
t Plumpton, William de 

York, W. R. 

29 pt. 2, m 8 d; 20 Dec. 



DOCUMENTS, LISTS AND TABLES 



109* 



Wap. of Ainsty, Barkston and Qaro, W. R. 

28 pt. I, m 22 d; 2 July. 

29 pt. I, m 28 d; 15 May. 

Wap. of Claro, Ewcross, Skyrack and Staincliffe, W. R. 
28 pt. I, m 22 d; 10 Feb. 

{ Pole, Henry de la (attc) 
Derby 

L. & P. 25 pt. .1, m 13 d; 20 July (assoc.). 

28 pt. 2, m 13 d ; 2 July. 

29 pt. 2, m 8 d ; 20 Dec. 

30 pt. 3, m 17 d; II Dec. 

30 pt. I, m 17 d; 8 Aug. (in place of T. 
Adam). 

Pole, Richard de la 
Gloucester 

L. & P. 25 pt. I, m 14 d; 15 March. 
Hereford 

ditto 
Leicester 

L.&P. 
Shropshire 

L.&P. 

L.&P. 
Stafford 

L.&P. 
Worcester 

ditto 

L. &P. 

t X Pole, William de la 
Norfolk 

28 pt. I, m 22 d; 26 June. 

Polglas, Polglase, William (de) 
Cornwall 

29 pt. 2, m 8 d ; 10 Dec. ; ibid.y 20 Dec. 
32 pt. I, m 34 d; 20 Feb. 



24 pt. I, m 23 d; 20 Feb. 

25 pt. I, m 14 d; 15 March. 

26 pt. I, m 9 d; 15 May. 

25 pt. I, m 14 d; 15 March. 



26 pt. I, m 9 d ; 20 April; t&irf., 2 July. 



no * APPENDIX 

J Ponyngcs, Michael de 
Sussex 

L. & P. 25 pt. I, m 15 d; 15 March. 
28 pt. I, m 22 d; 20 June. 

Porter, William, of Stebbyng 

Manors of Henry, duke of Lancaster, in Kent, Essex, 
Sussex and Midd. 
30 pt. 3, m 22 d ; 28 Oct. • 

Pothowe, John de 

Lib. of abbot of St. Mary of York 

30 pt. 3, m 17 d; 20 Nov. (assoc.). 

X Power, John 
Notts. 

L. & P. 25 pt. I, m 15 d; 15 March. 

28 pt. 2, m 13 d; 2 July. 

29 pt. I, m 28 d; 26 Jan. 

30 pt. I, m 17 d; 3 June (assoc.). 

Poynton, Walter de 
City of Lincoln 

L. & P. 25 pt. I, m 19 d; 27 March. 
Lib. of St. Mary's church of Lincoln 
30 pt. I, m 17 d; 27 Oct. 

Prestcote, Robert de 

Palatinate of Lancaster 

Duchy of Lane, Qianc. Rolls, ii, no. 10; i Aug., 5 
duke Henry. 
• Ibid., ii, no. 24 d ; 10 Oct., 7 duke Henry. 
Ibid., ii, 38 d ; 26 April, 9 duke Henry. 

Priterwell, John de 
Essex 

L. & P. 26 pt. I, m 8 d; 6 May (assoc.). 

Proctour, Thomas 

Lib. of abbot of St. Mary of York 
29 pt. I, m 28 d; 20 June. 



DOCUMENTS, LISTS AND TABLES m ♦ 

{ Pudsay, Pudesey, John de, (of Craven) 
York, W. R. 

32 pt I, m 34 d; 18 June. 
32 pt. I, m 34 d; 12 Nov. (assoc.). 
Wap. of Qaro, Ewcross, Skyrack and Staindiflfe, W. IL 
28 pt. I, m 22 d; 10 Feb. 
Pukrych, John de 
Herts. 

30 pt. 3, m 17 d; 8 Nov. (assoc.). 
X Pund, Adam (de) 

Kingston-on-Hull 

L. & P. 26 pt. I, m IS d; 15 Feb. 
27 pt. I, m 24 d; 12 Feb. 
X Puref ey, Philip 
Leicester 

28 pt. I, m 22 d; 2 July. 
Puttenham, Roger de 
Bucks. 

L. & P. 24 pt. I, m 23 d; 20 Feb. 

Pykworth, Thomas de 
York, W. R. 

31 pt. I, m 20 d; 5 Feb. 
Radeclif, Richard de 

Palatinate of Lancaster 

Duchy of Lane, Chanc. Rolls, ii, no. 10; i Aug., 5 

duke Henry. 
/Wd., ii, no. 24 d ; 10 Oct., 7 duke Henry. 
/6wf., ii, no. 38 d ; 26 April, 9 duke Henry. 
Radeclif, William de 

Palatinate of Lancaster 

Duchy of Lane, Chanc. Rolls, ii, no. 10; i Aug., 5 
duke Henry. 

Radeswell, James de 
Herts. 

(Referred to) Lay Subs., 120/32; from Mich. 25 
Edw. HI to Mich. 26 Edw. IH. 



^ 



112* APPENDIX 

% Repyngale, Rep3mghale, John de 
Kesteven (Line.) 

27 pt. I, m 24 d; 4 May. 

28 pt. I, m 22 d; 8 May. 

29 pt. 2, m 8 d; 20 Dec. 
31 pt. I, m 20 d; 5 Feb. 

Newark 

30 pt. I, m 17 d; 27 May. 

Restwold, Ralph de 
Berks. 

29 pt. 2, m 8 d ; no date. 20 Dec. Orig. 

Reynes, Thomas de 
Bucks. 

L. & P. 24 pt. I, m 23 d; 20 Feb. 

% Richemond, Richemound, Rychemond, Rychemound, Ryche- 
mund, Peter de 
York, N. R. 

L. & P. 25 pt. I, m 14 d ; 15 March. 
30 pt. I, m 17 d; 12 July. 
Wap. of Allerton, Birdforth and Richmond, N. R. 

28 pt. I, m 22 d; 2 July. 
Wap. of Bulmer and Rydale, N. R. 

28 pt. I, m 22 d; 2 July. 
Wap. of Herthill and Hovedenshire, E. R. 

28 pt. I, m 22 d; 2 July. 
Wap. of Bucrose, Derwent, Dickering and Ouse, E. R. 

28 pt. I, m 22 d; 2 July. 
Wap. of Qeveland and Pickering, N. R. 

28 pt. I, m 22 d; 2 July. 
County of Richmond 

28 pt. I, m 22 d ; 10 Feb. 
Lib. of Holdemess 

28 pt. I, m 22 d; 2 July. 
Lib. of Ripon of archbishop of York 

30 pt. I, m 17 d; 28 April. 



DOCUMENTS, LISTS AND TABLES 113 * 

% Ricliemond, Richemound, Richemund, Richard (de) 
York. N. R. 

31 pt. I, m 20 d; 5 Feb.; ibid., 26 Nov. 

33 pt. I, m 27 d; 12 Sept. 
Lib. of abbot of St. Mary of York 

29 pt. I, m 28 d; 20 June. 

Risshebrok, William de 
SufFolk 

28 pt. 2, m 13 d; 20 Nov. (assoc.). 

^ Roches, John de 
Wilts. 

L. & P. 25 pt. I, m 13 d; 28 May (assoc.). 

27 pt. I, m 24 d ; 27 May. 

28 pt. 2, m 13 d; 2 July. 

29 pt. 2, m 8 d; no date. 20 Dec. Orig. 
31 pt. I, m 20 d; 5 Feb. 

Somerset 

Claus. 32 m. 6; 12 Nov. (writ for wages). 

{ Rodeneye, Walter de 
Somerset 

29 pt. 2, m 8 d; 20 Dec. 

30 pt. I, m 17 d; 20 Oct. 

31 pt. I, m 20 d; 5 Feb. 

32 pt. I, m 34 d; 26 Jan. 

Roderham, Roderam, William de 
Kent 

28 pt. 2, m 13 d; 26 Sept. 
31 pt. I, m 20 d ; 5 Feb. 

Surrey 

Claus. 30 m. 13; 8 June (writ for wages). 

Rokele, John de la 
Essex 

29 pt. 2, m 8 d; 20 Oct. (assoc.). 

30 pt. I, m 19 d; 15 Feb. (assoc). 



1 14 * APPENDIX 

% Rokele, Robert de la 
Essex 

27 pt. i^ m 24 d; 3 June. 
2y pt. 2, m 25 d; 8 Nov. 

28 pt. I, m 22 d; 2 July. 
% Rokesdon, John de 

Bedford 

28 pt. 2, m 13 d; 20 Jan. 

29 pt. 2, m 8 d ; 20 Oct. (repeated : no date. 20 Dec 
Orig.). 

31 pt. I, m 20 d; 5 Feb. 
Roos, Thomas de 

Holland and Kesteven (Line.) 

L. & P. 24 pt. I, m 23 d; 20 Feb. 
Kesteven (Line.) 

L. & P. 25 pt. I, m 14 d; 15 March. 
Roston, Henry de 
Scarborough 

30 pt. 3> m 17 d; 30 Oct. 

JRouclif, Rouclyf, Robert (Richard) de 
Wap. of Buhner and Rydale, N. R. 

28 pt. I, m 22 d; 2 July. 
Wap. of Cleveland and Pickering, N. R. 

28 pt. I, m 22 d; 2 July. 
Scarborough 

28 pt. 2, m 13 d; 3 Oct. 

29 pt. I, m 28 d; 14 Feb. 
Rougham, Richard de 

Norfolk 

Mem. L. T. R., 35, Pasch., Recorda, rot. 10 d; re- 
ferred to for 33 Edw. HL 
Roulegh, Roulee, John de 
Surrey 

County Placita, no. 8; for 24*^ year. App. C, 2. 
L. & P. 25 pt. I, m 15 d; 15 March. 
("Quibusdam certis de causis coram consilio nostra 
propositis .... duximus amouendum . . *'; Claus. 
25 m. 15, 15 Sept. P. atte Wode also removed.) 



DOCUMENTS, USTS AND TABLES 115 » 

Ry, Nicholas de 

Holland and Kesteven (Line.) 

L. & P. 24 pt. I, m 23 d; 20 Feb. 
Rybred, John, of Spaldyng, (Spaldyng, John) 
Holland and Kesteven (Line.) 

L. & P. 24 pt. I, m 23 d; 20 Feb. 
Holland (Line.) 

L. & P. 25 pt. I, m 13 d; 20 June (assoc.). 

27 pt. 2, m 25 d; 20 Jan. 
Ryngeburne, William de 

Isle of Wight 

31 pt. I, m 20 d; S Feb. 
Rys, William de 

York, E. R. 

32 pt. I, m 34 d; 20 Nov. 
Ryvere, John de la, of Heyworth 

Wilts. 

L. & P. 25 pt. I, m 15 d; 15 March. 
Sadelyngstanes, Sadelingstanes, Hugh de 
City of York 

L, & P. 25 pt. 3, m 19 d ; 3 Nov. 
Newcastle-on-Tyne 

L. & P. 26 pt. I, m 28 d; 8 Feb. 
f % Sad)mgton, Robert de 
Leicester 

L. & P. 25 pt. I, m 14 d; 15 March. 

28 pt. I, m 22 d; 2 July. 
28 pt. 2, m 13 d ; 20 Oct. 

X Salford, Peter de 
Bedford 

27 pt. 2, m 25 d; 22 Nov. 
Salkeld, John de 

Cumberland 

31 pt. I, m 20 d; S Feb. 
Salvayn, Gerard 

Wap. of Herthill and Hovedenshire, E. R. 

28 pt. I, m 22 d; 2 July. 



Il6* APPENDIX 

J Sancto Botulpho, William de 
Kesteven (Line.) 

30 pt. I, m 17 d; 30 May (assoc.)« 

31 pt. I, m 20 d; 5 Feb. 

Sandford, Thomas de 
Westmoreland 

27 pt. 2, m 25 d ; 26 Oct. 

29 pt. 2, m 8 d; 20 Dec; ibid,, 17 Jan. 

Sandford, William de 
York, W. R. 

30 pt. 3, m 17 d; 26 Oct. (assoc.). 

Saumon, Richard, mayor 
Town of Nottingham 

30 pt. I, m 17 d; 25 May. 

J Savage, Arnald 
Kent 

28 pt. 2, m 13 d; 26 Sept. (repeated). 
Scalby, Thomas de 

Scarborough 

29 pt. I, m 28 d; 14 Feb. 
Scorby, Henry de, mayor 

City of York 

L. & P. 25 pt. 3, m 19 d; 3 Nov. 

Scrop, Henry de 
York, N. R. 

L. & P. 25 pt. I, m 14 d; 15 March. 

Scrop, Richard de 

Wap. of Allerton, Birdforth and Richmond, N. R. 
28 pt. I, m 22 d; 2 July. 

Scrop, William de 

Wap. of Allerton, Birdforth and Richmond, N. R. 
28 pt. I, m 22 d; 2 July. 

J Selby, Robert de 
Kingston-on-Hull 

27 pt. I, m 24 d; 12 Feb. 



« • 



DOCUMENTS, LISTS AND TABLES 117 ♦ 

Scmcre, Adam, of Scarborough 
Scarborough 

L. & P. 26 pt. I, m 21 d; 20 Feb. 
J Sergeant, John, (the younger) 
Gloucester 

L. & P. 25 pt I, m 14 d; 15 March. 

32 pt. I, m 34 d; 12 Feb. (in place of Rich- 
ard de Lye). 

Sergeant, Robert 

Kingston-on-HuU 

L. & P. 26 pt. I, m 15 d; 15 Feb. 

f J Seton, Thomas de 
Cumberland 

L. & P. 25 pt. I, m 14 d; 15 Marcli. 
Lancashire 

24 pt. 3, m 13 d ; 20 Oct. 
Westmoreland 

L. & P. 25 pt. I, m 14 d; 15 March. 
York, E. R. 

ditto 
York, N. R. 

ditto 

30 pt. I, m 17 d; 12 July. 
York, W. R. 

L, & P. 25 pt. I, m 14 d; 15 March. 
Wap. of Allerton, Birdforth and Richmond, N. R. 

28 pt. I, m 22 d; 2 July. 
Wap. of Bulmer and Rydale, N. R. 

28 pt. I, m 22 d ; 2 July. 
Wap. of Herthill and Hovedenshire, E. R. 

28 pt. I, m 22 d; 2 July. 
Wap. of Bucrose, Derwent, Dickering and Ouse, E. R. 

28 pt. I, m 22 d; 2 July. 
Wap. of Qeveland and Pickering, N. R. 

28 pt. I, m 22 d; 2 July. 



Il8* APPENDIX 

Lib. of Pickering and Wap. of Rydale, N. R. 

30 pt. 3, m 17 d; 30 Oct 
Lib. of Holderness 

L. & P. 26 pt. I, m 21 d; 20 Feb. 

28 pt. I, m 22 d; 2 July. 
Beverley 

L. & P. 26 pt. 2, m 20 d ; 25 June. 
27 pt. 2, m 25 d ; 25 Aug. 
BGngston-on-HuU 

L. & P. 26 pt. I, m 15 d; 15 Feb. 
Newcastle-on-Tyne 

L. & P. 26 pt. I, m 28 d; 8 Feb. 
Scarborough 

L. & P. 26 pt. I, m 21 d; 20 Feb. 

29 pt. I, m 28 d; 4 July. 

-Seymor, Nicholas de 
Somerset 

L. & P. 25 pt. I, m 15 d; 15 March. 

X Sejrmor, Thomas 
Wilts. 

28 pt. 2, m 13 d; 2 July. 

J Shakenhurst, Shakenhirst, Walter de 
Worcester 

L. & P. 26 pt. I, m 9 d; 2 July. 
27 pt. I, m 24 d; 12 Feb. 

27 pt. 2, m 25 d ; 3 Aug. 

28 pt. I, m 22 d; 18 May; t&fd., i July. 

29 pt. 2, m 8 d ; 3 Dec. 

J Shareshull, Adam de 
Oxford 

27 pt. I, m 23 d; 13 Feb. (assoc.). 

28 pt. 2, m 13 d; 2 July. 
Gloucester 

Qaus. 31 m. 25; 20 April (writ for wages). 



DOCUMENTS, LISTS AND TABLES 119 * 

f X ShareshuU, William de 
Berks. 

L. & P. 25 pt. I, m 14 d; 15 March. 
0>rnwall 

L. & P. 26 pt. I, m 9 d; 15 July. 
Devon 

L. & P. 25 pt. I, m 14 d; IS March. 
Dorset 

L. & P. 25 pt. I, m 15 d; 15 March. 
Northants. 

L. & P. 26 pt. I, m 8 d ; 20 May (assoc. ; names do 
not accord with previous commission). 
Oxford 

L. & P. 25 pt. I, m 14 d; 15 March. 
Shropshire 

L. & P. 26 pt. I, m 9 d; 15 May. 
Somerset 

L. & P. 25 pt. I, m 15 d; 15 March. 
Southampton 

L. & P. 25 pt. I, m 15 d; 15 March. 
Stafford 

L. & P. 25 pt. I, m 14 d; 6 Dec. 

29 pt. I, m 28 d; 16 May. 
29 pt. 2, m 8 d ; 2 Nov. ; iWd,, 20 Dec. 
Wilts. 

L. & P. 25 pt. I, m IS d; 15 March. 
27 pt. I, m 24 d; 27 May. 
Worcester ' 

L. & P. 26 pt. I, m 9 d; 2 July. 
29 pt. 2, m 8 d; 20 Dec. 
Shawe, Stephen de 
Kesteven (Line.) 

30 pt. I, m 17 d; 22 Oct. (assoc.). 
X Sheffeld, Shefeld, John de 
York, W. R. 

L. & P. 25 pt. I, m 14 d; 15 March. 
27 pt. I, m 24 d; 3 July. 



I20 ♦ APPENDIX 

% Shilvyngton, William de 
Stamford 

27 pt. I, m 24 d; 12 Feb. 
Shirburn, John de 

Wap. of Ainsty, Barkston and Qaro, W. R. 

28 pt. I, m 22 d; 20 Jan. (in place of John de Qiau- 
mont). 

Shirburn, William de 
Lancashire 

24 pt. 3, m 13 d; 20 Oct. 

X Skelton, Clement de 

Carlisle 

26 pt. 3, m I d ; I Jan. 
Skelton, Thomas 

Cumberland 

29 pt. 2, m 8 d ; 30 Nov. 

f X Skipwith, Skippewith, Skippewyth, Skipwyth, William de 
Derby 

L. & P. 25 pt. I, m 14 d; 15 March. 
Leicester 

ditto 
Holland and Kesteven (Line.) 

L, & P. 24 pt. I, m 23 d; 20 Feb. 
Holland (Line.) 

L. & P. 25 pt. I, m 14 d; 15 March. 
28 pt. I, m 22 d; 2 July. 
Kesteven (Line.) 

L. & P. 25 pt. I, m 14 d; 15 March. 
Lindsey (Line.) 

24 pt. 3, m ID d; 12 Nov. 

L. & P. 25 pt. I, m 14 d; 15 March. 

27 pt. 2, m 25 d; 26 Oct. 

28 pt. I, m 22 d; 8 May; tWrf., 3 July. 

29 pt. 2, m 8 d; i Dec. 
Northants. 

L. & P. 25 pt. I, m 14 d; 15 March. 



DOCUMENTS, LISTS AND TABLES 121 * 

Notts. 

L. & P. 25 pt. I, m IS d; 15 March. 
Rutland 

L. & P. 25 pt. I, m 14 d; 15 March. 
Warwick 

L. & P. 25 pt. I, m 15 d; 15 March. 

L. & P. 26 pt. I, m 9 d; 20 April. 
Lib. of Ilolderness 

29 pt. I, ni 28 d; I March. 
City of Lincoln 

L. & P. 25 pt. I, m 19 d; 27 March. 
30 pt. I, m 17 d; 6 April. 
Stamford 

L. & P. 25 pt. I, m 14 d; 15 March. 
Manors, etc., of duke of Lancaster in Lincolnshire 

30 pt. I, m 17 d; 8 July. 
J Skirbek, John de 

Cornwall 

28 pt. 2, m 13 d; 16 Dec. 
J Skynnere, William (le) 
Shrewsbury 

30 pt. I, m 17 d; 28 May; ibid., 18 Sept. 
Sloghter, Sloghtre, Thomas (de) 
Gloucester 

28 pt. 2, m 13 d; 3 Feb. (29^ year; assoc.). 

29 pt. 2, m 8 d; 20 Dec. 
Worcester 

28 pt. 2, m 13 d; 3 Feb. (29^ year; assoc.). 

30 pt. I, m 17 d; I April. 

31 pt. I, m 20 d; 5 Feb. 

32 pt. I, m 34d; 15 Dec. 
X Slyngesby, William de 

York, W. R. 

27 pt. I, m 24 d; 3 July. 
Somcrby, Walter de 
Kestevcn (Line.) 

L. & P. 25 pt. I, m 14 d; 15 March. 



122 * APPENDIX 

Somercotes, John de 
Lindsey (Line.) 

24 pt. 3, m 10 d; 12 Nov. 
Lib. of St. Mary's church of Lincoln 

30 pt. I, m 17 d ; 27 Oct. 
% Somerford, Richard de 

Staflford 

31 pt. I, m 20 d; 5 Feb. 
Spaigne, William de 

Boston 

29 pt. 2, m 8 d; 16 Oct. 
Spaldyng, John. See Rybred. 

% Sparry, John 
Warwick 

28 pt. I, m 22 d; 18 May. 

31 pt. I, m 20 d; 5 Feb. 
Spenser, William le, knight 

Worcester 

32 pt. I, m 34 d; 24 July (assoc). 
Spycer, John 

Exeter 

30 pt. 3, m 17 d; 20 Nov. 

% Spyneye, Spynee, William 
Warwick 

29 pt. 2, m 8 d ; 20 Dec. 

31 pt. I, m 20 d; 5 Feb. 
Stafford, Ralph de, baron and earl of 

Leicester 

L. & P. 24 pt. I, m 23 d; 20 Feb. 
Stafford 

L. & P. 25 pt. I, m 14 d; 15 March; iWrf., 6 Dec 

Stafford, Richard de 
Leicester 

L. & P. 24 pt. I, m 23 d; 20 Feb. 
Stafford 

L. & P. 25 pt. I, m 14 d; 15 March. 



DOCUMENTS, LISTS AND TABLES 123 * 

Staunford, Nicholas de 
Stamford 

27 pt. I, m 24 d; 12 Feb. 

J Staunton, GeoflFrey de 
Notts. 

L. & P. 25 pt. I, m 15 d; 15 March. 

28 pt. 2, m 13 d ; 2 July. 

29 pt. I, m 28 d; 26 Jan. 

29 pt. 2, m 8 d ; i Aug. ; ibid.^ 20 Dec 

30 pt. I, m 17 d; 15 April. 

31 pt. I, m 20 d; 5 Feb. 
Staunton, John de 

Essex 

28 pt. I, m 22 d; 2 July. 

(At his death his place is taken by R. Mount- 
koy, 10 July, 30*"* year ; 29 pt. i, m 28 d.) 
% Stayne, Stayn, William de 
Lindsey (Line.) 

24 pt. 3, m 10 d ; 12 Nov. 
L. & P. 25 pt. I, m 14 d; 15 March. 

27 pt. 2, m 25 d; 26 Oct. 

28 pt. I, m 22 d; 8 May; tbid,, 3 July. 

29 pt. 2, m 8 d; I Dec. 
31 pt. I, m 20 d; 5 Feb. 

Staynton, Robert de 
York, W. R. 

L. & P. 25 pt. I, m 14 d; 20 May. 

J Stejmton, William de 
Derby 

33 pt. I, m 27 d; 12 July (assoc.). 
J Stirkland, Thomas de 
Westmoreland 

27 pt. 2, m 25 d ; 26 Oct. 
Stodeye, John de 
London 

31 pt. I, m 20 d ; I Aug. 



124 



APPENDIX 



Stonleye, Stonle, Richard de 
Warwick, except Coventry 

29 pt. 2, m 8 d ; i Aug. 
Warwick 

30 pt. 3, m 17 d ; 8 Nov. 
f Stouford, John de 

Berks. 

L. & P. 25 pt. I, m 14 d; 15 March. 
Cornwall 

L. & P. 26 pt. I, m 9 d; 15 July. 
Devon 

L. & P. 25 pt. I, m 14 d; 15 March. 
Dorset 

L. & P. 25 pt. I, m 15 d; 15 March. 
Oxford 

L. & P. 25 pt. I, m 14 d; 15 Marcli. 
Somerset 

L. & P. 25 pt. I, m 15 d; 15 March. 
Southampton 

ditto 
Wilts. 

ditto 
Strangman, William 

Manors, etc., of St. Paul's in Essex, Herts, and Midd. 

30 pt. I, m 17 d; II Sept. 
Strete, John atte 

Manors, etc., of St. Paul's in Essex, Herts, and Midd. 

30 pt. I, m 17 d; II Sept. 
X Stryvelyn, John de 

Northumberland 

L. & P. 25 pt. I, m 14 d; 15 March. 

29 pt. 2, m 8 d; 20 Dec. (void). 
% Sturmy, Henry 
Southampton 

28 pt. 2, m 13 d; 2 July. 

29 pt. 2, m 8 d ; no date. 20 Dec. Orig. 

31 pt. I, m 20 d; 5 Feb. 



DOCUMENTS, LISTS AND TABLES 125 ♦ 

J Sturmy, John 

Lib. of Holderness 

28 pt. I, m 22 d; 2 July. 

29 pt. I, m 28 d; I March. 

% Stury, John 
Shrewsbury 

30 pt. I, m 17 d; 28 May; ibid,, 18 Sept. 

J Styuecle, John de 
Hunts. 

L. & P. 25 pt. I, m 13 d; 20 July (assoc). 
27 pt. 2, m 25 d; I Dec. 
31 pt. I, m 20 d; 5 Feb. 

(At his death his place is taken by J. 
de Harcwedon; ibid., 3 Nov.) 

% Styuecle, Nicholas de 
Hunts. 

L. & P. 25 pt. I, m 14 d; 15 March. 

27 pt. 2, m 25 d; I Dec. 

Styuecle, Richard de 
Hunts. 

L. & P. 24 pt. I, m 23 d ; 20 Feb. 

Sudbury, John de 
Essex 

31 pt. I, m 20 d; 5 Feb. 
33 pt. I, m 27 d; 6 March. 

Suffolk, earl of. See Ufford. 

Surflet, William de 
Holland (Line.) 

L. & P. 25 pt. I, m 13 d; 20 June (assoc.). 

28 pt. I, m 22 d; 12 March (assoc.). 

29 pt. I, m 28 d ; 7 July (30*^ year ; assoc.). 
31 pt. I, m 20 d; 5 Feb. 

("Certis de causis," his place is taken 
by R. de Meres and T. de la Laund. 
33 pt. I, m 27 d; t8 Feb.) 



126 * APPENDIX 

% Sutton, John de 
Essex 

L. & P. 25 pt. I, m 15 d; 15 March. 
27 pt. I, m 24 d ; 3 June. 
27 pt. 2, m 25 d ; 3 Aug. ( Vacat quia aliter 
inferius.) 
i Sutton, John dc, of Dudley 
Stafford 

29 pt. I, m 28 d ; 16 May. 

29 pt. 2, m 8 d ; 2 Nov. ; ibid., 20 Dec. 
Sutton, John de, of Holderness 

Lib. of Holderness 

L. & P. 26 pt I, m 21 d ; 20 Feb. 

(His place is taken by R. de Hilton; 26 pt I, 
m 8 d; 20 May.) 
Sutton, Lawrence de 

Manors, etc., of St. Paul's in Essex, Herts, and Midd. 

30 pt I, m 17 d; II Sept 
t Swynfen, John 

Town of Huntingdon 

28 pt 2, m 13 d; 20 Jan. 

29 pt I, m 28 d; 20 June. 
Swynford, Thomas de 

Bedford 

L. & P. 24 pt I, m 23 d; 20 Feb. 
Holland and Kesteven (Line.) 

ditto 
Sw)mnerton, John de, (of Hulton) 
Leicester 

L. & P. 24 pt. I, m 23 d; 20 Feb. 
Stafford 

L. & P. 25 pt I, m 14 d; 15 March. 
Swynnerton, Thomas de 
Leicester 

L. & P. 24 pt. I, m 23 d; 20 Feb. 
Stafford 

L. & P. 25 pt I, m 14 d; 15 March. 



DOCUMENTS, LISTS AND TABLES 127 ♦ 

jSymeon, Simon 
Holland (Line.) 

27 pt. 2, m 25 d; 20 Jan. 

28 pt. I, m 22 d; 8 May; ibid., 2 July. 
Lindsey (Line.) 

28 pt. I, m 22 d; 8 May. 
Syngleton, Robert de 

Palatinate of Laneaster 

Duehy of Lane., Qiane. Rolls, ii, no. 10; i Aug., 5 

duke Henry. 
Ibid., ii, no. 19 d; 3 May, 6 duke Henry (assoc.). 
Ibid., ii, no. 24 d ; 10 Oct., 7 duke Henry. 
Taillour, Henry, of Hedon 
Lib. of Holderness 

L. & P. 26 pt. I, m 8 d ; 20 April (27*^ year ; assoc.). 
Talbot, Richard, of Goderiche Castell 
Gloucester 

L. & P. 25 pt. I, m 14 d; 15 March. 
Hereford 
ditto 
J Tamworth, John de 
Middlesex 

28 pt. I, m 22 d; 12 April (assoc). 
Surrey 

28 pt. I, m 22 d; 20 June. 
X Tcye, Robert de 
Essex 

L. & P. 25 pt. I, m 15 d; 15 March. 
27 pt. I, m 24 d ; 3 June. 
27 pt. 2, m 25 d ; 3 Aug. ( Vacat quia ali- 
ter inferius.) 

27 pt. 2, m 25 d ; 8 Nov. 

28 pt. I, m 22 d; 2 July. 

29 pt. 2, m 8 d; 28 Aug. 
Thoresby, Richard de 

Lib. of abbot of Peterborough 
28 pt. I, m 22 d ; 20 June, 



1 



128* 



APPENDIX 



% Thornes, Robert del 
Shrewsbury 

30 pt. I, m 17 d; 28 May. 

f Thorpe, Thorp, Robert de 
Bedford 



m 23 d; 20 Feb. 
m 15 d; 15 March. 

m 23 d; 20 Feb. (repeated), 
m 15 d; 15 Mardi. 

m 23 d; 20 Feb. 
m 15 d; 15 March. 

m 23 d; 20 Feb. 
m 14 d; 15 March. 

m 23 d ; 20 Feb. 
m 14 d; 15 March. 



L. & P. 24 pt. I, 

L. & P. 25 pt. I. 
Bucks. 

L. & P. 24 pt. I, 

L. & P. 25 pt. I, 

Gimbridge 

L. & P. 24 pt. I, 
L. & P. 25 pt. I, 

Hunts. 

L. & P. 24 pt. ij 

L. & P. 25 pt. I, 
Norfolk 

L. & P. 24 pt. ij 

L. & P. 25 pt. I, 
Suffolk 

L. & P. 25 pt. I, m 14 d; 15 March. 

t Thorpe, William de 
Leicester 

(Referred to) L. & P. Orig, 24 m. 33; 12 June, 

Holland and Kesteven (Line.) 

L. & P. 24 pt. I, m 23 d; 20 Feb. 

% Threlkeld, William de 
Cumberland 

29 pt. 2, m 8 d ; 30 Nov. ; ibid,, 20 Dec. 

Tilneye, Tylneye, John de 
Norfolk 

28 pt. I, m 22 d; II July (assoc.). 

Except Lynn 

29 pt. 2, m 8 d; 30 Nov. 



DOCUMENTS, LISTS AND TABLES 129 

Tochcwyk, Thomas (de) 
Bucks. 

L. & P. 24 pt. I, m 23 d; 20 Feb. 
L. & P. 25 pt. I, m 15 d; 15 March. 
26 pt. 3, m 7 d; 17 Dec. 
28 pt. 2, m 13 d; 2 July. 
Toft, Robert de 

Holland (Line.) 

33 pt. 3, m 27 d; 26 March. 
Topclyf, William de 
Middlesex 

30 pt. I, m 17 d; 15 Sept. (assoc.). 
Trenchaunt, Edward 

Southampton 

L. & P. 25 pt. I, m 15 d; 15 March. 
% Trewynnare, Trewynard, Henry (de) 
Cornwall 

L. & P. 26 pt. I, m 9 d; 15 July. 

28 pt. 2, m 13 d; 16 Dec. 
Tristrem, Richard 

Shropshire 

31 pt. I, m 20 d; 5 Feb. 
Trussebut, William 

Notts. 

L. & P. 25 pt. I, m 15 d; 15 March. 
% Tughale, Tugal, Robert de 
Northumberland 

L. & P. 25 pt. I, m 14 d; 15 March. 

29 pt. 2, m 8 d; 20 Dec. (void). 
X Turbervill, Richard (de) 

Dorset 

L. & P. 25 pt. I, m 15 d; 15 March. 

28 pt. 2, m 13 d; 20 Jan. 

29 pt. 2, m 8 d ; 20 Dec. 
Twyer, Robert de 

York, E. R. 

L. & P. 25 pt. I, m 14 d; 15 March. 



I30 



APPENDIX 



% Tybey, Robert 
Carlisle 

26 pt. 3, m I d; I Jan. 
T)aidale, William de 

Northants. 

28 pt. 2, m 13 d; 26 Nov. 

30 pt. I, m 17 d; 26 March. 
J Tyrel, Tirel, Tyrell, Thomas 

Essex 

27 pt. I, m 24 d; 3 June. 

28 pt. I, m 22 d; 2 July. 

29 pt. 2, m 8 d ; 28 Aug. ; ibid., 20 Dec. 

31 pt. I, m 20 d; 5 Feb. 

33 pt. I, m 27 d; 6 March. 
Tyrel, Thomas, the elder 
Essex 

27 pt. 2, m 25 d ; 8 Nov. 

("Quibusdam certis de causis," his place is takcif 
by J. de Goldyngham and B. de Ditton. 27 pt^ 
2, m 25 d; 22 Jan.) 
UflFord, John de 
Norfolk 

L. & P. 24 pt. I, m 23 d; 20 Feb. 
L. & P. 25 pt. I, m 14 d; 15 March. 
Ufford, Robert de, earl of Suffolk 
Norfolk 

L. & P. 24 pt. I, m 23 d; 20 Feb. 
L. & P. 25 pt. I, m 14 d; 15 March. 
Suffolk 

L. & P. 25 pt. I, m 14 d; 15 March. 
jUghtred, Oughtred, Thomas (de) 
York, E. R. 

L. & P. 25 pt. I, m 14 d; 15 March. 
York, N. R. 
ditto 

("Certis de causis coram consilio," he is ap- 
' pointed to do other business of the king; 



DOCUMENTS, LISTS AND TABLES 131 ♦ 

therefore he is no longer to act on either of 
the two above commissions. Qaus. 26 m. 25 
d; 10 March.) 
Scarborough 

28 pt 2, m 13 d; 3 Oct. 

29 pt. I, m 28 d ; 14 Feb. 

30 pt. 3, m 17 d; 30 Oct. 
Umframvill, Gilbert de, earl of Angus 

Holland and Kesteven (Line.) 

L. & P. 24 pt. I, m 23 d; 20 Feb. 
Holland (Line.) 

L. & P. 25 pt. I, m 14 d; 15 March. 
Lindsey (Line.) 

(Referred to) L. & P. for 24 Edw. Ill, Assize Roll, 
524, Lincoln ; app., C, 2. 

25 pt. I, m 14 d; 15 March. 
% Upsale, John 
York, N. R. 

31 pt. I, m 20 d; 5 Feb, 
Kingston-on-Hull 

27 pt. I, m 24 d; 12 Feb. 
Usflet, Ousseflete, Usfeld, Usflete, lUard de 

York, E. R. 

L. & P. 26 pt. I, m 8 d; 6 May (in place of J. de 

Bentele.) 
29 pt. 2, m 8 d; 20 Dec. 
Wap. of Herthill and Hovedenshire, E. R. 

28 pt. I, m 22 d; 2 July. 
Hospital of St. Leonard of York 

30 pt. I, m 17 d; 20 July. 
Lib. of Holderness 

L. & P. 26 pt. I, m 21 d ; 20 Feb. 
Prince of Wales' manor of Kirton in Lindsey (Line) 

30 pt. I, m 17 d; 20 May. 

30 pt. 3, m 17 d; 15 Nov. 
Vache, Richard de la 
Bucks. 

28 pt. 2, m 13 d; 2 July. 



132 ♦ APPENDIX 

X Vavasour, John le 
York, W. R. 

27 pt I, m 24 d; 3 July. 
Vepount, Robert de 
Cumberland 

29 pt. 2, m 8 d ; 30 Nov. ; ibid.y 20 Dec. 

X Verdon, Verdoun, John de 
Northants. 

L. & P. 25 pt. I, m 14 d; 15 March. 

28 pt. 2, m 13 d; 25 July. (Vacat quia 
restitute sunt.) 

J Virly, Roger (Virby in the first two instances, perhaps by a 
clerical error) 
Norfolk 

L. & P. 24 pt. I, m 23 d; 20 Feb. 
L. & P. 25 pt. I, m 14 d; 15 March. 

27 pt. 2, m 25 d; 22 Nov. 

28 pt. I, m 22 d; 26 June. 
Except L)mn 

29 pt. 2, m 8 d ; 30 Nov. ; tbid.^ 20 Dec 
X Vykers, John atte 

Retford-in-the-Qay 

27 pt. I, m 24 d; 20 June. 
Vyneter, John 
Northants. 

L. & P. 25 pt. I, m 14 d; 15 March. 
Vyneter, Robert 
Kent 

L. & P. 25 pt. I, m 15 d; 15 March. 
X Wade, William 
Rutland 

L. & P. 25 pt. I, m 14 d; 15 March. 

28 pt. 2, m 13 d ; 2 July. 

29 pt. I, m 28 d; 12 July. 
29 pt. 2, m 8 d; 20 Dec. 
31 pt. I, m 20 d; 5 Feb. 



DOCUMENTS, LISTS AND TABLES 133 ♦ 

% Wakebrigge, Wakebrigg, Wakebrugg, Wakebrugge, William de 
Derby 

L. & P. 25 pt. I, m 13 d; 20 July (assoc.). 
28 pt. 2, m 13 d; 2 July. 
Notts. 

L. & P. 25 pt. I, m 15 d; 15 March. 

28 pt. 2, m 13 d; 2 July. 

29 pt. I, m 28 d; 26 Jan. 

29 pt. 2, m 8 d ; 20 Dec. 

30 pt. I, m 17 d; 15 April. 
Retford-in-the-Clay 

27 pt. I, m 24 d; 20 June. 
Walden, Andrew de 

Essex 

L. & P. 26 pt. I, m 8 d; 6 May (assoc.). 
Waleys, John 
Leicester 

L, & P. 25 pt. I, m 13 d; 27 Oct. (assoc.). 
Walton, Adam de 
Northumberland 

31 pt. I, m 20 d; S Feb. 
X Walton, Hugh de 
Norfolk 

28 pt. I, m 22 d; 26 June. 
Wandesford, Wandisford, John de 

York, E. R. 

31 pt. I, m 20 d; 5 Feb. 

Wap. of Bucrose, Derwent, Dickering and Ouse, E. R, 

28 pt. I, m 22 d; 2 July. 
Ward, Simon, knight 

York, W. R. 

32 pt. I, m 34 d; 18 June. 
% Warde, Simon 

Northants. 

29 pt. I, m 28 d ; 26 April. 

29 pt. 2, m 8 d ; i Oct. (assoc.) ; tfrirf., 20 Dec. 
32 pt. I, m 34 d ; 28 Nov. 



134* APPENDIX 

X Warde, William 
Cambridge 

L. & P. 25 pt. I, m 15 d; 15 March. 
27 pt. 2, m 25 d ; 3 Nov. 

Warthecoppe, Wardecopp, Warthecop, William de 
Westmoreland 

29 pt. 2, m 8 d ; 20 Dec. ; ibid,, 17 Jan. 
31 pt. I, m 20 d; s Feb. 

Warwick, earl of. See Beauchaump. 

% Waryn, William 
Town of Leicester 

30 pt. 3, m 17 d; 16 Nov. 
Wascelyn, Wacelyn, William 

Lindsey (Line.) 

L. & P. 25 pt. I, m 13 d; 26 May (assoc.). 
Prince of Wales' manor of Kirton in Lindsey (Line.) 

30 pt. I, m 17 d; 20 May. 

30 pt. 3, m 17 d; IS Nov. 

Wassingle, Wassyngle, John de 
Hunts. 

L. & P. 24 pt. I, m 23 d; 20 Feb. 
L. & P. 25 pt. I, m 14 d; 15 March. 

% Watere, Robert atte 
Herts. 

L. & P. 25 pt. I, m 15 d; 15 March. 
Middlesex 

L. & P. 25 pt. I, m 14 d; 15 March. 

(His place and that of J. de Munden are taken 
by J. de Tamworth and W. de Colbrok; 28 pt 
I, m. 22 d; 12 April.) 
Surrey 

L. & P. 25 pt. I, m 15 d; 15 March. 

Wauton, Adam de 

Newcastle-on-Tyne 

L. & P. 26 pt. I, m 28 d; 8 Feb. 



DOCUMENTS, LISTS AND TABLES 135 ♦ 

% Wavere, William 
Kent 

29 pt. 2, m 8 d ; no date. 20 Dec. Orig. 
Cinque Ports 

32 pt. I, m 34 d; 20 Oct. 
Wealde, Richard atte 

Lib. of archbishop of Canterbury in Kent 

30 pt. I, m 17 d; 16 Sept. 
Welles, Thomas 

Lib. of bishop of Ely 

32 pt. I, m 34 d; 14 July. 
Welton, John de 
Cambridge 

L. & P. 24 pt. I, m 23 d; 20 Feb. 

Wentbrigg, John de 

Manors and towns of Cheshunt and Bassingbourn of the 
earl of Richmond. 
30 pt. I, m 17 d; 20 March. 
J Wentelond, Wentlond, William 
Town of Huntingdon 

28 pt. 2, m 13 d ; 20 Jan. 

29 pt. I, m 28 d; 20 June. 

Wessyngton, William de 

Palatinate of Durham ; wards of Chester, Darlington, Eas- 
ington and Stockton, and wap. of Sadberg. 
Cursitors' Records, 30, rot. i, Hatfield, m. 5 d, no. 6; 
IS June, 5*** year. 
Westhorp, Thomas de 

Lib. of Pickering and wap. of Rydale, N. R. 

30 pt. 3, m 17 d ; 30 Oct. 
Weston, John de, the younger 

Surrey 

31 pt. I, m 20 d; 5 Feb. 
J Weston, Thomas de 

Surrey 1 

Claus. 32 m. 23; 20 Jan. (writ for wages). 



136 ♦ APPENDIX 

Whelere, Robert le, mayor 
Wycombe 

30 pt I, m 17 d; 20 March. 

X Whitwebbe, Walter 
Coventry 

28 pt. I, m 22 d ; 28 Feb. ; ibid., 28 June. 

Whitewell, John (de) 
Herts. 

33 pt. I, m 27 d; 10 Aug. 
Surrey 

31 pt. I, m 20 d; 5 Feb. 

Wideryngton, Roger de 
Northumberland 

31 pt. I, m 20 d; 5 Feb. 

Wilby, Robert de 
Leicester 

L. & P. 25 pt. I, m 13 d; 7 July (assoc.). 

J Wilton, John de 

Wap. of Herthill and Hovedenshire, E. R. 

28 pt. I, m 22 d; 2 July. 
Lib. of Holderness 

L. & P. 26 pt. I, m 21 d; 20 Feb. 
28 pt. I, m 22 d; 2 July. 
Kingston-on^HuU 

27 pt. I, m 24 d; 12 Feb. 

Wilughton, Peter de 

Lib. of St. Mary's church of Lincoln 
30 pt. I, m 17 d; 27 Oct. 

X Wode, Peter atte 
Surrey 

L. & P. 25 pt. I, m 15 d; 15 March. 

(Removed ; Claus. 25 m. 15, 15 Sept. See Rou- 
legh.) 

28 pt. I, m 22 d; 20 June. 

29 pt. 2, m 8 d; 20 Dec. 



DOCUMENTS, LISTS AND TABLES 137 * 

Wolf, Hugh 

Bucks. 

L. & P. 24 pt. I, m 23 d; 20 Feb. 
% Worsop, John de 

Retford-in-the-Clay 

27 pt. I, m 24 d; 20 June. 
Wortley, Nicholas de 

York, W. R. 

L. & P. 25 pt. I, m 14 d; 20 May. 
f Wychyngham, William de 
Norfolk 

L. & P. 25 pt. I, m 14 d; 15 March. 

(Commission revoked; Claus. 28 m. 29, i Feb. 
See J. de Bemeye.) 
Wydevill, Richard de 
Northants. 

28 pt. I, m 22 d; 26 April. 
% Wyk, Robert de, of Stamford 

Stamford 

27 pt. I, m 24 d; 12 Feb. 
Wykham, William de 

Lib. of King's Chapel of Windsor 
30 pt. I, m 17 d; 8 June. 
J Wylughby, John de 
Lindsey (Line.) 

28 pt. I, m 22 d; 3 July. 
Wylughby, Wilughby, Richard de 

Essex 

L. & P. 25 pt. I, m 15 d; 15 March. 
Herts. 

ditto 
Kent 

ditto 
Surrey 

ditto 
Sussex 

ditto 



138 * APPENDIX 

X Wyngefeld, Thomas de 
Sussex 

28 pt. I, m 22 d; 20 June. 
X Wynton, John de 
Southampton 

31 pt. I, m 20 d; 5 Feb. 
Yve, John 

Manors, etc., of duke of Lancaster in Kent, Essex, Sussex 
and Midd. 
30 pt. 3, m 22 d ; 28 Oct. 
Zouch, Roger la 
Leicester 

L. & P. 25 pt. I, m 14 d; 15 March. 
Zouche, William de la, of Toteneye 
Northants. 

(Referred to) L. & P. 25 pt. i, m 13 d; 8 Nov. (in 
assoc. of J. de Eston). 

4. List of territorial districts for which separate commissions 
for labourers were issued during the years I352'i359- 

This list is, of course, made up from the same sources as 
are the two preceding lists, but in the case of the franchises it 
aims to give the title more fully than is possible in either list 2 
or list 3. 

L Geographical counties. 

Bedford, Berkshire, Buckingham, Cambridge, Corn- 
wall, Cumberland, Derby, Devon, Dorset, Essex, 
Gloucester, Hereford, Hertford, Huntingdon,^ Kent, 
Leicester, Middlesex, Norfolk,* Northampton, North- 
umberland, Nottingham, Oxford, Rutland, Shropshire, 
Somerset, Southampton, Stafford, Suffolk, Surrey, 
Sussex, Warwick," Westmoreland, Wiltshire, Wor- 
cester. 
Total, 34 

^ In the 29th year, the town of Huntingdon was excepted. 
'Similarly, the town of Lynn. 'Similarly, the town of Coventry. 



DOCUMENTS, LISTS AND TABLES 139 * 

II. Divisions of counties. 

a. Lincolnshire; Holland, Kesteven, and Lindsey. 
Yorkshire ; East, North and West Ridings. 
Isle of Wight. 

Total, 7. 

b. Groups of wapentakes and liberties. 
Yorkshire. 

East Riding. 

Bucrose, Derwent, Dickering, and Ouse. 

Herthill and Hovedenshire. 
North Riding. 

Allerton, Birdforth and Richmond. 

Bulmer and Rydale. 

Cleveland and Pickering. 

Pickering and Rydale. 
West Riding. 

Ainsty, Barkston, and Claro. 

Claro, Ewcross, Skyrack and Staincliffe. 
Total, 8. 

III. Towns. (The % indicates those that received a commis- 
sion of the peace separate from that of the county.) 

J Beverley, Boston, J Carlisle, Cinque Ports, J Cov- 
entry, Exeter, J Grimsby, J Huntingdon, J Kingston- 
on-Hull, % Leicester, Lincoln, London, J Lynn, 
t Newark, Nottingham, Oxford, % Retford-in-the-Clay, 
i Scarborough, % Shrewsbury, Southwell, % Stamford, 
Wycombe. 
Total, 22. 

IV. List of franchise owners and their franchises and dates of 
commissions. (The J indicates those who appeared in the 
exchequer to claim the penalties; cf. pt. i, ch. iii, s. 2, B; 
the last number in each date is the regnal year.) 

J Abbot of Peterborough, in Northants. 20 June/28. 

% Abbot of Reading, in Berks. 12 Jan 729. 

Leominster in Here- 
ford. I May/30. 



140 



APPENDIX 



Abbot of St. Mary of York. 20 Junc/29. 

% Archbishop of Canterbury, in Kent. 16 Septy30. 

Archbishop of York, Ripon. 20 March/28. 

28 April/30. 
Bishop of Durham, How den. I2 Oct./30. 

Bishop of Ely, in Cambridge. 14 July/32. 

Church of St. Paul, London, in manors, hun- 
dreds, towns, hamlets, lands and fees in Essex, 
Herts., and Midd. 1 1 Septy30. 

Dean and chapter of St. Mary's chiu-ch of Lin- 
coln, Asgarby, Fristhorpe, Navenby and Wel- 
ton. 27 Octy30. 

Dean and chapter of St. Peter of York. 8 Novy28. 

% Duke of Cornwall, honours of Wallingford, St. 
Valery, and Berkhampstead, and all other hun- 
dreds, towns and hamlets belonging to above 
in Bedf., Berks., Bucks., Herts., Midd., and 

in Lincolnshire. 8 July/30. 

X Duke of Lancaster, all manors, hundreds, towns, 

hamlets, lands and fees 
in Lincolnshire. 8 June/30, 

in West Riding of York. 16 Octy30. 
all manors, hundreds, towns, 
hamlets, lands and fees 
in Essex, Kent, Midd., 
and Sussex. 28 0cty30. 

Earl of Albemarle, Liberty of Holderness. 2 July/28. 

I March/29. 
% Earl of Richmond, Liberty of Richmond.^ 10 Feby28. 

manors and towns of Ches- 

hunt and Bassingboum. 20 March/30, 
Hospital of St. Leonard of York, in Yorkshire. 20 July/30. 
X Prince of Wales, manor of Kirton in Lindsey 

(Line). 20 May/30. 

15 Novy30. 



* Often called ' * county. 



ft 



DOCUMENTS, LISTS AND TABLES 141 ♦ 

Prior of Bustlesham, at Bustlesham and else- 
where in Berks. 8 May/30. 

% Queen Isabel, in towns of Cambridge and Ches- 
terton. 10 July/30. 

% Queen Philippa, Liberty of Knaresborough. 26 July/30. 

Warden and College of Kings' free chapel of 

Windsor in Berks. 8 June/30. 

Total, 24. 

V. Counties palatine. 
Chester. 
Lancaster. 

Total, 2. 

Total of the 5 groups, 97. 



142 



APPENDIX 



C. Local Courts under Crown-Appointed Justices. (C/. 
pt. I, ch. ii.) 

1. Quarter sessions records. 

2. Records illustrating the supervision of the justices in 
session. 

/. Quarter sessions records. (Cf, pt. i, ch. ii, i-6.) 

introductory note. 

The commonly accepted opinion has been that, with the ex- 
ception of one wages assessment for 143 1, no quarter sessions 
records of earlier date than the i6th century are in existence; * 
at any rate none have been discovered by the author of the 
latest treatise on the justice of the peace.^ Further, there is 
no reference to this class of records in Gross' summaries (cf. 
app., 4), in Scargill-Bird's Guide, or in the preface and table of 
contents of the List of Plea Rolls of various courts preserved in 
the Public Record OMce, prepared by the latter. My suspicions 
were, however, aroused by Palgrave's statement, made as re- 
cently as 1836, that rolls of justices of the peace and of justices 
of labourers were included among the Treasury records.* With 
the thought of a possible mis-classification in my mind, I ex- 
amined the List of Plea Rolls, under the heading " Eyre Rolls, 
Assize Rolls," etc, and there found seven rolls for the decade 
1349-1359 described as containing proceedings before justices 
of labourers. Moreover, a roll for Rutland clearly noted in an 
old list of Assize Rolls * as consisting of proceedings before 
the justices of labourers, re-appears in the List of Plea Rolls, 
listed in such a fashion that its nature cannot be inferred. 
This incident convinced me that there were more such rolls 
that had similarly escaped identification, and that an exam- 

^ A brief account of these records has already appeared in my article 
in E. H, R,, 530-536. 

■ See preface to Beard's Justice of the Peace, 

^Ancient Kalendars and Inventories of the Treasury ^ i, introdnction, 
Hi. 

* General Report on Public Records ^ 1837, app., 53. 



DOCUMENTS, LISTS AND TABLES 143 ♦ 

ination of all the so-called "Assize Rolls" for every county 
for the decade 1349-1359 would be well worth while. The 
result was the discovery of eight more sessional records, 
which, with the Rutland roll and with the seven that had 
been correctly described, gave a total of sixteen. One of these 
had been translated and printed in a local archaeological jour- 
nal, but as far as I know had never attracted attention.^ 

It also seemed advisable to examine Ancient Indictments, 
classed in Scargill-Bird's Guide under "King's Bench, Crown 
side," the manuscript list giving no clue to contents, but merely 
the county and regnal year of each roll. The series is in a 
very bad condition; the membranes are crumpled and thick 
with dust, and are fastened together by parchment strings 
through holes in the middle of each, so tightly drawn that the 
manuscript is easily torn and that deciphering the portions 
near the strings is almost impossible. An examination of the 
whole series for the decade, as far as was possible under these 
adverse conditions, revealed the fact that in addition to many 
rolls of indictments coram Rege for offences against the stat- 
utes of labourers, there are also two rolls of proceedings be- 
fore justices of labourers. Several rolls of the keepers of the 
peace for this decade were likewise identified,* quite by chance, 
as well as several for a later period ; ' it is, therefore, probable 
that for the next century more such records are in existence 
and will be discovered by an exhaustive search through Assize 
Rolls and Ancient Indictments. 

There are also references to, or transcripts of, particular 
proceedings before justices of labourers in the pardons for 
outlawry recorded on the Patent Rolls,* and in the rolls of 
exigends of offenders convicted before the justices to be pro- 

*C/. app., C, I, no. XVI. 

'Assize Rolls, Bedford, 32; Ancient Indictments, Somerset, 104. For 
a fuller account of these cf, my article in E, H. ^., 5-^5, note 139. 

•Assize Rolls, Bucks., 76; Warwick, 976; Ancient Indictments, Nor- 
folk, 80 (called to my attention by Mr. Edgar Powell) ; Oxford, 98. 
C/. my article, loc. di., note 140. 
• *C/. e.g., app., C, I, no. XVIII. 



144 



APPENDIX 



claimed in the county courts. One roll of exigends appears 
unexpectedly among Ancient Indictments,^ and three others 
among Coroners' Rolls, although the description given in List 
of Plea Rolls does not adequately indicate the nature of these 
last three.^ The Gaol Delivery Rolls undoubtedly contain more 
information as to convictions before justices of laborers, but 
unfortunately have not been included in my search.* It has 
already been shown that in connection with the supervision of 
the justices in session, exercised by the central government, 
proceedings before them were sometimes removed into a higher 
court and were thus preserved ; * a few of these are given in 
app., C, 2. There has also proved to be evidence in ex- 
chequer documents ' that, for a while at least, sessional records 
similar to those actually discovered were in existence, but for 
the decade 1349-1359 these eighteen rolls are the only ones 
that I have found that can legitimately be described as records, 
more or less complete, of sessions of justices of labourers, of 
the separate or of the joint commissions. It is unnecessary to 
repeat here the proof of the theory that there is a special ex- 
planation of the survival of each of these rolls and of the 
belief that at this date there was no regular system for the 
preservation of sessional records.* In the following pages ex- 
tracts from each of the eighteen rolls are given, with the ex- 
ception of the one in print; and also when possible the par- 
ticular reason for its survival.' The title of each roll as it 
stands in the official catalogue is given, the asterisk indicating 
the rolls that are at present inadequately described ; the Roman 
numerals refer merely to the order in my list. 

^Cf. app., C, I, no. XVIII. 

*Ibid. One naturally infers that only the rolls described as contain- 
ing exigends belong to this class. Gross in Select Cases from Cor- 
oners* Rolls ^ 118, prints an example of an exigend of an offender against 
the statute for the year 1363. 

» Cf. List of Plea Rolls. 

*Pt. I, ch. ii, s. I, and s. 7. 

•or. pt. I, ch. ii, s. I. ^Ibid. Ubid. 



DOCUMENTS, LISTS AND TABLES 145 * 

I. Quarter sessions records. 

Extracts from Ancient Indictments and Assize Rolls. 

J I. Chester, Palatinate of; Eyre Roll, 13. 11-25 Edw. III. 
84 membranes. 

Placita coram Thoma de Ferrariis Justiciario Cestriae, in 
itinere suo apud Macclesfield. 

Indictamenta Hundredi de Macclesfield. 

Placita et Deliberatio Gaolae. 

Intermixed with the membranes containing proceedings be- 
fore de Ferrariis and stitched to them, are membranes of pro- 
ceedings before the justices of labourers. Similarly in the two 
following rolls, II and III, there is an intermixture of the 
records of de Burgerssh with those of the justices of labourers. 

m. I. Indictamenta coram Roberto de Leghe de operariis 

et seruientibus per commissionem ^ domini comitis 
apud Macclesfeld, die Lune proximo post festum 
Sancti Marci Euaungeliste, anno regni Regis Edwardi 
tercii a conquestu vicesimo sexto. 

(Presentments under oath by jurors.) 

• ••••••• 

et quod lohannes J ^ le Tayllour de Wylmeslowe fre- 
git statutum ad dampna populi xl d. Et quod Ricar- 
dus filius Roberti filii Gybbe fregit statutum ad 
dampna ii s. 

Et quod Thomas Boney % noluit servire et fregit sta- 
tutum ad dampna xl d Et quod Robertus filius 

Walteri del Mor, Henricus de Hyrdefeld, Nicholaus 
filius capellani exierunt a patria ad operandum ad 
dampna, quilibet eorum ii s. 

^ I have been unable to find on the Recognizance Rolls a reference to 
any commission until that of 1360; cf. pt. i, ch. i, s. i. 

* Throughout these sessional records the mark t indicates that in the 
original ** finis" or **finem fecit" or ** fecit fincm" is written over 
the name. 



146 ♦ APPENDIX 

Et quod Margeria J filia Roberti, lohanna % Ic Web- 
ster, Cecilia J de Ashton, Benedictus J le Strcnger, 
Alicia J de Hargreve, Willelmus % filius Roberti frc- 
gerunt statutum et exierunt a patria ad dampna, qui- 
libet eorum vi d. 

J II. Qiester, Palatinate of ; Indictment Roll, 19. 27-38 Edw. 
III. 47 membranes. 

Indictamenta Villae et Hundredi de Macclesfield coram 
Bartholomaeo de Burgerssh. 

m. 3. Indictamenta apud Macclesfeld coram Roberto de 
Legh et Willelmo de Maynwaryng assignatis per com- 
missionem domini comitis Cestrie ad inquirendum de 
operariis et artificibus qui statutum domini Edwardi 
Regis nunc de eisdem nuper editum fregerunt, die 
Mercurii proximo post festum Sancti Andree apostoli 
anno regni vicesimo septimo. 

(Presentments under oath by jurors of a long list 
of receivers of excess wages.) 

.....a.* 

Dicunt .... quod Dykon Dryebred, triturator^ 
cepit mercedem superfluam ad dampna populi vi d. 
. . . . Et quod Ricardus de Bouland j: (manucaptus),. 
communis operarius, cepit mercedem superfluam ad 
dampna vi d. 

Et quod Adam Duncalf,| sutor, fregit statutimi ad 

dampna populi xii d. 

« 

Et quod Ricardus Filiaster,t Henricus le Fycher ccpe- 
runt salarium excessiuum ad dampna vi d. 

Et quod Adam J (manucaptus) Br id, Salter, dedit 

salarium excessiuum ad dampna vi d. 

« 

Et quod Emma (manucapta ponit se) Walrane cepit 



DOCUMENTS, LISTS AND TABLES 147 ♦ 

ii d. quadam die in autumpno ab hora prima diei vsque 
noctem et fregit statutum. 

Indictamenta ville de Macclesfeld coram Roberto de Legh 
ct Willelmo de Maynwaryng die et anno infrascriptis^ 

(Many presentments for the receipt of excess wages.) 

• •■••••• 
Thomas de Tydryntone, capellanus, cepit mercedem 
superfluam ad dampna populi xl d. 

m. 9 b. Indictamenta operariorum et seruiencium coram 
Roberto de Legh et Willelmo de Maynwaryng iusti- 
ciariis assignatis ad inquirendum de huiusmodi, apud 
Macclesfeld, die Lune in festo Convercionis Sancti 
Pauli, anno regni . . . tricesimo. 

luratores .... dicunt super sacramentum suum 
quod . . . . et Thomas, iilius Roberti filii Madyn, 
exiuit a seruicio lohannis de Dokenfeld et extra pa- 
triam et quod Roesia soror eius exiuit a patria tem- 
pore autumpni. 

• ••••••• 

Et quod Ricardus4 filius Ricardi filii Hamonis, opera- 
rius, exiuit a patria et procurat alios exire . . . Et 
Radulphus de Shelladon4 falcator, WillelmusJ de 
Hethylegh, falcator,^ Thomas de ShaghjJ falcator, 
Thomas,! filius Ricardi filii Roberti de Hulra,J mes- 
sor, Thomas de Denebrok,J messor, exienint a pa- 
tria 

Et Henricus, filius Symonis le Mulward, noluit seruire 

Hugoni del Sherd et erat vacans 

Et Ricardus de Bouland % (manucaptus), tasker, cepit 
mercedem superfiuam. 

m. 16 b. (X). Hundredum de Macclesfeld. 

Inquisicio capta coram Roberto de Legh et Willelmo 
de Maynwaring iusticiariis assignatis apud Maccles- 
feld ad inquirendum de operariis et artificibus per 
commissionem domini comitis Cestr', die Lune prox- 



148 * APPENDIX 

imo post festum Invencionis Sancte Crucis anno regni 
.... tricesimo primo. 

(Presentments under oath by jurors of a long list 
of both takers and givers of excess wages.) 

• *•••.•• 
Dicunt quod Henricus Hennerissone,^ mower, ma- 

nens in Aldurlegh, cepit salariam excessivam 

Et quod Willelmus de Wakefeld, barker,! fregit sta- 

tutum et dat operariis mercedem excessivam 

£t quod lohannes, filius Ricardi de Overaldurlegh^ 
falcator, cepit mercedem excessivam et exiuit a patria. 

• .•••••• 

Henricus | le Fyscher, messor, cepit mercedem exccs- 
siuam et cepit tres denarios cum prandio per diem. 

Et quod Willelmus | le Ledbetere dat mercedem 
Thome de Heghlegh pro opere suo vnius diei absque 
conuencione septem denarios cum prandio. 

m. xiii and m. 22 b (xvi) contain similar indict- 
ments, "coram Roberto de Legh et sociis suis," for 
the 32nd and 33rd years. 

X III. Chester, Palatinate of ; Indictment Roll, 4. 2y Edw. Ill 
— I R. II. 45 membranes. 

Indictamenta de Officio ad Comitatum Cestriae. 

m. 10 [33rd year].^ 

Indictamenta operariorum et servientium coram Ro- 
berto de Leghe per sacramentum Petri de Ardene et 
aliorum, qui dicunt super sacramentum suum quod 
Hamo le Roder, laborer, et Ricardus filius lohannis 
exierunt de patria. Et quod Tille, filia Radulfi del 
Qyf, exiuit de patria. Et quod lohannes Wytkurtill, 
labarator, cepit mercedem excessiuum. Et quod Isa- 
bella Wybot et Elena del Hurrok, messor, exierunt dc 

^ All the entries on this membrane are of the 33rd year. 



DOCUMENTS, LISTS AND TABLES 



149 



patria. Et quod Alicia Hughet, lohannes Scot, mes- 
sor, Ricardus le Fycheler, Isabella de Euresdale, 
messor, Willelmus frater Alicie de Berneslegh, exi- 
erunt a patria. Et quod Ricardus de Skarchesdale, 
sutor, Adam de Gaunt, falcator, lohanna de Brunyn- 
ton, spynner, Agnes le Dycher, Alicia Coppok, messor, 
Matilldis de Roker, ceperunt mercedem excessiuum. 
Et quod lohannes de Shepelegh, et Agnes Bunnyng, 
seruiens Ricardi Fyton, exierunt a patria. Et quod 
lohannes Doye, fletcher, et lohannes le Fycheler, la- 
borer, cepit nimium stipendium. Et quod Sarra, filia 
Ade filii Willelmi, messor, Hugo Roberdesknave, Mar- 
geria, filia Ricardi filii Radulfi, Agnes de Werynton^ 
reper, Henricus de Heppal, falcator, Thomas le shep- 
herde, quondam seruiens Ricardi Chaumpe)m[e et Wil- 
lelmus, filius Mowe filii Hond', exierunt de patria. Et 
quod Rogerus Bugge, taillour, cepit nimium stipen- 
dium etc. 

rV. Assize Roll, Cornwall, 125. 32-33 Edw. III. 8 mem- 
branes. 

Recorda et processus Sessionis W. Polglas et R. Cerise- 
aux Justiciariorum ad ordinationes et Statuta de Opera- 
riis et Artificibus custodienda. 

m. I. Cornub'. Recorda et processus sessionum Willelmi 

Polglas et Ricardi Ceriseaux le pier iusticiariorum 
domini Regis ad ordinacionem et statuta de operariis 
et artificibus ac eciam mensuris et ponderibus custo- 
dienda in comitatu predicto assignatis. 

De terminis Annunciacionis Dominice, Sancte Mar- 
garete, Sancti Michaelis et Sancti Nicholai anno regni 
Edwardi tercii xxxii^**, Annunciationis Dominice, 
Sancte Margarete et Sancti Michaelis anno eiusdem 
Regis tricesimo tercio. 

On 20 Feb., 1358, the above were appointed justices of la- 
bourers and of weights and measures; see "List of justices,*' 



I50* APPENDIX 

app., 109 and 63. On 4 Nov., 1359, the writ of supersedeas 
was issued; app., 31-32. 

This roll contains seven sessions of ten days each, one of the 
most complete records that I have found ; for this reason one 
of tliese sessions has been chosen for printing in full. 

m. 2. Sessiones predictor um iusticiariorum apud FetiTyn, 
die Lune proximo post festum Sancte Margarete, aiuo 
Regis nunc xxxii^®. 

Quo die vicecomes retornauit preceptum suum ad 
plenum. lurati diuersorum hundredorum presentant 
quod decennarius et decenna de Arwythel, decenna- 
rius et decenna de Keuel, decennarius et decenna de 
Treuewith, decennarius et decenna de Rosnetthon, de- 
cennarius et decenna de Trelyuer, decennarius et de- 
cenna de Trelan, decennarius et decenna de Trele- 
weran, decennarius et decenna de Lishard, decennarius 
et decenna de Lucyes, decennarius et decenna de Car- 
m3mon, nullos cippos habuerunt in decennis predictis. 
Qui quidem decennarii cum decennis predictis exact! 
venerunt et allocuti inde hoc contradicere non potu- 
erunt; ideo ipsi in misericordia, vt patet in extractis 
liberatis scaccario domini Regis et sic similiter patet in 
eisdem extractis de omnibus amerciamentis, (inibus, ex- 
cessubus et exitibus forisfactis coram prefatis iustici- 
ariis de omni tempore huiusmodi recordi et processus. 
Et predicti decennarii cum decennis suis statim postea 
cippos suos parauerunt et duxerunt etc. 

Decennarius et decenna de Cleer, decennarius et de- 
cenna de Sancto Mangano, decennarius et decenna de 
Wynyanton, decennarius et decenna de Prispynnoc, 
separatim exacti ad deseruiendum curie et responsuri 
pro decennis suis non venerunt quando exacti sunt; 
ideo ipsi in misericordia vt patet in extractis. Et pos- 
tea venerunt et fecerunt presentamentum suum etc. 

lohannes de Trethewy, Robertus Trefuis, lohannes 
Cararthek, Ospertus Tremogh,^ constabularii in diu- 

' Twelve others named. 



DOCUMENTS, USTS AND TABLES 151 * 

ersis parochiis exacti ad reddendum retornutn suum 
non venerunt : ideo ipsi in misericordia, et postea vene- 
runt etc. 

Decennarius et decenna manerii de Helliston, decen- 
narius et decenna de Risiaren, exacti ad presentamen- 
turn etc., non venerunt; ideo ipsi in misericordia. Et 
postea venerunt predicti. 
Die Martis. 

lurati diuersorum hundredorum presentant quod 
Ricardus Knap, molendinarius, Nicholaus Rosauon^ 
Dauid Godolghan, Rogerus Baker, molendinarius, Ra- 
dulphus Cail, lohannes Peron, lohannes Ospern de 
Kenegy, decennarius et decenna de Pengersek, lolian- 
nes Hikka, lohannes Baret, Henricus Wydel, Fabi- 
anus, molendinarius, Elias, molendinarius,^ lohannes 
largon, carpentarius,' decennarius et decenna de Tre- 
ros, decennarius et decenna de Penseghnans, decenna- 
rius et decenna de Minstre,* decennarius et decenna de 
Tucois, decennarius et decenna de Predannoc, decen- 
narius et decenna de Methele, decennarius et decenna 
de Quenna, decennarius et decenna de Treyicthal, lo- 
hannes Fraunces, Alanus Tregellest,* lohannes Man, 
molendinarius, decennarius et decenna manerii de Hel- 
Hston, Galfridus Tresaglarn,*^ Gilbertus Webb,* Ricar- 
dus, molendinarius de Lishard, Thomas de Treworgy, 
Rogerus West, Adam West, Robertus Corny vtebantur 
diuersis falsis mensuris et ponderibus contra formam 
statuti domini Regis de mensuris et ponderibus editi. 
Ideo preceptum est vicecomiti quod attachiat omnes 
prenominatos contra diem Mercurii proximum apud 
Penryn. 

Die Mercurii. 

' Five others named. In this list and in those following I have printed 
all the names in connection with which there is any clue to the occupa- 
tion of the offender. 

* Ten others named. 'Repeated. * Seven others. 

•Fourteen others. •Four others. 



15^* APPENDIX 

Quo die vicecomes respondit quod predicti Ricardus 
Knap, Nicholaus et ceteri omnes supranominati at- 
tachiati sunt per separatas pleuinas etc. Qui omnes 
exacti venerunt. Et allocuti super presentamentum 
predictum dicunt quod non sunt inde culpabiles et po- 
nunt se super patriam. Ideo predictum est vicecomiti 
quod statim venire faciat xii etc. ; iuratores inter domi- 
num Regem et personas predictas electi, triati et iurati, 
dicunt quod predicti Rogerus West, Adam West et 
Robertus Corny non sunt culpabiles. Ideo considera- 
tum est quod eant quieti. Set predicti Ricardus Knap» 
Nicholaus Dauid et ceteri prenominati culpabiles sunt; 
ideo ipsi arrainiantur . et fecerunt finem per diuersas 
pleuinas, vt patet in extractis etc. 

Compertum est quod lohannes Luky et Thomas Bos- 
nail, constabularii parochie Sancti Maimani concellant 
diuersos operarios et seruitores. Ideo constabularii in 
misericordia etc. Compertum est quod Henricus Payn 
et Benedictus Clak, constabularii parochie Sancti Ru- 
moni, concellant diuersos operarios et seruitores ac 
eciam mensuras et pondera falsa. Ideo dicti constabu- 
larii in misericordia etc. 
m. 2 d. Die louis. 

lurati presentant quod lohannes Clegh, iunior, 
Nicholaa Kam, Dionisia Trethak, Thomas Tremenhir, 
lohanna Nichol, Ricardus Gorben, lohannes Coly,^ 
lohannes Sebill, taillour, lohannes Henri,* lohannes, 
seruiens Henrici Nanfan, Ricardus Polgrim,' lohannes, 
seruiens Thome Mewes, ceperunt salaria, mercedes et 
lucra excessiua in diuersis artificiis et mercandisiis suis 
contra formam statuti domini Regis etc. Ideo pre- 
ceptum est vicecomiti ipsos attachiare contra diem 
Veneris apud Penryn, quod tunc sint coram prefatis 
iusticiariis etc. 

Compertum est quod decennarius et decenna de 

* Sixteen others. ' Thirty-one others. * Five others. 



DOCUMENTS, LISTS AND TABLES 153 * 

Trewrabo mutauerunt quemdam bussellum in presen- 
cia iusticiariorum ad decepcionem curie; ideo ipsi in 
misericordia. 

Die Veneris. 

Vicecomes respondit quod predicti lohannes Qegh, 
Nicholaa Karn et ceteri omnes prenominati attachiati 
sunt separatim per diuersas pleuinas; et tunc ipsi ex- 
acti etc. Predicti lohannes Clegh, iunior, Nicholaa 
Karn, Dionisia Trethak et Thomas Tremenhir non 
venerunt. Ideo plegii eorum in misericordia etc. Et 
preceptum est vicecomiti ipsos capere contra diem Sab- 
bathi proximum apud Helleston coram prefatis iusti- 
ciariis etc. Et predicti lohanna Nichol, Ricardus Gror- 
ben, lohannes Coly et ceteri prenominati veniunt et 
dicunt quod non sunt culpabiles de hoc quod predicti 
iurati superius presentant et ponunt se super patriam 
etc. Ideo preceptum est vicecomiti quod venire faciat 
xii etc. apud Helleston die Sabbati proximo coram 
predictis iusticiariis etc. 

Iurati diuersorum hundredorum presentant quod Pe- 
trus Trewethynek, Reginaldus Gelon ^ Baldwinus, mo- 
lendinarius de Trelan,^ Thomas, molendinarius de 
Treyntheus,' Reginaldus Beonyle, molendinarius,* de- 
cennarius et decenna de Merthyn, Walterus Trestan, 
decennarius et decenna de Keuel,' Radulfus vicarius 
Sancti Constantis, Nicholaus Mols,* prior Sancti lo- 
hannis, lohannes Goflenyn,^ vtebantur falsis mensuris 
et ponderibus diuersis contra formam statuti domini 
Regis inde prouisi etc. Ideo preceptum est vicecomiti 
ipsos attachiare contra diem Sabbati proxime futurum 
apud Helleston coram prefatis iusticiariis etc. 
Die Sabbati. 

Vicecomes respondit quod predicti lohannes Qegh, 

" Eight others. * Eighteen others. • Twelve others. 

* Seven others . * Ten others . 

•Thirteen others. ' Twenty-one others. 



154 * APPENDIX 

iunior, Nicholaa Karn, Dionisia Trethak et Thomas 
Tremenhir capti sunt et sunt in custodia sua. Qui ex- 
acti venerunt et allocuti super presentamento predicto 
dicunt quod non sunt culpabiles et ponunt se super 
patriam etc. in quam predict! lohanna Nicol, Ricardus 
Gorben, lohannes Coly et ceteri socii sui prenominati 
se posuerunt etc. Ideo preceptum est vicecomiti quod 
statim venire faciat xii etc. ad faciendum iuratam etc. 
luratores inter dominum Regem et partes predictas 
electi, triati et iurati, acquietant predictos lohannem 
Clegh, Nicholaam Karn, Dionisiam Trethak et Tho- 
mam Tremenhir de excessubus et transgressionibus 
superius presentatis. Ideo ipsi quieti recedant etc. Et 
predicti lohanna Nicol, Ricardus Gorben, lohannes 
Coly et ceteri socii sui prenominati culpabiles sunt. 
Ideo ipsi arrainiantur et fecerunt finem vt patet in ex- 
tractis liberatis scaccario Regis. 

Et quoad predictos, Petrus Trewethynek, Reginaldus 
Gelon, lohannes Lauri et ceteri socii sui superius nomi- 
nati exacti venerunt. Et allocuti super presentamento 
predicto dicunt quod non sunt culpabiles et ponunt se 
super patriam. Ideo preceptum est vicecomiti quod 
statim venire faciat xii etc. luratores, electi, triati et 
iurati, dicunt quod predicti Petrus, Reginaldus et alii 
superius nominati culpabiles sunt. Ideo arrainiantur 
et fecenmt finem vt patet in extractis. 

Ricardus Moil et Daniel Treueldras, constabularii 
parochie Sancte Wendrone, exacti ad deseruiendum 
curie non venerunt. Ideo ipsi in misericordia etc. 

Robertus Cararthek conuictus de contemptu et le- 
sione statuti etc. fecit finem vt patet in extractis. 

Iurati diuersorum hundredorum presentant quod 
Gregorius, seruiens Willelmi Brit, lohannes, seruiens 
lohannis Gros, lohanna, seruiens Natalis Pennalwyn, 
Martinus, molendinarius, lohannes Thomas, lohannes 
Towith, seyner, Thomas Eir, Philippus Roger, Lucia 
Iwynes, lohannes Eir, lohannes Marsely, tanner^ 



DOCUMENTS, LISTS AND TABLES 155 ♦ 

Michael Mallyn, Robertus, seruiens Petri Trewethynek, 
Nicholaus Man, Radulfus Vyghan, lohannes Meyn, 
glouer, Nicholaus Yust, Pascasius Tey, lohannes 
Molon, lohannes Teudaunt, seutor, lohannes Hoste- 
way, Petrus Huy, lohannes Marsely, seruaunt, lohan- 
nes Shorham, webb,^ lohannes Brun, taillour, lohannes 
Smale, taillour, ceperunt et quidam illorum dederunt 
salaria et lucra excessiua in diuersis operibus et arti- 
ficiis suis contra formam statuti domini Regis etc. 
Ideo preceptum est vicecomiti quod ipsos attachiat 
quod sint apud Helleston die Lune proxime futuro 
coram prefatis iusticiariis inde responsuri. 

Daniel Treueldras et Ricardus Moil, constabularii 
parochie Sancte Wendrone, exacti ad reddendum re- 
tomum suum, non venerunt debito tempore; ideo ipsi 
in misericordia. 

Radulfus Cayl et lohannes Peron exacti ad redden- 
dum diuersas mensuras suas non venerunt; ideo ipsi 
in misericordia. Et preceptum est vicecomiti ipsos dis- 
tringere contra diem Lune proxime futurum. 

lohannes Ospern de Kenegy, exactus ad reddendum 
mensuras suas, non venit quando fuit exactus; ideo 
ipse in misericordia. Et postea tarde venit et reddidit. 
Die Lune. 

Quo die vicecomes respondit quod predicti Grego- 
rius, seruiens Willelmi Brit, lohannes, seruiens lohan- 
nis Gros et ceteri socii prenominati, attachiati sunt per 
diuersas pleuinas. Qui exacti venerunt omnes mane, 
preter Thomam Eir cuius plegius in misericordia quia 
ipsum non habet etc. Et postea eodem die predicti 
Gregorius et ceteri omnes ilia vice nominati exacti 
venerunt, et allocuti super presentamento predict©, 
dicunt quod non sunt culpabiles et ponunt se super 
patriam. Ideo preceptum est vicecomiti quod venire 
faciat xii etc. contra diem Martis proximum apud Hel- 
leston etc. 

* Four others. 



156* APPENDIX 

Radulfus Cayl et lohannes Peron exacti ad redden- 
dum mensuras suas non venerunt. Ideo manucaptores 
sui in misericordia. Et ipsi forisf ecerunt excessus ; et 
preceptum est vicecomiti ipsos distringere contra diem 
Martis proxime futurum etc. 

lohannes Marsely, seruant, et lohannes Roby, con- 
uicti de transgressione, videlicet de excessu capto con- 
tra statutum, fecerunt finem etc. 

lacobus de Beson et plegii sui in misericordia quia 
non prosecutus est versus Odonem Beson in placito 
transgressionis. 

lohannes Penros et plegii sui in misericordia quia 
non prosecutus est versus Aliciam Coly in placito 
transgressionis etc. 

lacobus Trefusis et plegii sui in misericordia quia 
non prosecutus est versus Agnetem Kirrigan in placito 
transgressionis. 

Willelmus Kakyliek et plegii sui in misericordia quia 
non prosecutus est versus Aliciam Treuaichny in pla- 
cito transgressionis. 

Walterus Drew de Treuane et plegii sui in miseri- 
cordia quia non prosecutus est versus lohannem Oen 
in placito transgressionis. 

Henricus Synter et lohanna Synter, conuicti de 
transgressione et excessu facto contra statutum, fece- 
runt finem etc. 

lohanna Wilkyn, conuicta de excessu facto contra 
statutum, fecit finem etc. 

Willelmus Polhorman presens in curia exactus et 
preceptus iurare recusauit hoc facere; idco ipse in 
misericordia etc. Et postea iurauit. 

Compertum est quod Willelmus Polhorman affir- 
mauit falsam querelam versus lohannam Peruel in 
placito transgressionis, videlicet de eo quod ipsa re- 
cusauit ei deseruire; ideo ipse in misericordia. Wil- 
lelmus Trelouer affirmauit falsam querelam versus 
Nicholaum Sken in placito transgressionis, videlicet de 



DOCUMENTS, LISTS AND TABLES 157 * 

excessu ab eo capto, prout compertum est; ideo ipse 
in misericordia. 

Robertus Cararthek et plegii sui in misericordia quia 
non prosecutus est versus Isabellam Aly in placito 
transgressionis. 
m. 3. Die Martis viii die secunde sessionis anno xxxii*®. 

lurati diuersorum hundredorum presentant quod 
lohanna Fylet, Galfridus Treuethec, Nicholaus Pyn- 
nock, lohannes Webb de Bodely, lohannes Rucheman, 
Nicliolaus lakadou, Nicholaus Cadarn, piscator, lohan- 
nes Aly, lohannes locelyn, Robertus, seruiens Ricardi 
Cruk,^ Alicia, seruiens Rogeri Capa,* Edwardus Webb 
de Penryn ' ceperunt diversa mercedes, salaria et lucra 
excessiua in contemptu statuti domini Regis. Ideo 
preceptum est vicecomiti quod ipsos omnes attachiat 
contra diem Mercurii proxime futurum apud Helleston 
coram iusticiariis etc. 

Robertus Trefuis et Robertus Cararthek, constabu- 
larii parochie Sancte Wenerpe, lohannes Deboner et 
Thomas Wern, constabularii parochie Sancti Glowiat, 
lohannes Michel et lohannes Amydieu, constabularii 
ville de Penrin, Thomas Tremogh et lohannes Andru, 
constabularii parochie Sancti Landi, lohannes Helligoy 
et Tudeus Boscanan, constabularii parochie Sancti Man- 
gani, lohannes lankyn et lohannes Hendre, constabu- 
larii parochie Sancti Rumoni magni, Benedictus Qak 
et Henricus Payn, constabularii Sancti Rumoni parui, 
Robertus Rous et Willelmus Treleghyn, constabularii 
parochie Sancti Sithenini,* exacti ad reddendum diu- 
ersa retorna pro parochiis predictis, non venerunt 
quando exacti fuerant; ideo ipsi in misericordia. Et 
postea tarde veniunt et reddunt retorna etc. 

Petrus Antrenon, Willelmus Tyrel de Tuomem • 
hac die mane exacti ad inquirendum pro Rege non 

* Four others. ' EiRht others. •Fourteen others. 

^Constables of four other parishes named. * Seven others. 



158* APPENDIX 

venerunt; ideo ipsi in misericordia. Et postea eodem 
die venerunt et iurati etc. 

lohannes Trefuruo et lohannes Day, constabularii 
parochie Sancti Budoci, exacti mane ad reddendum re- 
tornum suum, non venerunt; ideo ipsi in misericordia. 
Et postea venerunt et reddunt modo. 

Decennarius et decenna de Lucyes exacti ad redden- 
dum retorna preceptorum sibi directorum non vene- 
runt quando exacti fuerunt; ideo ipsi in misericordia. 
Et postea venerunt etc. 
Die Mercurii. 

Decennarius et decenna de Prispynnoc exacti ad 
presentandum coram iusticiariis non venerunt; idea 
ipsi in misericordia etc. Ricardus Rosewyk conuictus 
de transgressione et contemptu in presencia iusticiari- 
orum fecit finem etc. vt patet in extractis etc. 

Philippus lakis, webb, Odo Brasigonna, Nicholaus 
Bon, piscator et Hillarius Webb de Sancta Stediana, 
conuicti de diuersis excessubus per recognicionem suam 
propriam arrainiantur et postea fecerunt finem. Et 
quoad lohannam Filet, Galfridum Treuethec et ceteros 
socios suos prenominatos, vicecomes respondit quod 
ipsi omnes attachiati sunt per diuersas pleuinas etc. 
Qui exacti venerunt omnes preter Hamundum Hara- 
non et Robertum Treyntheno quorum plegii in miseri- 
cordia quia ipsos hac vice non habent. Et postea 
eodem die ipsi iidem Hamundus et Robertus simul cum 
aliis superius nominatis exacti venerunt. Et ipsi allo- 
cuti de excessubus predictis dicunt quod non sunt cul- 
pabiles et ponunt se super patriam etc. Ideo precep- 
tum est vicecomiti quod statim venire faciat xii etc.; 
iuratores inter dominum Regem et predictas personas 
electi, triati et iurati, dicunt quod predicti Hamundus 
et Robertus Treyntheno non sunt culpabiles de exces- 
sibus predictis. Ideo ipsi quieti recedant, set omnes 
alii predicti superius nominati sunt culpabiles. Idea 
arrainiantur et postea fecerunt finem etc. 



DOCUMENTS, LISTS AND TABLES 159 * 

Villata de Penrin exacta et allocuta si haberent 
standarda parata prout alias eis preceptum fuit sub 
quadam pena. Inde ad presens nichil habent paratum. 
Ideo forisfaciant penam illam etc. prout patet in ex- 
tractis etc. 

lurati diuersorum hundredorum presentant quod 
lohanes Watte, webb, lohannes Bonsohn, Willelmus 
Bodek, lohannes Andru, webb,^ lohannes Hamely, 
piscator,* ceperunt diuersas mercedes, salaria et lucra 
excessiua in pluribus artiiiciis et operibus suis in con- 
temptu statuti domini Regis etc. Ideo preceptum est 
vicecomiti quod ipsos attachiat contra diem lovis proxi- 
mum apud Helleston etc. 

Die louis. 
Quo die vicecomes respondit quod predicti lohannes 
Watte, lohannes Bonsohn, Willelmus Bodek et cetcri 
omnes superius nominati attachiati sunt per diuersas 
pleuinas etc. Qui exacti omnes venerunt et allocuti de 
excessubus et transgression ibus predictis, dicunt quod 
non sunt culpabiles et ponunt se super patriam etc. 
Et statim ipsi omnes per iuratam triatam et captam 
convicti sunt. Ideo arrainiantur et fecerunt finem ut 
patet in extractis liberatis scaccario domini Regis etc. 



DATES 


AND PLACES OF SESSIONS. 




S2nd year. 


m. I. Lostwythiel. 


Monday after Annunciation. 




(25 March). 




Tuesday to Saturday. 


m. I d. Truru. 


Monday to Thursday. 


m. 2. Penryn. 


Monday after St. Margaret (20 July). 




Tuesday to Saturday. 


m. 2 d. Helleston. 


Monday to Thursday. 


m. 3. Marghasyon. 


Monday after St. Michael (29 Sept.). 




Tuesday to Saturday. 


^ Eighteen others. 


' Six others. 



i6o* 



APPENDIX 



m. 3 d. Mousehole. 
m. 4. Medeshole. 

m. 4 d. Oldestowe. 



m. 5. Bodmin. 



m. 5 d. Cameleford. 

Stratton. 
m. 6. Launceton. 

m. 6 d. Callyngton. 
m. 7 (J. Leskirred. 

m. 8. Lostwythiel. 



Monday to Thursday. 

Monday after St. Nicholas (6 Dec.)- 

Tuesday to Saturday. 

Monday to Thursday. 

33rd year. 

Monday after Annunciation. 

(25 March). 
Tuesday to Saturday. 
Monday, Tuesday. 
Wednesday, Thursday. 
Monday after St. Margaret (20 July). 
Tuesday to Thursday. 
Friday to Thursday. 
Monday after St. Michael (29 Sept). 
Tuesday to Saturday. 
Monday to Thursday. 



V. Assize Roll, Derby, 170. 31-32 Edw. III. 5 membranes. 

Placita coram Godefrido Foljaumb et sociis suis (de Arti- 
ficibus, etc.). 

The following enrollments explain the preservation of this 
roll: 

Mem. L. T. R., 35, Mich., Breu. Ret., rot. 13 d. 

Godefrido Foliaumbe et sociis suis. 

Rex dilectis et fidelibus suis Godefrido Foliaumbe, Rogero 
Michil et lohanni Foucher nuper iusticiariis ad ordinaciones et 
statuta de operariis, artificibus et seruientibus ac ponderibus et 
mensuris in comitatu Derb' custodienda assignatis, salutem. 
Mandamus vobis quod omnia recorda et processus coram vobis 
facta in sessionibus vestris iusticiarie predicte habeatis sine 
mittatis sub sigillis vestris ad receptam scaccarii nostri apud 
Westmonasterium a die Pasche proxime futuro in vnum men- 
sem thesaurario et camerario dicti scaccarii nostri ibidem 
liber anda. 



DOCUMENTS, LISTS AND TABLES i6l * 

Teste ut supra [G. de Wilford x^ die Novembris, per 
l)arones.] 

Ante quern diem predictus Godefridus venit et habet diem 
alibi in hiis Memorandis inter Dies Datos de hoc termino. 
Ideo dictum breue reuocatur et cesset. 

Derb' 

Preceptum est vicecomiti quod distringat predictos Godefri- 
dum Foliambe, Rogerum Michel et lohannem Foucher nuper 
iusticiarios etc. per omnes terras etc. Ita etc. a die Pasche 
proxime futuro in vnum mensem ad liberandum ibidem omnia 
recorda et processus coram ipsis iusticiariis facta ^ in session- 
ibus suis iusticiarie predicte. 

Teste vt supra [G. de Wilford x® die Novembris per war- 
rantum predictum]. 

Postea videlicet antequam breue emanauit dictum breue re- 
uocatur et cesset eo quod dictus Godefridus venit et habet diem 
in Memorandis inter Dies Datos de hoc termino. 

C/. also Communia, Mich., rot. 6 d, Derb' De Die Dato; 
Datus est dies Godefrido Foliaumbe etc. 

The first membrane of the roll contains a copy of the 'letter 
patent of 5 Feb., 1357, appointing Foljambe and the others 
justices of labourers and of weights and measures. See "List 
of justices," app., B, 3. 

tn. I. Pretextu cuius breuis preceptum fuit vicecomiti 
Derb' quod venire faceret coram prefatis iusticiariis 
tribus vel duobus eorum apud Derb* die Lune proximo 
ante festum apostolorum Philippi et lacoby de qualibet 
wapentachia ballive sue xxiiii®^ etc., de qualibet villa 
quatuor homines et prepositum, et preter illos tot et 
tales etc. ad inquirendum et excercendum ea que ex 
parte domini Regis eis ibidem iniungentur. Et vice- 
comes fecit inde execucionem etc. 

'MS. factis. 



ife ♦ APPENDIX 

Placita coram Godefrido Foliaumbe et sociis suis 
iusticiariis domini Regis ad omnia ordinaciones et 
statuta de operariis et artificibus et seruientibus ac de 
mensuris et ponderibus et aliis in comissione domini 
contentis in comitatu Derb' illata audienda et termi- 

■ * 

nanda assignatis apud Derb' die Lune proximo ante 
festtim apostolorum Philippi et lacobi, anno regni 
Regis Edwardi tercii post conquestum xxxi. 

Derb' 

Presentatum est quod Elias Wareyn, Willelmus 
Gerard, Radulfus le Clerk, Isolda Louell * habent 
mensuras, videlicet, quilibet eorum unum bussetlum 
standardo domini Regis non concordatum propter 
minuitatem eorundem etc. 

(The sheriff is ordered to produce the above; t. e., "venire 
faciat/') 

Die Martis proximo ante festum Sancti Dunstani 
anno supradicto etc. 

Ad quem diem vicecomes retornat quod attachiati 
sunt etc. Et modo veniunt per vicecomitem ducti et 
allocuti sunt sigillatim de eo quod ipsi habent bussellos 
standardo domini Regis non concordatos propter minui- 
tatem eorum. Qui dicunt quod non possunt dedicere et 
ponunt se in graciam domini Regis, et petunt se ad- 
mitti ad finem cum domino Rege etc. Et admittiintur 
quilibet eorum ad xii d., prout patet in rotulo finium 
etc. 

m. I d. Die Lune proximo post festum Sancti Barnabe apes- 
toli, anno supradicto etc. 

Morleyston. 

Presentatum est per xii iuratos eiusdem wapentachie 
quod lohannes J de Walley cepit ad quarterium fni- 

' Forty-five other names. 



DOCUMENTS, LISTS AND TABLES 163 ♦ 

menti pro trituracione iii d; videlicet ad xx quarteria, 
et sic cepit in excessu contra statutum ii s. 
(Long list of similar offences follows.) 

m. 2. Morleyston. 

Presentatum est quod HenricuSjJ filius Henrici de 
Kydesley, cepit in excessu pro vendicione carbonis xl d. 
• ••••••• 

Item dicunt quod Robertus de Tikhull % de Chelaf- 
ton cepit in vendicione calceti contra formam etc. i 
marcam. 

• ••••■•• 

Item dicunt quod Thomas le Walker J de Beaureper 
cepit in excessu pro falcacione contra formam etc. ii s. 
Item dicunt quod Robertus de Burley cepit in excessu 
pro fuUacione pannorum contra formam statuti ii s. 

Item dicunt quod Alicia J que fuit vxor Ricardi le 
Baxter de Long Eyton cepit in excessu contra formam 
etc. in furnacione panis etc. dimidiam marcam. Item 
dicunt quod lohannes Staff | cepit in excessu contra 
formam statuti etc. videlicet pro furnacione calceti per 
vii annos iii s. iii d. Item dicunt quod lohannes,! filius 
Petri, cepit in excessu pro fraccione calcati contra for- 
mam statuti etc. iii s. iiii d. 

Altera Presentacio 

» ^^ 

Presentatum est quod Willelmus le Mulner,J falcator, 
cepit in excessu contra formam statuti etc. xii d. 

• ••••••• 

Item dicunt quod Rogerus de Beaumanere, carpenter, 

cepit in excessu contra formam statuti xl d. 

« 

Item dicunt quod Thomas Woluet,J couper, cepit in 
excessu contra formam statuti xii d. 
Item dicunt quod lohanna Welnet,| seruiens, cepit in 
excessu contra formam statuti x d. 



1 64 ♦ APPENDIX 

Item dicunt quod Rogerus Qement,! nielemakcr, cepi* 
in excessu contra formam statuti iii d. 

• ••••••a 

Item dicunt quod Ricardus de Hethcote, minour, cepit 
in excessu contra formam statuti vi d. Item dicunt 
quod Sampson le Minour,! cepit in excessu contra 
formam statuti pro consimili vi d. 

m. 2d. Placita coram prefatis iusticiariis etc. apud Bau- 
quell ^ die Lune proximo ante festimi Sancti Petri ad 
Vincula anno supradicto. 

Scaresdale. 

Item Ricardus Baxter,J Alicia, vxor eius4 Robertus, 
filius Roberti de Wliatton,! Margeria, vxor Thome de 
Ainslay, Thomas Cissor,! Cecilia Rauen,j: recesserunt 
a seruicio in autumpno etc. 

• ••••«•• 
Item Rogerus Kugell^ saghier, et lohannes Ganne,} 
schawer, noluerunt laborare per diem et capiunt per 
diem alter eorum v d. et prandium. 

m. 3. Placita coram prefatis iusticiariis etc. apud DerV die 
Mercurii proximo post festum Sancti Andree apostoli 
anno supradicto xxxi<>. 

(Long list of presentments for receipt of excess 
wages and prices.) 

Repyngdon. 

• •...... 

Item Elena,J vxor Thome Haicokene, non vult ser- 

uire vicinos set aliis pro maiori salario etc. 
m. 5. Placita coram prefatis iusticiariis etc. apud DerV 

die Mercurii proximo post festum Sancti Marci ewan- 
geliste anno xxxii*^. 

• *....•• 

' Now Bakewell. 



DOCUMENTS, USTS AND TABLES 165 ♦ 

Item lohannes Faucon,! Radulfus Whyte4 Willclmus 
Husse^ conducunt messores et dant eis salarium ex- 
cessiuum. 

• ••••••• 

Item Rogerus de Melbourne,! faber, renuit seruire vici- 
nos et seruit extraneos causa excessiui etc. 

Placita coram prefatis iusticiariis etc. apud Derb' die 
lovis proximo post festum Sancti Barnabe apostoli, 
anno supradicto etc. 

Item Iohannes4 fiHus Thome, Simon,! filius Thome, 
Willehnus Baron,| ^ conduxerunt seruientes et mes- 
sores in autumpno et optulerunt eis salarium exces- 
sivum ad dampnum vicinorum. 

DATES AND PLACES OF SESSIONS. 

31st year, 

Monday before St. Philip and St. James 

(i May). 
Tuesday before St. Dunstan, archbishop 

(19 May). 
Monday after St. Barnabas (11 June). 
Tuesday after St. Peter and St. Paul 
(29 June), 
m. a d. " Thursday before Translation of St. 

Thomas Martyr (7 July). 
Bauquell. Monday before St. Peter ad Vincula ( i 

Aug). 
Chesterfield. Saturday before Nativity B. V. M. (8 

Sept.). 
" Thursday after St. Barnabas (11 June), 

m. 3. Derby. Wednesday after St. Andrew Apostle 

(30 Nov.). 

' Nine others, all of whom paid fines. 



m. I. 


Derby. 


m. I d. 


it 


m. 2. 


u 




f< 



l66 ♦ APPENDIX 

S2itd year. 

m.3 d.* Derby. Monday after Purification (2 Feb.). 

m. 5. " Wednesday after St. Mark (25 April). 

" Thursday after St. Barnabas (11 June). 

X VI. Assize Roll, Devon, 195. 25-27 Edw. III. 8 membranes. 

Inquisitiones et Indictamenta coram H. de Courteneye 
et sociis suis. 

m. I. Devon' 

Dominus Rex mandauit literas suas patentes Hugoni 
de Courteneye, comiti Deuon', Willelmo de Shareshulle, 
lohanni de Stouford, Willelmo Daumarle, Ricardo de 
Birton, lohanni Dabemoun, Ricardo de Brankcscombe 
et Rogero Piperel ad inquirendum de feloniis etc. ct ad 
audiendum et terminandum in comitatu predicto secun- 
dum tenorem literarum dicti domini Regis patencium 

in presenti rotulo irrotulatarum in hiis verbis 

(then follows a copy of the letter patent of 15 March, 
i35i» appointing the above to the joint commission of 
the peace and for labourers ; see " List of justices,'* 
app., B, 3). 

Virtute cuius mandati iidem Hugo et socii sui iusti- 
ciarii predicti inquisierunt et inquisiciones et indicta- 
menta ceperunt prout patet in rotulis huic annexis. 
m. 2. Deuon' Item sequitur de inquisicionibus et indicta- 

mentis captis coram Hugone de Courteneye, comitc 
Deuon' et sociis suis iusticiariis domini Regis etc. apud 
Barnestable, die Mercurii in festo Sancte Marie Mag- 
dalene anno regni .... vicesimo quinto . . . 

(Presentments by jurors. 

Most of the offences recorded on this roll are fel- 
onies.) 



^ M. 4 is mtich narrower and shorter, sewn into the bottom of m. 3, 
and .seems to be part of another roll. 



DOCUMENTS, USTS AND TABLES 167 ♦ 

c i 8 . Item dicunt quod Philippus Chopyn, Thomas 

g*^ .ti 5 Bryan, Ricardus Doderugge, Willelmus Rugge ct 

g g^-g Robertus Vaggescombe vi et armis et contra pacem 

(A S Oi domini Regis venerunt die Sabbati xviii^ die mensis 

clI S) J ^^^" anno Regis nunc xxv'® apud Chepyngtoryton 

rS -^ 3^ g et ibidem quemdam domum communitatis villc pre- 

Oi ^8 ^icte intrauerunt, ostium dicte domi fregerunt et 



-> (^ CA 



o S i So cippum ibidem factum per preceptum iusticiariorum 

"S ^"v rt secundum statutum domini Regis pro seruientibus 

£^^J> editum apud Westmonasterium ceperunt et aspor- 

c S ^ 2 tarunt in execucionis statuti predicti retardacionein 

i i So^ et domini Regis contemptum. 
^jC ^ o • 

m. 4. Deuon' 

g Inquisiciones et indictamenta capta coram Hugone 

•^ de Courteneye comite Deuon' et sociis suis . . . apud 

g Exon' die Mercurii post festum conuersionis Sancti 

^ Pauli, anno regni . . . vicesimo sexto ..... 

g Item presentant quod Almaricus fitz Waryn, nuper 

.« vicecomes Deuon', die Lune proximo post festum In- 

(^ uencionis Sancte Crucis anno xxiii^ colore ordinacionis 

et statuti domini Regis de seruientibus, operariis et arti- 

M ?i ficibus editorum cepit diuersos fines et redempciones 

•g j^ ad opus suum proprium, videlicet de lohanne Greya xl 

{2 d., Ricardo Stone ii s., Willelmo Plokenet, fabro, v s., 



«S et de aliis operariis et artificibus c s. 

TO. 5. Deuon' 

Item sequitur de inquisitionibus et indictamentis cap- 

tis coram Hugone de Courteneye, comite Deuon' et 

sociis suis .... apud Exon' die Lune proxima post 

festum Sancti Swithini anno regni .... vicesimo sexto. 

(Presentments by jurors.) 



1 68 * APPENDIX 



H 



Item dicunt quod quedam nauis de Ispania carcata 

S«^ sale applicuit in portu de Pl3mipmouthe die Sabbati 

»S O proximo ante festum Sancti lacobi apostoli anno regni 

oT ^ Regis Edwardi tercii xxvi*<> ; et predictum sal per 

^'S) magistrum et mercatores eiusdem nauis vendicione 

g-S fuit positum et Walterus Venour, Thomas de Fis- 

^ a shacre, lohannes Sely et Simon Bogherewe per minas. 

^> et terrores eisdem magistro et mercatoribus per eos 

g en illatas predictam nauem sic carcatam f ecerunt duci ad 

^•o partes exteras ad graue dampnum domini Regis et 

^.S populi sui c li. Et quod predicti Walterus, Thomas, 

g^ lohannes et Simon consueti sunt impedire aduentutn 

g <u nauium carcatarum sale et aliarum mercandisarum 

»^ s volencium applicare in portubus in comitatu Deuonie 

g S3 ^ et sunt communes forstallatores salis, piscium, ferri et 

S bfl^ aliarum mercandisarum. Et quod predicti Walterus 

>PQ j^ et alii simul cum Ricardo de Wynkeleghe, Galfrido 

g? G)che et Isabella Bolda de villa de Plympmouthe 

.2 S g emunt sal per vnam mensuram et vendunt per aliam 

8^ - ad valenciam ccc li. in oppressionem populi. Item, 

§>^-g vendunt sal per minorem mensuram quam emunt 

gc/)Cj blada. Item, omnes predicti de villa de Plymmouthe 

H g g vendunt vina sua in ea carius quam debent capiendo 

racionabile lucrum, videlicet, quamlibet lagenam ad ii d^ 



CO 



,L!k-^^ 



c« i 



S ^^•-h'^ Item dicunt quod Ricardus ICnyghton de 

5 ^ O oT u Toryton, lohannes Calwa, Willelmus Walle^ 

.^ ^^ c lohannes Paryler de Qiipyngtorynton (vacat 

*ffi -M q^ cd §, quia insufficiens), venditores vinorum, mcde, et 

S! "S) S to ^ aliorum victualium vendunt cames plus quam 

c i5 h2 S CO E debent capiendo lucrum racionabile contra sta- 

^ "Sea tutum domini Regis de huiusmodi venditoribus 



&6 



5 o ^ ^ ^ editum etc. 



m. 8. Deuon* 

Inquisiciones et indictamenta capta coram Hugone de 
Courteneye et sociis suis apud Hatherlegfa die- 



DOCUMENTS, LISTS AND TABLES 169 * 

Lune in crastino Sanctorum Ciricii et lulitte anno regni 
vicesimo septimo . . . 

Item presentant quod vbi Robertus de Holeweye vir- 
tute commissionis domini Regis ac precepti iusticiari- 
^ orum cepit Margeriam Bagge, seruientem et operatri- 

^ cem et eam iuxta formam mandati sui in cippis ponere 

^ voluit apud Hatherlegh die Lune proximo post festum 

S M Sancti Petroci anno regni Regis Edwardi xxvii'®, venit 
(A ^ Robertus de Northleghe et cepit predictam Margeriam 
^'S de predicto Roberto Holeweye vi et armis et contra 
^ pacem domini Regis, inpediendo mandatum domini 



V 



Regis. 



DATES AND PLACES OF SESSIONS. 



In addition to the three sessions printed, the roll includes 
the following: 25*^ year, Exeter, Monday after St. Peter ad 
Vincula (i Aug.) ; m. 3. 26*** year, Honiton, Wednesday after 
St. Hilary (13 Jan.); m. 6. 27^ year, Barnstable, Monday 
after St. Petrocus (4 June) ; m. 7. 

% VII. Assize Roll, Essex, 268. 25 Edw. III. 27 membranes. 

Praesentationes Juratorum. 

It is difficult to determine the character of this roll. It is 
full of presentments for offences against the statutes of labour- 
ers, and while many of them are coram Rege presentments,* 
the note on m. 10 as to Hubert and House seems to prove that 
at least some of the membranes include proceedings before the 
justices of the peace and of labourers. On 6 May, 1352, they 
were associated to the joint commission, from which Hubert 
was removed on 10 Jan., 1353; see "List of justices," app., 

'For evidence that both this roll and Assize Roll, Essex, a67, contain 
indictments coram Rege, cf, app., F, i. 



I70 * APPENDIX 

« 

m. I. Hundredum de Chelmsford. 
(Presentments by jurors.) 

xiicim presentant quod Arnulphus le Hierde de 
Maldon, nuper seruiens lohannis Dodebroke, a fcsto 
sancti Michaelis anno regni Regis nunc xxiiii<^ vsque 
festum Sancti Michaelis proxime sequens xxv per i 
annum et per i quarterium vnius anni proxime se- 
quens et per totum illud tempus dictus Arnulphus 
cepit vnum quarterium frumenti ad xii septimanas et 
V solidos per annum pro stipendio suo. Item cepit a 
festo Sancti Petri Aduincula vsque ad festum Natalis 
Trans- Domini eodem tempore x s. vltra ea que superius 
gressio. cepit. Et super hoc dictus Arnulphus ab officio suo 
ante finem termini recessit ad dampnum dicti lohannis 
xl s. contra statuttun etc. 



Trans- 
gressio. 

Trans- 
gressio. 



Item presentant quod Robertus Grys de Daneweby, 
pottere, facit ollas ereas et vendit ad triplex contra 
statutum etc. quam solebat in oppressionem populi. 
Item dicunt quod lohannes Sextayn, iunior, sissor, 
lohannes Banestrat, cissor, Rogerus atte Tye de 
Magna Badewe, capiunt salaria pro laboribus suis de 
diuersis gentibus contra statutum etc. et hac tripliciter 
quam capere consuebant. 

Item dicunt quod Willelmus Denk, seruiens Galfridi 
Fabri, le smyth, cepit de dicto Galfrido xx s. per 
annum et est ad mensam et iuratus fuit coram lohanne 
de Sutton et sociis suis seruire secundum statutum 
etc. vbi non caperet nisi viii s. etc. 



m. 7. Magna Inquisicio. 

Item ils presentent qe par la ou ordeinc est par 
monsire lohan de Sotton e ces compaignouns iustysis 
nostre seignur le Roy qe nul draggere ne deuoit pren- 
dre petit ostres apelles brodis en destruccion dil ewe 



Trans- 
gressio. 



DOCUMENTS, LISTS AND TABLES 



171 



la ou, lohan Blood, lohan Chercheman puisne * prys 
Trans- teles petyte ostres en destruccioun del ewe nienC 
gressio. counlre esteaunt le ordinaunce auauntdit e refusunt 

seruyr come ils solcuint faire cause de lour graunt 

Item ils presentent qe Thomas Morman de Tillyng- 
ham est vn fauchour des prees e vn commun laborere 
Trans- e ad prys de diuerce geanz outragousement pur son 
gressio. louer puis cele temps qe il fust iure deuaunt monsire 
lohan de Stotton e ces compaignouns, ceste a sauoir 
de lohan Gold de Tillyngham e de Thomas Schort, e 
des altres pur le acre de pree a faucher ix d. bien a 
la mountance de xx s. ou plus outre ceo qe il deuoit 
auoir pris par lestatut. 

• •••«««• 

Item ils presentent qe Robert Totereg de Burnham, 
laborer, lohan Totereg, couerour des mesouns, lohan 
Boregh, laborer, Thomas Sare, laborer, refusunt 
douerer ascun manere douereine saunz ceo qe ils 
porrount prendre a double outre ceo qe est ordeine 
par lestatut en enpouericement du puple. 

• ••■•••■ 

m. 8. Magna Inquisicio. 

• •••••«» 

Item ils presentent qe lohan Galion, vicare de Nasyng, 
ne veut feare a nuly le sacrement des epposaylis si il 
ne eyt de chescun baroun v s. ou vi s., e en ceste 
manere par extorcioun ad le dit lohan pris de lohan 
Wakerild iiii s. x d., de William Gurteber v s., de 
lohan Mabely ix s., e de plusours autres a la mount- 
aunce de xx s. en oppressioun du puple attort et en- 
cuntre la pes. 

• ••••••• 

Item presentant quod Johannes Hindercle cepit de sti- 



* Five others. 



172 * APPENDIX 

pendio de Rectore de Perudon pro tempore August! 
hoc anno contra statutum x s. 

• ••■•••• 

m. 9. Magna Inquisicio. 

• ••••••a 

^ Item ils presentent qe Peris Poynaunt de Ep)ming est 

un tenour de carwis * e prent ble e salarie encontre 
^^'''°' lestatut. 



rp Item ils presentent qe lohan Skennere de Morton est 

pelletere et vend pelure et gauns trocher encontre 
8^^»°- Statut. 

m. 10. Magna Inquisicio. 

(Many trespasses "contra pacem," thefts etc.) 
• ••••••• 

Item dicunt quod lohannes Hankyn est communis 
laborator et fuit in seruicio prioris de Hatfeld Regis 
a festo Sancti Michaelis Archangeli anno Regis nunc 
xxiiii^*^ vsque festum Pasche tunc proxime sequens 
Trans- per dimidium annum ad mensam dicti pridris. Et 
gressio. cepit de eodem priore pro stipendio dimidii anni xviii 
s. contra statutum domini Regis de laboratoribus et 
artificibus ordinatum. 

Item dicunt quod lohannes Hardrybb Pypere de 
Trans- Parua Waltham est communis laborator et capit ex- 
gressio. cessiue contra statutum domini Regis de laboratoribus 
et artificibus ordinatum, videlicet, capit per diem iiii d. 
Et eciam idem lohannes de seruicio lohannis Qyue 
ante terminum suum contra statutum domini Regis 
recedit. Et eciam idem lohannes statutum domini 
Regis de laboratoribus et artificibus ordinatum con- 
tradicit in contemptimi Regis et in fauorem * aliorum 
laboratorum. 

Prima cedula liberatur per Thomam Hubert et I. 
House. 

"Probably a ploughman; cf. "tenter canice," pt. ii, ch. ii,U.f4. 
'MS. fauore. 



DOCUMENTS, USTS AND TABLES 173 ♦ 

VIII. Assize Roll, Hereford, 312. 29-31 Edw. III. 8 mem- 
branes. 

Placita (de Operariis, etc.) coram Willelmo de Frome 
et aliis. 

Writ attached to the roll : 

Edwardus, Dei gracia Rex Anglie et Francie et dominus Hi- 
bernie dilectis et fidelibus suis Willelmo Frome et sociis suis 
ad statuta de artificibus, laboratoribus et seruientibus ac de 
ponderibus et mensuris abusis edita conseruanda in comitatu 
Hereford' assignatis, salutem. Cum certis de causis per breue 
nostrum vobis mandauerimus quod execucioni commissionis 
nostre vobis de premissis facte vlterius faciende supersederetis, 
vobis mandamus firmiter iniungentes quod omnia recorda, rotu- 
los, memoranda et processus sessiones vestras de premissis tan- 
gencia nobis in cancellariam nostram citra quindenam Sancti 
Hillarii proxime futuram vel in eadem quindena ad vltimum, 
mittatis et hoc breue. Et hoc sub pena centum librarum nuUa- 
tenus omittatis. 

Teste Thoma filio nostro carissimo custode Anglie apud 
Westmonasterium, quinto die Nouembris, anno regni nostri 
Anglie tricesimo tercio, regni vero nostri Francie vicesimo. 

The first membrane contains a copy of a letter patent, dated 
2 Sept., 29 Edw. Ill, appointing Frome, Oldecastel and Mony- 
ton justices of labourers and of weights and measures; the 
Patent Rolls for this year show duplicate commissions, dated 
2 Oct. and 20 Dec. respectively; see "List of justices," app., 

B, 3. 

m. I. Pretextu cuius commissionis preceptum est vicecomiti 
quod venire faciat coram nobis apud Hereford' die Lune 
proxima post festum Natiuitatis beate Marie proxime 
futurum viginti et quatuor probos et legales homines de 
quibuslibet ciuitate et hundredo tocius comitatus, con- 
stabulos et subconstabulos pacis ad audiendum et faci- 
endum quod ex parte domini Regis eis esset iniungen- 
dum. 






V ' 






174 * APPENDIX 

Placita coram Willelmo de Frome, lohanne dc Oldecastel ct 
Hugone de Monynton iusticiariis domini Regis ad ordinacionem 
et statutum de operariis et artificibus in comitatu Hereford' 
conseruanda assignatis apud Hereford' die Lune proximo post 
festum Natiuitatis beate Marie anno regni Regis Edwardi tercii 
a conquestu vicesimo nono. 

Preceptum fuit vicecomiti quod venire faceret coram nobis 
hie ad hunc diem viginti probos et legales homines de quibus- 
libet ciuitate et hundredo tocius comitatus, constabularios et 
subconstabularios pacis ad audiendum et faciendum quod ex 
parte domini Regis eis esset iniungendum. 

Et modo vicecomes respondet quod mandatum istud in om- 
nibus est executum. 

Hereford'. . 

luratores presentant quod lohannes Monyword de Hereford, 
textor, cepit de lohanne Spicer de eadem excessum pro artificio 
suo anno xxviii^, videlicet pro vlna ii d. obolum, et quod est 
communis captof excessus. . . . 

Nicholaus le Webbe, textor, Robertus Plassh, textor, .... * 
ceperunt plus pro artificio suo contra ordinacionem etc., quam 
capere solebant annis regni Regis Edwardi tercii xx et xxi, et 
sunt communes et notorii captores excessus. 

(One hundred and two* other individuals are presented for 
similar offences, representing the following occupations: car- 
pentarius, daubere, filatrix, communis operarius, kembestere, 
communis operatrix, netrix, operarius diurnus, aquebanilatrix, 
cardestere, seruiens triennalis, textor, hokkestere, cissor, four- 
hour, falcator, textrix, triturator, skynnere, shapestere, mestrix, 
menbranator, cirotecarius, fullo, tegulator.) 

Ideo preceptum est vicecomiti quod venire faciat omnes pre- 
nominatos artifices, operarios et seruitores coram nobis hie die 
Martis sequente ad respondendum domino Regi de excessubus 
et transgressipnibus predictis. Et omnes predicti textores, ful- 



f9 



* Eight other "textores. 

' One hundred and twelve in all therefore. 



DOCUMENTS, LISTS AND TABLES 175 * 

lones et carpentarii gratis veniunt et allocuti qualiter se velint 
acquietare de excessubus et transgressionibus de quibus indic- 
tati sunt vt patet supra, excessus non dedicunt, se[d] petunt se 
admitti in graciam domini Regis. Et admissi sunt ad finem 

faciendum etc. Plegii de finibus 

(Five pledges are named; then follow the sums of the fines 
of 43 delinquents, beginning with lohannes Monyword, 10 s. ; 
half mark, 5 s., 2 s., 5 s., 40 d., 12 d., 15 d., 3 s., 3 s., 2 s., 2 s., 
half mark, 3 s., 40 d., 40 d., 3 s., 3 s., 2 s., 6 d., 6 d., 6 d., 
40 d., 18 d., 2 s., 2 s., 12 d., 2 s., 12 d., 2 s., 12 d., 4 s., 40 d.» 
half mark, 4 s., 8 s., 12 d., 4 s., 8 s., half mark, 8 s., 12 d., 3 s.) 

m. I d. Placita coram prefatis iusticiariis apud Hereford', 
die Martis proxima post festum Natiuitatis beate Marie^ 
anno supradicto. 

(The sheriff is ordered to produce the rest of those 
indicted.) Et modo vicecomes respondet per retumum 
Walteri de Ayleston, balliui libertatis ville Herefordie, 
quod omnes predicti plastarii, tegulatores, Rogerus de 
Stafford * et cirotecarii attachiati sunt etc. Et de om- 
nibus aliis operariis, seruitoribus et artificibus respon- 
det quod nichil habent per quod possunt attachiari. 
Ideo preceptum est vicecomiti quod capiat predictos 
operarios, seruitures et artifices et eos saluo custodiri 
[faciat] ita quod habeat corpora eorum hie coram nobis 
die Mercurii proxime sequente ad respondendum dom- 
ino Regi de transgressionibus et excessubus predictis. 
Et Rogerus de Stafford et omnes alii plastarii, tegula- 
tores et cirotecarii veniunt et allocuti qualiter se ac- 
quietabunt de excessubus et transgressionibus de quibus 
indictati sunt respondent et dicunt quod non sunt cul- 
pabiles et super hoc ponunt se super patriam. Post- 
modum predictus Rogerus et omnes alii per iusticiarios 
examinati separatim de excessubus predictis eosdem 
excessus non dedicunt. Et quia compertum est pre- 

^ " Menbranator "; the only one. 



176 * APPENDIX 

dictum Rogerum et omnes alios transgressiones suas 
recognouisse, ideo adiudicantur prisone quousque finem 
fecerint de predictis excessubus. Et predict! Rogerus 
et alii finem fecerunt pro excessubus suis per plegium 
Henrici Baggere, Willelmi Carles et cuiuslibet alterius, 
videlicet, Rogerus de Stafford, ii s. (Twenty- four 
names follow of delinquents fined various sums : 6 d., 
12 d., 2 s., 6 d., 6 d., half mark,^ 40 d., 2 s., 2 s., 
12 d., 12 d., 12 d., 12 d., 12 d., 12 d., 6 d., 12 d., 
2 s., 2 s., 2 s., 2 s., 4 s., 4 s., 12 d.) 

Placita coram prefato Willelmo et sociis suis iusticia- 
riis etc. apud Hereford', die Mercurii proximo post 
festum beate Marie anno supradicto. 

(Sheriff ordered to produce those who could not be 
attached.) Et modo vicecomes respondet per Wal- 
terum de Ayleston balliuum libertatis ville Hereford' 
quod Cristina atte Walle (etc.) . . .* capti sunt etc. 
Et de omnibus aliis operariis, seruientibus et artificibus 
respondet quod non inuenti sunt etc. Ideo preceptum 
est vicecomiti quod exigi faciat omnes prenominatos 
operarios et seruientes de comitatu in comitatum quous- 
que etc. si non comparuerint, et si comparuerint tunc 
eos capiat et saluo etc. quod habeat corpora eorum hie 
coram nobis, die Lune proximo post festum Purifica- 
cionis beate Marie Virginis ad respondendum domino 
Regi de transgressionibus et excessubus contra statutum 
domini Regis etc. 

m. 2. (Christina atte Walle (6 d.), Philippus Ewyas (12 

d.) etc.,* who had been "capti," had pleaded not 
guilty and asked for a trial by jury.) 

Ideo preceptum est vicecomiti quod venire faciat 
coram nobis hie ad diem Veneris proximum post festum 

*A tiler. 'Fifteen others ;"'sce supra ^ p. 175*. 

'The fourteen others just referred to; all have fines entered over their 
names. 



DOCUMENTS, LISTS AND TABLES 177 » 

Sancte Lucie Virginis xii liberos et legates homines de 
visneto de Hereford' et qui predictos Cristinam, Philip- 
pum et alios nulla affinitate attingant ad faciendum 
recognicionem illam. Et interim predicti Cristina, 
Philippus et alii liberantur per iusticiarios per manu- 
capcionem lohannis de Maurdyn, lohannis Whitfeld et 
Edwardi le Webbe. Ad quern diem Veneris predicti 
Cristina, Philippus et alii veniunt. Et iurati de con- 
sensu parcium electi et triati veniunt et dicunt quod 
omnes predicti sunt culpabiles de excessubus predictis. 
Ideo consideratum est quod predicti indictati commit- 
tantur prisone quousque finem fecerint etc. Et vlterius 
iidem iurati onerantur ad plenius inquirendum de oper- 
ariis, seruitoribus et artificibus etc. iuxta formam ordi- 
nacionis et statuti domini Regis inde factorum, et ad 
reddendum veredictum suum inde hie coram nobis die 
Sabbati proxime sequente sub periculo quod etc. Et 
Cristina atte Walle et omnes alii finem faciunt cum 
domino Rege pro excessubus predictis. 

Plegii de fine continentur in. extractis et fines eorum 
intitulantur supra etc. 

Placita coram prefatis iusticiariis apud Hereford' die 
Sabbati proximo post festum Sancte Lucie Virginis 
anno supradicto. 

(Meanwhile there had been more presentments of 
" seruientes et operarii " for receipt of excess wages.) 

Ideo preceptum est vicecomiti quod venire faciat 
omnes prenominatos seruientes et operarios hie coram 
nobis die Veneris proximo post festum Sancti Hillarii 
ad respondendum domino Regi de exitubus predictis. 
Ad quem diem Veneris vicecomes respondet per Wal- 
terum de Aileston balliuum libertatis ville Hereford' 
quod Henricus le Hope ^ (etc.) nichil habent per quod 

' Twenty-five others. 



178 ♦ APPENDIX 

possint attacniari. Ideo preceptum est vicecomiti quod 
capiat predictos Henricum, Isabellam et omnes alios si 
etc., et eos saluo etc. ita quod habeat corpora eorum 
hie coram nobis die Sabbati proxime sequente ad re- 
spondendum domino Regi de placito predicto. Et de 
aliis respondet quod attachiati sunt etc. Et . . . . veni- 
unt.' Et allocuti qualiter se acquietabunt de excessu- 
bus etc. dicunt quod non sunt inde culpabiles. Et po- 
nunt se super patriam. Ideo preceptum est vicecomiti 
quod venire faciat hie coram nobis ad diem Sabbati in 
crastino xii liberos et legales homines de ciuitate Here- 
ford' qui nee predictos etc. ad faciendum recognicionem 
illam. Et idem dies datus est partibus predictis. Ad 
quern diem Sabbati predicti seruientes et operarii veni- 
unt et iurati remanent in defectu Ricardi de Aileston 
(vi d.), lohannis le Tannere (vi d.), Thome Loue (vi 
d.), lohannis de Brugge (vi d.), Thome Salesbury (vL 
d.) et Henrici Clere (vi d.). Ideo ipsi et manucap- 
tores eorum ^ in misericordia. Et preceptum est vice- 
comiti quod distringat predictos Ricardum, lohannem 
etc. iuratos per omnes terras etc. Ita quod etc. et quod 
de exitibus etc. Et quod habeat corpora eorum hie 
coram nobis die Lune proxima post festum Sanctt 
Mathie Apostoli ad faciendum recognicionem illam. 
Et vicecomes apponit sex tales ne etc. Et idem dies 

datus est ceteris iuratis et partibus predictis 

Et modo vicecomes respondet per predictum balliuum 
quod omnes predicti non sunt inuenti etc. Ideo pre- 
ceptum est vicecomiti quod exigi faciat omnes predictos 
seruientes [et] operarios de comitatu in comitatum 
quousque secundum legem et consuetudinem regni An- 
glie vtlagentur et wayventur si non etc. Et si com- 
paruerint etc. tunc eos capiat et saluo etc. ita quod 
habeat corpora eorum hie coram nobis die Veneris 
proximo post festum Sancte Trinitatis ad responden- 
dum domino Regi de excessubus predictis. 

'MS. eius. 



DOCUMENTS, LISTS AND TABLES 1 79 ♦ 

lohanna Fetitz, Matillis, vxor Bartholomei Pipe, et 
plures alii qui indictati sunt supra de excessubus et ea 
occasione in exigendo positi vt patet supra in processtl 
facto die Mercurii post festum Nativitatis beate Marie 
anno xxix,^ reddiderunt se interim et fecerunt finem 
cum domino Rege pro excessubus predictis vt patet in 
rotulo de finibus et amerciamentis. 

m. 2 d. Placita coram prefatis Willelmo, lohanne et Hugone 
iusticiariis etc. apud Hereford' die Lune proximo post 
festum Sancti Mathie apostoli anno . . . xxx™®. 

(Sheriff who had been ordered to distrain the delin- 
quent jurors replied) : quod mandauit balliuis liber tatis 
ville Hereford' qui habent returnum omnium breuium 
qui nichil inde fecerunt. Ideo preceptum est vicecomiti 
quod non omittat propter libertatem predictam quin in- 
grediatur et distringat predictos iuratores per omnes 
terras et catalla sua etc., et quod habeat corpora eonim 
hie coram nobis die Martis proxime sequente ad faci- 
endum iuratam illam, et vicecomes apponit sex tales etc. 
ne etc. Et predictus Philippus Heen * et omnes alii 
veniunt. Et idem dies Martis datus est eis ad audien- 
dum veredictum suum. Et interim Willelmus le Hos- 
tilere et Alicia vxor eius* . . . qui se posuerunt in 
inquisicionem illam veniunt et ponunt se in graciara 
domini Regis etc. Plegii de finibus. ... * 

Adhuc placita coram prefatis iusticiariis apud Here- 
ford' die Martis proximo post festum Sancti Mathie 
apostoli, anno supradicto. 

Philippus Heen et Matillis vxor eius . . . . • qui se 
posuerunt in inquisicionem modo veniunt et iuratores 
electi et triati veniunt et dicunt quod omnes predict! 
sunt culpabiles de excessubus predictis. Et omnes pre- 

^Supra, p. 176*. 'See supra^ p. 178*. 

'Eleven others; see ifnd. ^ Seven pledges named. 

* Twenty-six others; see supra, p. 178*. 



l8o ♦ APPENDIX 

dicti veniunt et petunt se admitti ad finem faciendum 
pro excessubus illis. Et admissi sunt per plegium . . . ^ 
vt plenius patet in extractis. 

Henricus le Hopere . . .* in exigendo positi, vt patet 
supra, modo veniunt et reddunt se iusticie. Et petunt 
se admitti in graciam domini Regis pro excessubus pre- 
dictis. Et admissi sunt in graciam per plegium . . .* 
et aliorum quorum nomina plenius continentur in ex- 
tractis. 

Adhuc placita coram prefatis iusticiariis apud Here- 
ford', die Veneris in septimana Trinitatis, anno supra- 
dicto. 

Preceptum fuit vicecomiti quod exigere faceret Hen- 
ricum le Hopere . . ,* de comitatu in comitatum etc. 
quousque si non etc. Et si comparuerint etc. tunc eos 
caperet. . . . Et modo vicecomes respondet quod omnes 
predictos exigi fecit de comitatu in comitatum etc., 
videlicet ad comitatum tentum in castro Herefordie die 
Sabbati proximo post festum Sancti Vincencii anno 
.... xxix primo exacti fuerunt et non comparuerunt ; 
ad comitatum tentum in eodem castro Herefordie die 
Sabbati proximo post festum Sancti Valentini anno 
. . . XXX, secundo exacti fuerunt. Et Henricus le Ho- 
pere . . . • comparuerunt et tulerunt sibi mandatum 
predictorum iusticiariorum de supersedendo. Et ideo 
nichil vlterius de eis actum fuit. Processus quorum 
patet supra. Et respondet quod omnes alii non com- 
paruerunt ad comitatum tentum in eodem castro die 
Sabbati proxima post festum Sancti Gregorii Pape 
anno xxx; [ideo] tercio exacti fuerunt, et non com- 
paruerunt ad comitatum tentum in eodem castro die 
Sabbati in septimana Passipnis Domini anno supra- 
dicto; [ideo] quarto exacti fuerunt. Et lohannes de 

* Seven pledges. 'Fourteen others; see supra, pp. I77*-I78*. 
■Nine pledges. * Twenty- five others; see supra, pp. I77*-I78*. 

'Fourteen others; see note 2. 



DOCUMENTS, LISTS AND TABLES i8i * 

Webbeleye . . . ^ comparuerunt et reddiderunt se pris- 
one domini Regis etc. Et Ricardus de Oxneford, 
Thomas de Brechonia et Dauid de Wyggenore non 
comparuerunt, ideo in pleno comitatu presentibus coro- 
natoribus vtlagati fuerunt. Et omnes predict! lohannes 
de Webbeleye et alii veniunt et allocuti qualiter sc 
velint acquietare . . . ponunt se in graciam domini 
Regis etc. Plegii de finibus * 

m. 3 d. Placita apud Bodenham coram prefatis iusticiariis 
die Sabbathi proxima post festimi Sancti Bartholomei 
apostoli anno xxx™®. 

Preceptum fuit vicecomiti quod venire faceret coram 
nobis hie ad hunc diem xx probos et legales homines 
de villatis de Bodenham, Maurdyn, et Sutton ad audi- 
endum et faciendum quod ex parte domini Regis eis 
esset iniungendum. Et modo vicecomes mandat quod 
mandatum istud in omnibus est executum. 

lurati presentant quod Margeria le Webbe (xii d.), 
Isabella Don (vi d.), Walterus le Walsh (xii d.), Isa- 
bella, vxor eius (vi d.), Agnes Bogge (vi d.) et Alicia 
le Honte (vi d.), textrices et shappesters de Boden- 
ham, lohannes Wys (ii s.), Gilbertus, f rater eius (xviii 
d.), Willelmus le Holdare (xii d.), Stephanus le Swon 
(xii d.), cissores; lohannes le Coke (xii d.), Willel- 
mus le Walkare (ii s.), fullonarius; lohannes le Sou- 
tore (xii d.), lohannes Don, senior (xii d.), lohannes 
Mody (xii d.), su tores; lohannes Stelle (ii s.), Wil- 
lelmus Baderon (ii s.), Walterus Fillott (xii d.), tri- 
turarii; lohannes Senegere (lii s.), Phillippus Potel 
(xii d.), Walterus le Soutere (xii d.), lohannes lUing 
(xii d.), lohannes le Shepherde (xii d.), falcator; lo- 
hannes Ferthing (xii d.), lohannes Boidekyn (xii d.), 
lohannes le Smyth (viii d.), fabri; Rogerus le Whyte 
(xii d.), lohannes Kempe (xii d.), Willelmus le Smyth 

* Seven others; see supra, pp. I77*-I78*. ' Five pledges. 



l82 ♦ APPENDIX 

(xii d.), lohannes Keysham (vi d.), lohannes Cole- 
brugge (li s.), lohannes le Beest (ii s.), Walterus le 
Taillour (ii s.), Walterus Blanchard, lohannes Blisse, 
Hugo S)rmondes (xii d.), Willelmus le Longe (xii d.), 
messoreSy seruientes et operarii de eadem villata. 

Item presentant quod lohanna Sterre (xii d.), Mir- 
cus Prat (xii d.), lohanna Goche (xii d.), Alicia in le 
More (x d.), Alicia, vxor lohannis le Holdere (vi d.), 
textrices et filatrices de villata de Maurdyn, Stephanus le 
Webbe (vi d.), Walterus le Smyth (xviii d.), Ricardus 
Hoseye (vi d.)» Dauid, seruiens Willelmi le Walkare 
(xii d.), fuUonarii; Walterus in le Lone (vi d.), Wil- 
lelmus Love (xii d.), Ricardus Dygon, Rogerus Meysey 
(xii d.), Walterus le Longe (xii d.), cissores; Rogerus 
le Webbe (xii d.), lohannes le Walshknaue (xl d.)» 
Thomas Pouke (xl d.), carnifices; lohanna in le More 
(xii d.), et Alicia Loue (xii d.), seruientes, plus cepe- 
runt pro artificiis et seruiciis suis etc. 

Item presentant quod Rogerus le Webbe, Ricardus 
Chede, textores; Walterus de Nasshe, Walterus, seru- 
iens Roberti Knyth, lohannes le Walsch et Willelmus 
Walford, seruientes et operarii de villata de Sutton» 
Agnes Thorald, Alicia de Stone, Isabella, vxor Roberti 
le Dryuere, et Margeria Gladewyn, messores de eadem 
villata, plus cepenmt pro seruiciis et artificiis contra 
ordinacionem etc. quam solebant annis ante pestilen- 
ciam etc. ideo etc. Et omnes predicti seruientes et arti- 
fices de villatis de Bodenham et Maurd3m gratis veniunt 
et ponunt se in graciam domini Regis, preter lohannem 
le Blys, Walterum Blanchard et Ricardum Dygun. Et 
ipsi non veniunt. Ideo preceptum est vicecomiti quod 
venire faciat predictos lohannem (vi s.), Walterum (ii 
s.) et Ricardum Dygun ac eciam Rogerum le Webbe 
(xii d.) Ricardum Oiede (xii d.), Walterum de Nasshe 
(xii d.), Walterum, seruientem Roberti Knyth (xii 
d.), lohannem le Walsch (xii d.), Willelmum Walford 



DOCUMENTS, LISTS AND TABLES 183 * 

(xii d.), Agnetem Thorald (xii d.), Aliciam de Stone 
(xii d.), Isabellam, vxorem Roberti le Dryuer (xii d.), 
et Margeriam Gladewyn, seruientes etc. coram nobis 
apud Sutton die Lune proximo post festum Sancti 
Egidii ad respondendum domino Regi de excessubus 
predictis. 

Et omnes predicti seruientes et operarii de villatis de 
Bodenham et Maurdyn qui se posuerunt in graciam 
domini Regis veniunt et faciunt iinem, plegii de fine 
Hugo Hayward . . . et plures alii sunt quorum nomina 
patent in extractis. 

Ad quem diem Lune proximum post festum Sancti 
Egidii, lohannes Blys (vi d.), Walterus Blanchard (ii 
s.), Ricardus Dygun et omnes alii seruientes et operarii 
de villata de Sutton attachiati sunt preter Margeriam 
Gladewyn et de ipsa vicecomes respondet quod nichil 
habet per quod potest attachiari: ideo preceptum est 
vicecomiti quod capiat prefatam Margeriam si etc. et 
ipsam saluo etc. Ita quod habeat corpus eius coram 
nobis hie ad diem Martif sequentem ad respondendum 
domino Regi de excessubus predictis. Et omnes alii 
veniunt et ponunt se in graciam domini Regis, preter 
Ricardum Dygun et Walterum de Nasshe qui veniunt 
et allocuti qualiter se acquietabunt de transgressionibus 
et excessubus vnde indictati sunt, dicunt quod in nuUo 
sunt culpabiles et de hoc ponunt se super patriam. 
Ideo preceptum est vicecomiti quod venire faciat hie 
coram nobis ad diem Martis proxime sequentem xii 
liberos et legales homines de visneto de Maurdyn et 
Sutton qui nee etc. ad faciendum iuratam illam. Et 
predicti lohannes Blys et alii qui se posuerunt veniunt 
et faciunt finem per plegium lohannis Lene. . . . ^ 

Ad quem diem Martis, predicti Margeria Gladewyn 
(xii d.), Ricardus Dygun (xii d.), et Walterus de 
Nasshe (xii d.) veniunt et petunt se admitti ad finem 

^ Five others named. 



l84 * APPENDIX 

faciendum cum domino Rege. Et admissi sunt, pleg^ 
de fine Philippus le Bailiff, Ricardus Tudeneye et Wal- 
terus, filius Willelmi de Stoke. 

m. 4 d. Placita coram prefatis iusticiariis apud Hereford^ 
die Sabbati in septimana Pasche, anno xxx™<^. 

(The sheriff had been ordered to exact John de la 
Chirch, Isabel Wynne, Robert le Tyeler, Peter le Smyth 
and Philip le Walsh in the county court. They ap- 
peared at the county court held at Hereford Castle on 
Saturday before Christmas, 29*^ year (first time ex- 
acted) and surrendered themselves to prison. They 
plead not guilty and ask for a jury:) 

Set postea iidem seruientes et operarii per sacramenta 
sua astricti excessus suos sponte recognoscunt. 

m. 5 d. Adhuc placita coram prefatis iusticiariis apud Alma- 
lie^ die Mercurii proximo post festum Sancti Marci 
evangile anno .... xxx™<>. 

(A long list of delinquents indicted for excess wages 
had asked for a jury:) 

Et postea iidem seruientes et operarii per examina- 
cionem iusticiariorum per eorum recognicionem de ex- 
cessubus predictis sunt conuicti et prisone domini Regis 
mancipati; postmodum faciunt finem pro excessubus 
predictis per plegium etc. 

(m. 6 and m. 6 d contain presentments and processes similar 
to those already given ) 

m. 7. Et quia compertum est * lohannem le Taylor, Hen- 

ricum le Taylor, et lohannem Hichemones iuxta eorum 
recognicionem propriam alias fuisse convictos de huius- 
modi excessubus coram R. Talbot et socii suis etc., 

' Now Almeley; on this occasion eighteen jurors had been summoned^ 
>MS. has *'quod" after "est." 



DOCUMENTS, USTS AND TABLES 185 » 

ideo consideratum est quod habeant prisonam quadra- 
ginta dierum et committantur vicecomiti custodiendi. 

m. 8. Placita apud Hereford' die Sabbati proximo post 

festum Annunciacionis beate Marie, anno xxx. 

Ricardus le Murie (vi d.) querens optulit se in 
placito conuencionis contra statutum versus lohannem 
nuper seruientem Rogeri le Cat, plegius de pros- 
equendo Willelmus Esegar. 
Et predictus lohannes venit et querens non est prose- 

Miseri- cutus. Ideo ipse et plegii sui de prosequendo in 

cordia. misericordia. 

Stephanus, nuper seruiens Dauid ap leunan, attachia- 
tus est ad respondendum predicto Dauid de placito 
conuencionis contra statutum vnde idem Dauid quer- 
itur et dicit quod predictus Stephanus conuenit cum 
predicto Dauid die Lune proximo post festum Natalis 
Domini anno xxix apud Scholle quod sibi deseruiret 
a festo Annunciacionis tunc sequente vsque festum 
Sancti Michaelis proxime sequens in officio tentoris 
capiendo salarium iuxta formam statuti etc. Et inde 
producit sectam. 

Et predictus Stephanus venit et defendit vim iniuriam 
et dampnum, et dicit quod nullam fecit conuencionem 
cum predicto Dauid sicut idem supponit etc. et paratus 
est hoc verificare etc. 

Ideo preceptum est vicecomiti quod venire faciat 
coram nobis hie ad diem Sabbati proxime. sequentem 
xii liberos et legates homines de visneto de Scholle 
qui nee etc. ad faciendum iuratam illam. 

• •..a... 

Willelmus le Shipward querens optulit se per plegium 
lohannis Dasely versus lohannem Westwales de pla- 
cito convencionis etc. vnde queritur et dicit quod pre- 
dictus lohannes conuenit cum predicto Willelmo die 
Lune proximo post festum Sancti Fabiani apud By- 
ford quod sibi deseruiret a festo Annunciacionis beate 



1 86 ♦ APPENDIX 

Marie anno xxx^ vsque festum Sancti Michaelis prox- 
ime sequens in officio fugatoris capiendo etc. [et] idem 
lohannes a seruicio ipsius Willelmi se elongauit, vnde 
Willelmus deterioratus est et dampnum [habet] ad 
valenciam dimidie marce. Et predictus lohannes venit 
et conuencionem non dedicit. Ideo consideratum est 
quod predictus Willelmus [habeat],^ dampna sua que 
taxantur per iusticiarios ad ii s. vi d. et predictus 

Miseri- lohannes (vi d.) in misericordia, plegius lohannes de 

cordia. Kynarde. 

m. 8 d. Placita apud Hereford', coram prefatis iusticiariis 
die Sabbati proximo ante festum Sancti Georgii, anno 
supradicto. 

• ••»•••• 

Preceptum fuit vicecomiti quod venire faceret coram 
nobis hie ad hunc diem xii liberos et legales homines 
de visneto de Scholle qui nee Dauid ap leunan nee 
Stephanum nuper seruientem suum aliqua affinitate 
attingant, ad recognoscendum super sacramentum 
suum si idem Stephanus conuenit cum predicto Dauid 
ad sibi deseruiendum etc., vt patet supra vel non etc. 
Et modo vicecomes respondet quod mandatum hoc est 
executum, et partes et iurati veniunt qui dicunt quod 
predictus Stephanus nuUam fecit conuencionem etc. 
Ideo consideratum est quod predictus Dauid (iiii d.) 
sit in misericordia et predictus Stephanus eat sine die. 

DATES AND PLACES OF SESSIONS. 

Dates marked % are those ascertained by the words "ad 
quem diem, etc.," but where the roll has no heading; dates in 
brackets are those on which the sheriff is to have the accused 
but which are not followed by " ad quem diem." 

^MS. torn. 



DOCUMENTS, 


USTS AND TABLES liy ♦ 


m. I. Hereford. 


29^^ 


year. 


Monday after Nativity of 
Blessed Mary (8 Sept.). 


m. I d. 






Tuesday ditto. 


u 






Wednesday ditto. 


[ " 


3ot>» 


year. 


Monday after Purification 
(2 Feb.).] 


m.a. t " 






Friday after St. Lucy (13 


, 






Dec.). 


u 






Saturday ditto. 


t " 






Friday after St. Hilary (13 
Jan.). 


% " 






Saturday ditto. 


m.3d. 






Monday after St. Mathias 
(24 Feb.). 


i* 






Tuesday ditto. 


U 






Friday in week of Holy 
Trinity. 


m. 3. X Norton. 


29^^ 


year. 


Thursday after All Saints' 
(I Nov.). 


X Foxeleye. 






Tuesday after St. Martin 
(11 Nov.). 


Bourghull. 






Wednesday ditto. 


X Hereford. 






Saturday after St. Hilary 
(13 Jan.). 


X Kjmgestone. 


30" 


' year. 


Monday after Nativity St. 
John the Baptist (24 
June). 


X " 






Tuesday ditto. 


[Hereford. 






Friday after St. Lawrence 
(10 Aug.).] 


m. 3 d. [ Ky ngestone. 






Saturday after St. Qement, 
Pope (23 Nov.).] 


Bodenham. 






Saturday after St. Barthol- 
omew (24 Aug.). 


X Sutton. 






Monday after St. Giles (i 
Sept.). 


X " 






Tuesday ditto. 



1 



i88* 




APPENDIX 


m.4 


X Ledebury. 


29^ year. 


Monday after St. Michael 
(29 Sept.). 


1 


u 




Tuesday ditto. 


m. 4d. 


Hereford. 


30*^ year. 


Saturday in Easter week. 




Ledebury. 




Monday after close of Eas- 
ter 




t " 




icr. 

Tuesday ditto. 




[Hereford. 


i 


Satiu-day ditto.] 


m. 5. 


Webbeleye. 


29*** year. 


Thursday before St. Mich- 
ael (29 Sept.). 


m. 5 d. 


Penebrugg, 




Monday after St. Luke ( 18 
Oct.). 




Almalie. 


30*^ year. 


Wednesday after St. Mark 
(25 April). 




t " 




Thursday ditto. 


m. 6. 


% Bromyerd. 




Friday after St. Simon and 
St. Jude (28 Oct.). 




Cowern. 


29*** year. 


Tuesday after St. Vincent 
(22 Jan.). 




% Hereford. 


30*^ year. 


Saturday after Annuncia- 
tion (25 March). 




t " 




Saturday after Whitsun- 
day. 


m. 6d. 


Fromc Canon. 




Morrow of St. Agatha (5 
Feb.). 




% Eglynton. 




Wednesday after St. David 
(i March). 




Lanwaren. 




Tuesday after St. Gr^oiy 
(12 March). 




% Hereford. 


• 


Saturday after Annuncia- 
tion (25 March). 




t " 




Saturday in Trinity week. 


m. 7, 


X Rosse. 


2pth year. 


Morrow of All Saints (i 
Nov.). 




Fowehope. 


3otb year. 


Thursday after St. Valen- 
tme (14 Feb.). 



DOCUMENTS, USTS AND TABLES 



189 



{ Hereford. 

Bishop's Upton. 

m. 7 d. J Martteley. 

{ Hereford. 
Saint Waynard. 

% Landmabon. 
t Hereford. 
Hereford. 

m. 8. Hereford. 



[ 



m. 8 d. 



t 



i< 



u 



u 



fi 



Saturday after Whitsun-^ 

day. 
Monday after St. Swithin 

(2 July). 
Tuesday after St. Thomas 

of Canterbury (7 July). 
Saturday ditto. 
Thursday after St. James 

(25 July). 

Friday ditto. 

Saturday ditto. 
3i«t year. Saturday after Conversion 

of St. Paul (25 Jan.). 
30^ year. Saturday after Annuncia- 
tion (25 March). 

Second Saturday after An- 
nunciation.] 

Saturday before St. George 
(23 April). 

Saturday after St. Michael 
(29 Sept.). 

Monday ditto. 



22 places; 56 days, during the regnal years 29, 30, and at 
the beginning of 31. 

IX. Assize Roll, Hereford, 313. 30-33 Edw. III. 6 mem- 
branes. 

Placita (de Operariis, etc.) coram eisdem. 

The following enrollment explains the survival of this roll ; 
Mem. L. T. R., 34, Hill., Communia, Presentaciones, etc., rot. 
2d. 

Hereford' 

Willelmus de Frome unus iusticiarius operariorum ponit loco 
suo Ricardum de Frome ad liberandum ad scaccarium extrac- 
tas finium, exituum, excessuum et amerciamentorum coram 



I90 * APPENDIX 

eodem Willelmo et sociis suis lusticiariis adiudicatorum de annis 
xxxii et xxxiii**, necnon recorda et processus inde, 
per Willelmum de Peck de licencia baronum. 

This roll is, for the most part, legible only in a small portion 
of the middle of each membrane. Since I have quoted at 
length from the preceding Hereford roll, I give very little of 
this. 

The first membrane contains a copy of the letter patent of 
5 Feb., I3S7, appointing Frome, Oldecastel and Monyton jus- 
tices of labourers and of weights and measures. See " List 
of justices," app., B, 3. 

m. 6. Placita apud Leomynistre coram prefatis iusticiariis 

die Lune proximo post festum Sancti Georgii, anno 
xxxii^®. 

Preceptum fuit vicecomiti quod venire faceret coram 
nobis hie ad hunc diem xx probos et legales homines 
de visceneto de Leomynistre ad audiendum et facien- 
dum quod ex parte domini Regis eis esset iniungendum. 

Et modo vicecomes ^ quod mandatum istud in 

omnibus est executum. 

lurati presentant quod Willelmus le Flecchere, Ricar- 

dus Lorymere, lohannes le Ba de Mappenore, 

Matillis Borgoyn et Isabella Grolbe, emebant bladum 
domini regis. Ideo preceptum est vice- 
comiti quod venire faciat coram nobis hie die Veneris 

ad respondendum domino Regi de trans- 

gressionibus predictis. Et predicti Willelmus le Flec- 

cher (ii s.) de Mappenore, Isabella Grolbe 

(xl d.), Ricardus Lorymere (ii s.) Matillis Borgoyn 

(xii d.), et Willelmus veniunt coram nobis et 

ponunt se in graciam domini Regis. Plegii de fine Ri- 
cardus Romayn et Thomas Domer. 

Adhuc Placita coram prefatis iusticiariis apud Leo- 
minstre, ApostoH anno supradicto. 

^The lines indicate portions too faded to decipher. 



DOCUMENTS, LISTS AND TABLES 191 * 

Preceptum f uit vicecomiti quod venire faceret coram 

nobis hie ad hunc diem de Leomynistre ad 

audiendum et faciendum quod ex parte domini Regis 

respondet quod mandatum istud in 

omnibus est executum. 

lurati presentant quod Thomas Kempe (xl d.), Wal- 

terus Pegeon (xl d.), Hugo Pegeon (xl d.), Rogerus 

Bygot (xl d.), Dr Crompe, Hugo le Romayn 

(ii s.), Walterus Notehale (ii s.), lohannes Saundres 
(xii d.), Mattheus de Knygthton (xl d.), lohannes 

et Walterus Pegeon, junior (ii s.), carnifices, 

carius vendiderunt carnes suas contra ordinacionem 



domini Regis hiis annis quam vendere solebant ante 

pestilenciam ad grave dampnum 

quod lohannes of the Louwer, Thomas Etton, Willel- 

mus 

stinnarii, Philippus, seruiens lohannis Pyw 

Eston, Ricardus Bryd, Willelmus de 



Schonte, Robertus le Webbe (xii d.), luliana Scrog (vi 

d.), cementarius, lohannes le Trompour (xii 

d.), Thomas de luy — (xii d.), le Gode, 

cerotecarii, Salomon Mascalt (ii s.), et lohanna le 

(xii d.) 

suis contra etc. quam capere solebant annis 



faciat omnes prenominatos seruientes et artifices 

coram nobis domino Regi de excessibus 

predictis. Set omnes predicti carnifices, fabri, cerote- 
carii gratis veniunt et ponunt se in gra- 

ciam domini Regis per plegium lohannis Broun, Ro- 
bert! Body, lohannis de la de Ederey. 

DATES AND PLACES OF SESSIONS. 

Thirty years during the regnal years 31, 32 and 33; none 
deciphered for 30th year.* Fourteen places; four more too 

' In spite of the heading in List of Plea Rolls, 



192 * APPENDIX 

faded to read. I give only those that do not occur in the pre- 
ceding roll: Malmushull (m. i), Staundon (m. i d.), Breden- 
hull (m. I d.), Maddeleye (m. i d.), Petrischirche (m. 2), 
Wormelowe (m. 2 d.), Obeton (m. 3 d.), Leominster (ms. 
6, 6 d.). 

% X. Ancient Indictments, Lancaster, 54. 24 Edw. III. 

The roll contains proceedings held during the summer of 
1350 before de Lathum, Basset and their companions. On 20 
Oct. of this year they and ten others were appointed to inquire 
into the violence of malefactors and to enforce the ordinance 
of labourers ; see " List of justices," app., B, 3. There is, 
therefore, a slight discrepancy as to dates, which I have been 
unable to explain. 

m. 2. Presentatum est per inquisitores ville Lancastr' quod 
Agnes que fuit vxor lohannis, filii Elie de Qiorlegh, 
conduxit Emmam, filiam Ade le Writght de Chorlegh 
essendi in servicio suo de festo Sancti lohannis Baptiste 
anno regni Regis Edwardi tercii a conquestu vicesimo 
quarto vsque ad festum Natalis Domini tunc proxime 
sequens, et dicta Emma in seruicio suo intrare noluit set 
omnino contradixit contra formam statuti. 

• .•.«*.« 

m. II. Inquisicio de Preston capta apud Lane' coram Thoma 
de Lathum et sociis suis iusticiariis domini Regis in 
comitatu Lancastrie die Martis proximo post festum 
Assumpcionis beate Marie Virginis, anno regni Regis 
Edwardi tercii post conquestum xxiiii^ per sacramentiun 

Item dicunt quod Robertus Alkockesknaue, le Merschall, 
manens in Eccliston non vult locari nemini ^ nisi habeat 
superfluam mercedem, et quod ipse fregit convencionem 
quem fecerit cum Cecilia que fuit vxor Alkock le Mar- 
seal. 
(Indorsement.) 

* MS. nemo, nisi si. 



DOCUMENTS, LISTS AND TABLES 193 * 

Inquisicio de Preston liberata^ apud Lancastr' die Mer- 
curii proximo post festum Assumpcionis beate Marie 
anno xxiiii<> et habent diem predictam. 

m. 14. Inquisitio de Salfordsh' capta apud Lane' die Mercurii 
proximo post festum Sancti Laurencii anno xxiiii*** 
coram Willelmo Basset et sociis per sacramentum . . . .* 
qui dicunt quod Willelmus Tumson Kemmeson cepit vi 
s. et vnam tunicam cum capucio contra formam statuti 
per dimidium annum. 

Johannes, filius Thome Doggeson, ii s. contra statutum 
per dimidium annum. 
Et Ricardus de Trafford quia dedit predictis operariis 

salarium contra statutum 

Item dicunt quod Henricus le Lister, Henricus, filius 
Galfridi del Brigge, carnifices, lucrati fuerunt vltra assi- 
sam in boue vno xviii d. 

Item dicunt quod lohanna, filia Ricardi Hanneson, cepit 
per dimidium annum ii s. vi d. mains quam capere sole- 
bat et Hik de Lymme, Henricus, filius Bobelyn, sutores, 
capiunt pro quolibet pari sotularum vltra id quod capere 
solebant per ii d. vnde lucrati fuerunt per annum vltra 
antiquum lucrum xx s. 

Item dicunt quod Adam Dobbeson, Chikk)m, capiebat 
per ix dies post festum Assumpcionis beate Marie anno 
xxiii® quolibet die iii d. vltra id quod capere solebat com- 
munibus annis et sic communiter capit in anno xxiiii^®. 

• •■■■ ••• 

Item dicunt quod Willelmus, filius lohannis le Hyne, 
cepit plus solito in hyeme xviii d. et per dimidium an- 
num in estate plus solito per ii s. 

Item dicunt quod Ricardus de WyndhuU soluit operariis 
plus solito vno homini per diem id 

* MS. liberatum. ' Names of jurors. 



194 * APPENDIX 

Item dicunt quod Roger le Yhong, walker et sheremon, 
et Ricardus, filius Hugonis, walker et sheremon, capiunt 
pro cissure vnius virge tele plus solito per obolum et 
Adam le Walker de Bury, walker et sheremon, capit 
eodem modo predicto etc. 

m. 23. Inquisicio de Wygan capta die louis apud Wygan, in 
festo Sancti Oswaldi Regis coram domino Thoma de 
Lathum et sociis suis. 

Item dicunt quod Adam le Lystersone de Wygan, Wil- 
lelmus, filius lohannis le Lyster, capellatius, Willelmus 

de * de Wygan, Thurstanus, filius Rogcri 

le Baxter, sunt per noctem vagantes et vacabundi et 
nolunt operare. . . . 

m. 29. Derb' 

lurati dicunt quod lohannes Toppynk cepit de Ricardo 
de Litherlond vii s. a festo Sancti lohannis Baptiste 
vsque Natale Domini contra formam statuti. 
Item dicunt quod Ricardus Wafte J recusat se conduct 
vbi oblatus fiiit per Ricardum le Waleys pro iiii s. et se 
abstraxit in partibus Cestrensibus quia noluit conduct 
nisi per dietas contra formam statuti. 

• ••••••• 

Item dicunt quod lohannes Schad, Willelmus Cottok, 
Adam del Wodis (cognouerunt; in prisona), oblatis per 
seruientem domini Thome de Lathum quemlibet eorum 
iiii solidis et recusant capere contra formam statuti. 

Item dicunt quod Willelmus le Dauber (prisona) cepit 
de diuersis hominibus pro labore suo iii d. et victum 
suum per diem vbi magis non solebat capere nisi vnum 
denarium et victum per diem. 
Item dicunt quod Symon Qobbe de Derby recusat se 

« 

« Illegible. 



DOCUMENTS, LISTS AND TABLES 195 ♦ 

conduci nisi per diem et hoc per iii d. cum victu per 
diem et hoc cepit de Willelmo, filio Ade de LitherpoU. 
Item dicunt quod Thomas Colle de Derby cepit de di- 
uersis magistris iii d. pro opere suo cum victu per diem 

contra formam statuti 

Item dicunt quod Willelmus le Bakester,J Henricus del 
Bakhous (prisona), Henricus Staines, Willelmus, filius 
Alani de Schirwalactris,^ vendunt carnes et pisces con- 
tra formam statuti 

% XI. Assize Roll, Lincoln, 524. 26-27 Edw. HI. 3 mem- 
branes. 

Placita Coronae coram eisdem (i. e. Willelmo de Skyp- 
wyth et sociis suis). 

Praesentationes et Indictamenta. 

It is not easy to determine the nature of this roll; ^ but it 
is my belief that proceedings before justices of labourers were 
recorded on membranes that also contained proceedings before 
justices of oyer and terminer and before the keepers of the 
peace, the confusion being the result of the fact that the same 
men, William de Skipwith and William de Stayn, had been 
appointed in these three separate capacities within the district 
of Lindsey. On 26 Oct., 1353, they were appointed justices of 
labourers (see "List of justices," app., B, 3), and on 15 Dec. of 
the same year, keepers of the peace. Pat. 27, pt. 2, m. 26 d. 

m. I d. contains a copy of the king's writ to Skipwith as 
justice of oyer and terminer in Lindsey, bidding him deliver 
his records into chancery ; dated 7 Nov., 28 Edw. III. 

m. I d. Placita corone apud Lincoln' coram prefatis Wil- 
lelmo de Skipwith et sociis suis iusticiariis etc., die 
Lune proximo post festum Sancti Michaelis, anno 
regni .... xxvii**. . . . 

' In my article I did not venture to include this roll, and as a matter 
of fact it is not safe to make dogmatic statements about the nature either 
of this roll or of that for Essex, no. vii. 



ig6 ♦ APPENDIX 

m. 2. Item presentant quod quidam lohannes Skit fuit in 

seruicio domini lohannis Dargentene carucarius tem- 
pore estiuali vltime preterito et quidam Rogerus Swyn- 
flete custos manerii abbatis de Seleby apud Stalyng- 
burgh conduxit predictum lohannem Skit extra serui- 
cium suum tempore iemali nunc pro sex solidis et 
propter frumentum purum et tantam terram quantum 
posset seminare cum duobus bussellis London' f rumenti 
pro vna vestura et eciam vnam acram pisarum semi- 
natam pro vna vestura, et propter tam magnum lucrum 
recessit de seruicio dicti domini lohannis ad festum 
Sancti Martini ultime preteritum. Et postmodum pre- 
dictus lohannes Skit dubitauit indictari coram iusti- 
ciariis, ita quod non fuit ausus morari set recessit in 
extraneis partibus et sic predictus dominus lohannes 
amisit seruicium predicti seruientis per defectum et 
maliciam predicti Rogeri et contra statutum domini 
Regis. 

Item presentant quod Willelmus de Caburn de Lym- 
bergh, carucarius, non vult seruire nisi per dietas et 
ad mensem et non vult comedere carnes salsas set re- 
centes et propter hoc recessit de villa quia nemo aude- 
bat eum conducere tali modo et contra statutum domini 
Regis. 

m. 3. Presentaciones facte apud Ludam coram Willelma 

de Skypwith et Willelmo de Stayn iusticiariis domini 
Regis etc. die Sabbati proximo post festum Epiphanie 
Domini anno regni . . . vicesimo septimo. 

xii iurati hundredi de Louthesk presentant quod 
Simon de Steping de Luda, textor, operatur contra 
statutum, videlicet, vbi solebat capere pro tribus vlnis 
i d. nunc capit pro qualibet vlna i d. 
Item idem Simon recusat ire ad carucam et ad alia 
opera excercenda in quibus solebat operari pro maiore 
stipendio habendo et excessiuo. 
Item presentant quod Alexander Tasker de Luda est 



DOCUMENTS, LISTS AND TABLES 197 ♦ 

communis triturator et laborator et capit quolibet die 
in excessu i d. ob. 

Item presentant quod lohannes Gentill de Burwell et 
Ricardus, filius Ade Panyarman de Somercotes, die 
Sabbati proximo ante festum Epiphanie Domini anno 
regni domini Regis nunc Anglie vicesimo septimo apud 
Ludam vi et armis in Henricum Gere, capellanum et 
Thomam filium Galfridi West de Walesby insultum 
fecerunt et ipsum Thomam verberauerunt, wlnerau- 
erunt et male tractauerunt contra pacem domini Regis. 
Per quod preceptum est vicecomiti quod venire faciat 
eos etc. 

t XII. Assize Roll, Rutland, 731. 25-27 Edw. III. 10 mem- 
branes. 

Placita coram Galfrido de la Mare et sociis suis. 

Fines et Amerciamenta. 

Praesentationes et Indictamenta. 

An earlier list of Assize Rolls gives the following heading: 
Rutland. Rotulus presentationum de excessis, etc. contra Sta- 
tutum de Laboratoribus, temp. Edw. III.* 

On 15 March, 1351, de la Mare and five others were ap- 
pointed on a joint commission of the peace and for labourers. 
See " List of commissions " and " List of Justices," app., B, 
2 and 3. 

m. I. Coram Galfrido de la Mare et sociis suis iusticiariis 

domini Regis in comitatu Rotel' ad statuta Northamp- 
tonie et Wintonie necnon ad statutum artificum et 
laboratorum et conservandi pacis conservanda * apud 
Keton die dominica proxima post festum Decollacionis 
Sancti lohannis Baptiste anno regni Regis Edwardi 
tercii post conquestum xxv. 

' Cf, a|>p., 142, note 4. 

' Perhaps a more accurate rendering than that given in my article, in 
E, H. R.t 532; the manuscript is badly faded. 



198 ♦ APPENDIX 

m. 2. Coram Galfrido de la Mare et sociis suis, die Martis 

in festo Sancti Nicholai apud Vppingham, anno regni 
. . . vicesimo quinto. 

Vppingham. 

• «•••••• 

Constabularius presentat [quod] Thomas Smyt (li s.) 
cepit contra statutum, videlicet, pro pecia ferri vi d. et 
pro vno punctu ^ i d. et fecit finem. 

m. 6. Coram G. de la Mare et sociis suis iusticiariis domini 

Regis apud Okham die louis proxima post festum 
Sancti Michaelis anno regni . . . vicesimo septimo. 

■ ••••••• 

Elizabeth, filia Henrici de Screffington, . . . .* at- 

tachiate fuerunt ad respondendum domino Regi ad 
hunc diem quare in prima septimana autupni exiebant 
villa de Northlufnam in qua manebant et ibant apud 
Berendon et ibi seruiebant domodo oblatum fuit eis 
competens seruicium in villa de Northlufnam supra- 
venire dicta, et omnes preter Amiciam, vxorem Henrici Tiler, 
faciat veniunt et dicunt quod non sunt culpabiles. Ideo pre- 
ceptum est balliuo quod venire faciat xii contra etc. in- 
currendum etc., et predicta Amicia non venit; ideo 
preceptum capere eam. 

■ ■••••.• 

m. 6 d. Coram G. de la Mare et sociis suis iusticiariis domini 
Regis apud Okham die Lune in festo Sancte Katerine 
anno regni . . . vicesimo septimo. 

(Twenty-four women and one man are indicted for 
selling beer contrary to the statute) : braciatores veni- 
unt et allocuti sunt per iusticiarios quia vendunt serui- 
cium contra statutum; et Emma et alie dicunt quod 

' MS. pucco; punctu is merely a guess. 
"Five other women. 



DOCUMENTS, LISTS AND TABLES 199 * 

non sunt culpabiles et hoc parate sunt verificare per 
patriam, et postea compertum est quod non sunt culpa- 
biles et iurate sunt quod amodo conseruent statutum. 



m. 7. (A copy of the letter patent referred to above.) 

Pretextu cuius breuis preceptum fuit vicecomiti quod 
venire faceret coram prefatis iusticiariis etc. apud Ok- 
ham die Mercurii proximo post festum Corporis Christi 
anno regni Regis Edwardi tercii post conquestum xx°*® 
quinto de quolibet hundredo comitatus sui tam infra 
libertates quam extra viginti quatuor tam milites quam 
alios liberos et legales homines etc. ad inquirendum 
super sacramentum suum in premissis etc., et vicecomes 
fecit inde execucionem ut patet in sequenti etc. 
Roter. 

Presentaciones et indictamenta facta coram prefatis 

iusticiariis apud ^ die et anno supradictis. 

xii iurati hundredi de Martinesle presentant quod 
Thomas Writh cepit in excessu x d., per plegium Wal- 
teri, filii Roberti et Henrici Gregorii. 
Item presentant quod Adam Skot, falcator, fecit finem 
[cum] domino Regi pro excessu vi d., per plegium 
Walteri, filii Roberti et Henrici Gregorii. 
Et per plegium predictorum in excessu versus Rober- 
timi de Helwelle de excessubus ab eo captis. 

Item presentant quod Petrus Boneface . . . .* sunt re- 
belles et nimis excessiue capiunt tam per dies quam 
per septimanas, et postquam iurati fuerunt ad serui- 
endum in villa predicta, exierunt in alias villas et nolu- 
erunt laborare in villa predicta nisi possent excedere 
formam statuti. 

' A blank space on the roll; it is more than probable that the place 
and date are those named in the order to the sheriff. 

•Five others. 



200 



APPENDIX 



m. 7 d. Presentaciones et indictamenta facta apud Ouerton in 
festo apostolorum Petri et Pauli anno . . . vicesimo 
quinto coram prejiatis Galfrido et sociis suis 

Roter 

xii iurati presentant quod Rogerus Hood cepit pro 
stipendio in excessu ii s. ii d. excedentes ordinacionem 
et prouisionem prefatas etc. et de dictis denariis sol- 
vendis inuenit plegium consimilem. 
Item dicunt quod Symon, balliuus domini, ibidem ques- 
tus fuit de lohanne Garde quod ipse cepit stipendium 
excessiuum ab eo ; per cognicionem ipsius lohannis in- 
uentum est quod cepit in stipendio excessiuo pro tem- 
pore iemali xii d. contra ordinacionem etc. 
Item presentant quod Hugo Plomer cepit in excessu 
pro iluminacione ecclesiarum et aliarum domorum vi s. 
contra ordinacionem etc. et inuentum est per cogni- 
cionem ipsius, et postea euasit de iusticiariis antequam 
securitatem inuenerit de dictis vi s. 
Item presentant quod Thomas Chapman cepit in ex- 
cessu in opere autumpni xviii d. de Roberto Seusex et 
hoc inuentum est ad sectam eiusdem Roberti. Ideo 
liberatus eidem 



m. 8. 



Memo- 
randum. 

Fmis 111 d. 
Excessus 
xii d. 



Assessio coram G. de la Mare et sociis suis 
apud Okham die Lune proxima post festum apos- 
tolorum Petri et Pauli, anno regni .... vice- 
simo septimo. 

Ordinatum est per iusticiarios quod nuUus 
carectarius seruiens capiet plus quam octo solidos 
per annum integrum et hoc sub pena inprisona- 
menti. 

Ricardus Skynner de Wisundeyn, carectarius, 
cepit de Roberto Elwelle xii d. in excessu et 
manucaptor eius de excessu et fine lohannes 
Schowne. 



DOCUMENTS, LISTS AND TABLES 



20I 



Inprison- 
atus, finis 



11 s. 



Manton 
Finis vi d. 
Excessus 
xii d. 

Finis in d. 
Excessus 
xii d. 

Kylgisham 
Finis vi d. 
placita 
preceptum 
est balliuo 
venire 
faciat xii. 

Greccham 
preceptum 
est. 



Robertus Geke de Wisyndeyn indictatus est quia 
ipse capit per diem ii d. et prandium, et non 
vult esse in seruicio alicuius et venit in prcsen- 
ciam iusticiariorum et ideo adiudicatus in priso 
nam et postea venit et finem fecit, manucaptor, 
lohannes Malyn. 

lohannes de Multon cepit de lohanne Aterenes 
de Manton in excessu xii d., de Willelmo Freman 
xii d. in excessu; ideo etc. et postea fecit finem 
et manucaptor eius Willelmus Witede. 

Robertus Palmer de Aswelle dedit in excessu 
Willelmo de Endirby xii d. in excessu, et manu- 
captor eius de excessu et fine, Thomas Palmer. 

Constabularius, Henricus de Branston, presentat 
quod Rogerus Bailly vendidit seruiciam contra 
statutum bis, videlicet, lagenam pro i d. et obolo, 
et predictus Rogerus dicit quod non vendidit lage- 
nam nisi pro i d., et hoc paratus est verificare per 
patriam; et ideo preceptum est balliuo quod 
venire faciat xii etc. 

Constabularius de Grecham presentat quod at- 
tachiauit omnes laboratores et seruientes et non 
veniunt; ideo preceptum est constabulario quod 
attachiat eos. 



Wynge. 

Constabularius dicit ilium bene. 

m. 9. Coram G. de la Mare et sociis suis apud Northluf^ 
die Martis proximo post festum Sancti Mathei anno 
supra.^ 



' Probably the same year as the next entry. 



202 * APPENDIX 

Caldecote. 

Constabularius presentat quod omnes laborarii et 
artifices capiunt secundum statututn et iurati sunt. 

• ••««••• 

Bissebrok. 
Omnes laborarii et artifices examinati sunt et bene. 

Coram G. de la Mare et sociis suis apud Hamyldon, 
die Mercurii proximo post festum Sancti Mathei anno 
vicesimo sexto. 

Kilpsam. 

Inuentum est per recognicionem Mariorie Virgin 
quod ipsa cepit excessive vi d., manucaptor de fine iii 
d. et excessu Ricardus Miln. 

Pikworth. 

Inventum est quod lohannes atte Kirche dedit Mar- 
iorie Foliamyn a festo Pasche vsque ad festum Mich- 
aelis V s. et sic in excessu xviii d., manucaptor de ex- 
cessu et fine (iii d.) lohannes predictus.^ 

m. 9 d. Coram G. de la Mare et sociis suis apud Okham die 
Martis proxima post festum Epiphanie anno vicesimo 
sexto. 

Lidington. 

Constabularii presentant quod non sunt laborarii nee 
artifices qui capiunt vltra statutum. 

DATES AND PLACES OF SESSIONS. 

m. I. Keton. 25'*^ year. Sunday after the Behead- 

ing of St. John Baptist 
(29 Aug.). 
Ocham.* Monday after Nativity of 

Blessed Virgin Mary (8 
Sept.). 

' It is not clear who this " lohannes " is. 

* Spelt in the roll with either " c '' or *' k;" now Oakham. 



DOCUMENTS, LISTS AND TABLES 
m. 2. Uppingham. 

Northluffnam. 



203 



m. 3 d. Tinewell. 

m. 4. Exton. 

m. 5. Ocham. 

m. 6. 



tt 



m. 6d. 



« 



m. 7. blank, 

m. 7 d. Overton. 

m. 8. Okham. 

m. 8 d. Northluffnam. 



m. 9. 



« 



Hamyldon. 
m. 9 d. Okham. 

Assewell. 



m. 10. illegible, 
m. 10 d. Ockham. 
Bradtoft. 



Tuesday, St. Nicholas (6 

Dec). 
Saturday after Concep- 
tion of Blessed Virgin 
Mary (8 Dec). 
Thursday ditto, 
torn. Monday after St. Thomas 

(21 Dec). 
25'^ year. Wednesday after Corpus 

Christi. 
27th year. Thursday after St. Mich- 
ael (29 Sept.). 
Monday, St. Katherine 
(25 Nov.). 
no date.^ 
25^*^ year. Feast of St. Peter and 

Paul (29 June). 
27th year. Monday after St. Peter 

and Paul (29 June). 
Saturday, St. Margaret 
(20 July). 
26*^ year.* Tuesday after St. Mat- 
thew (21 Sept.). 
Wednesday ditto. 
Tuesday after Epiphany 

(6 Jan.). 
Monday before Conver- 
sion of St. Paul (25 
Jan.). 
27**^ year. Monday after St. John 

Baptist (24 June). 
27'** year. Thursday in Whitsunday 

week. 
Monday after Co^-pus 
Christi. 



'See app., 199, note i. 



'See app., 201, note i. 



204 * APPENDIX 

XIII. Assize Roll, Somerset, 773. 32-33 Edw. III. 12 mem- 
branes. 

Indictamenta et processus tangentia operarios, artificesT, 
et servienles. 

Cf, Mem. L. T. R., 34, Mich., Breu. Ret, rot. 32. 

Somerset' 

Preceptum est vicecomiti quod distringat Edmundum de 
Clyueden, Walterum de Rodeneye et Thomam Fitz lames ius- 
ticiarios ad ordinaciones et statuta de operariis et artificibus ac 
seruientibus necnon de ponderibus et mensuris in comitatu 
Somersetie custodienda assignatos per terras etc., ita etc., in xv* 
Sancti Hillarii ad liberandum ibidem omnes extractas finium, 
excessuum, exituum et amerciamentorum coram eisdem ius- 
ticiariis adiudicatorum in sessionibus suis iusticiarie predicte vt 
execucio fiat pro comodo Regis ad leuandum fines, exitus et 
amerciamenta predicta prout decet. 

Teste vt supra [Teste G. de Wilforde quarto die Decembris] 
per warrantum predictum. 

Extracte de quibus supra fit mencio liberantur hie xxviii die 
lanuarii hoc anno et sunt in custodia clerici extractarum hie in 
scaccario. Ideo dictum breue emanatum reuocetur et cesset. 

A long list of similar writs to the sheriffs of other counties 
follows. In the case of this roll the penalties and the placita 
were recorded on the same membranes, and therefore the latter 
also were sent to the exchequer. 

The roll is particularly full and clear, containing numerous 
lists of exactly the same type as those selected for printing. 

The first membrane contains a copy of the letter patent, 
dated 26 Jan. 1358, appointing Husee, Clyvedon, Rodeneye and 
Fitz James justices of labourers and of weights and measures ; 
see " List of justices," app., B, 3. 

m. I. Virtute cuius commissionis iidem iusticiarii man- 

dauerunt precepta sua vicecomiti comitatus predict! * 
quod venire faceret de quolibet hundredo, burgo tam 

*MS. predicto. 



DOCUMENTS, LISTS AND TABLES 205 * 

infra libertates quam extra xii liberos etc. de meliore 
etc. per quos rei Veritas etc. ita quod sint coram 
nobis apud Well' die Lune in prima septimana Quadra- 
gesime anno predicti Regis Edwardi xxxii ad audien- 
dum et faciendum etc. Quo die inquisiciones capte 
fuerunt de hundredis etc. qui dicunt per sacramentum 
suum quod etc. 

........ 

Item iurati hundredi de Welwe dicunt quod Marga- 
reta Rakers, Alicia Sprakes, Editha Deye, Agnes 
Clerkes, Willelmus Rosesone, Alesia Taillour, luliana 
Lauynton, luliana, vxor Walteri atte Broke, lohannes 
Benet, sunt communes laborarii et quilibet eorum cepe- 
runt excessiue vi d. 

Item quod Agnes Adekynes, Elena Gould et Editha 
Edward, filatrices, quelibet earum ceperunt excessiue 
vi d. 

Item quod Hugo Masson, Radulfus Lange, Cecilia, 
vxor lohannis Payn, Agnes le Reue, lohannes Gou- 
drich, Ricardus Houwes, lohannes Palton, Walterus 
Soutere, lohannes Simond, Editha Comere, textrices, 
ceperunt quilibet eorum excessiue xii d. 

Item iurati hundredi de Wynterstoke dicunt quod 
Walterus Daui, Willelmus Boniour, lohannes Cau- 
dron, lohanna Cole, Willelmus Lange, Isabella ser- 
uiens lohannis Felawe, Editha Traci, Editha Cesse, 
Editha Goky, Radulfus Cole, lohannes Smalstret, et 
Agnes Fagon sunt communes laborarii et quilibet 
eorum ceperunt excessiue vi d. 

(Many more indictments.) 

m. I d. Super quo prefati iusticiarii mandauerunt precepta 
sua vicecomiti comitatus predicti quod attachiaret pre- 
dictos lohannem.^ 

^ A long list follows of the indicted of various hundreds including the 
names printed supra. 



206 ♦ APPENDIX 

m. 2 ita quod haberet corpora eorum 

coram nobis apud Somerton die Lune in tercia septi- 
mana quadragesime tunc proxime sequente etc. ad 
respondendum domino Regi de diuersis transgression- 
ibus contra formam statuti vnde indictati sunt etc. 
Ad quem diem predictus vicecomes respondet quod 
predicti lohannes Denemede, Margeria Thrabbe et 
omnes alii in breue nominati in omnibus hundredis 
predictis capti sunt et in custodia etc. 
Super quo veniunt predicti lohannes Denemede, Mar- 
geria Thrabbe et omnes alii superius nominati coram 
prefatis iusticiariis allocuti qualiter se vellent acquie- 
tari de transgressione predicta. 

Et predicti lohannes Denemede, Margeria Thrabbe et 
omnes alii in breue nominati de transgressione pre- 
dicta cognouerunt quod inde sunt culpabiles et posu- 
erunt se in graciam domini Regis. 
Et super hoc accepti fuerunt ad faciendum finem vt 
sequitur etc. 

Hundredum de Welwe, 

Margareta Rakers de fine per plegium Ricardi 
Houwes pro eadem vi d. [i. e. pro diuersis transgres- 
sionibus contra formam statuti]. 

Finis Alicia Sprakes de fine per plegium lohannis Moun- 
fort pro eadem vi d. 

Finis Editha Deye de fine per plegium lohannis Hynebest 
pro eadem xii d. 

Finis Agnes Clerkes de fine per plegium predicti pro eadem 
xii d. 

Finis Willelmus Rosesone de fine per plegium lohannis 
Mounfort pro eadem vi d. 

Finis Alesia Taillour de fine per plegium predicti pro eadem 
vi d. 

Finis luliana Lauynton de fine per plegium lohannis Hyne- 
best pro eadem xii d. 



DOCUMENTS, USTS AND TABLES 207 * 

Finis luliana, uxor Ade^ atte Broke, de fine per plegium 

predicti pro eadem xii d. 
Finis lohannes Benet de fine per plegium lohannis Moun- 

fort pro eadem xii d. 
Finis Agnes Adekynes de fine per plegium Rogeri Payn pro 

eadem vi d. 
Finis Elena Golde de fine per plegium Rlcardi Frend pro 

eadem xii d. 
Finis Editha Edward de fine per plegium Rogeri Payn pro 

eadem ii s. 
Finis Hugo Masson de fine per plegium lohannis Mounfort 

pro eadem xii d. 
Finis Radulfus Lange de fine per plegium predicti pro 

eadem xii d. 
Finis Cecilia, vxor lohannis Payn, de fine per plegium pre- 
dicti pro eadem vi d. 
Finis Agnes le Reue de fine per plegium predicti pro eadem 

vi d. 
Finis lofiannes Goudrich de fine per plegium Rogeri Rey- 
nold pro eadem vi d. 
Finis Ricardus Houwes, webbe, de fine per plegium predicti 

pro eadem xii d. 
Finis lohannes Palton, webbe, de fine per plegium lohannis 

Mounfort pro eadem vi d. 
Finis Walterus Soutere de fine per plegium lohannis Palton 

pro eadem xii d. 
Finis lohannes Simond de fine per plegium Thome Bathe 

pro eadem xii d. 
Finis Editha Cornere de fine per plegium Walteri Soutere 

pro eadem xii d. 

m. 2 d. Hundredum de Wynterstoke. 

Finis Walterus Dauy de fine per plegium Willelmi Boniour 

pro eadem xii d. 
Finis Willelmus Boniour de fine per plegium Walteri Daui 

pro eadem xii d. 

^Walteri in indictment. 



2o8 * APPENDIX 

Finis lohannes Caudron de fine per plegium lohannis Sot- 
ton pro eadem vi d. 

Finis lohanna Cole de fine per plegium Roberti Beauchamp 
pro eadem xii d. 

Finis Willelmus Lange de fine per plegium lohannis Tail- 
lour pro eadem xii d. 

Finis Isabella, seruiens lohannis Felauwe, de fine per ple- 
gium Roberti Beauchamp pro eadem vi d. 

Finis Editha Tracy de fine per plegium Willelmi Priwet 
pro eadem xl d. 

Finis Editha Cosse de fine per plegiimi predicti pro eadem 
xii d. 

Finis Editha Goky de fine per plegium Willelmi Lange pro 
eadem ii s. 

Finis Radulfus Cole de fine per plegium Nicholai Halber- 
ton pro eadem vi d. 

Finis lohannes Smalestret per plegium Ricardi Couk pro 
eadem xii d. 

Finis Agnes Fagon de fine per plegium Willelmi Prywet 
pro eadem xii d. 

m. 5. Ad sessionem tentam apud Well' die Lune proximo 
post festum Natiuitatis beate Marie anno regni . . . 
tricesimo secundo. 

(Usual order to sheriff.) 

Item iurati hundredi de Frome dicunt quod Robertus 
Bryan, Rogerus HuUeman, lohannes Churchey, Wal- 
terus Webbe, Rogerus Lysoun, et Alicia, vxor lohan- 
nis Corslegh, sunt textrices et alii communes laborarii 
et quilibet eorum ceperunt excessiue contra formam 
statuti xii d. 

m. 5 d. (Presentments are made for offences in other hun- 
dreds ; then the justices order the sheriff to attach the 
indicted, including those named, to be at Taunton 
on Monday after St. Matthew ; on this day the sheriff 
returns that they are in custody. They plead guilty 
and are fined.) 



DOCUMENTS, LISTS AND TABLES 209 ♦ 

m. 6. Hundredum de Frome. 

Finis Robertus Brayn de fine pro eadem [i. e. pro trans- 

gressione contra statu turn] per plegium Laurencii atte 

Welle ii s. 
Finis Rogerus HuUeman de fine pro eadem per plegitim 

Walteri Whirligan xii d. 
Finis lohannes Churchei de fine pro eadem per plegium pre- 

dicti vi d. 
Finis Walterus Webbe de fine pro eadem per plegium Wil- 

lelmi Cayner vi d. 
Finis Rogerus Lisoun de fine pro eadem per plegium lohan- 

nis Corslegh xl d. 
Finis Alicia, vxor lohannis Corslegh, de fine pro eadem per 

plegium Rogeri Lisoun xl d. 

m. 8. Ad sessionem tentam apud Welliam, die Lune in 
prima septimana Quadragesime anno . . . tricesimo 
tercio. 

Item xii electi et iurati de hundredo de Whyston 
dicunt per sacramentum suum quod Editha Quinterel, 
lohanna, vxor lohannis Bal, lohanna Longespy sunt 
communes filatrices et Willelmus Aleyn, Willelmus 
Malyn, Willelmus Girard, lohannes Drake, Walterus 
Halyete, Willelmus Chynnoke, Editha Paynot, sunt 
communes textores, et Ricardus Chas, Willelmus 
Chas, Thomas Chas, lohannes Baker, Alicia, vxor 
lohannis Skot, Ricardus Lynstede, Robertus Burman, 
et Adam Soutere sunt carbonarii et vendunt carbones 
et ceperunt excessiue lucrum, sic quilibet eorum cepit 
excessive xii d. 

m. 9 d. (Sheriff ordered to attach them to appear on Mon- 
day after feast of St. Nicholas at Bridgewater. 
All appear on that day and plead guilty.) 

m. 10 d. Hundredum de Whitston. 

Finis Editha Quintrel de fine pro eadem per plegium lohan- 
nis Cole vi d. 



2IO* APPENDIX 

Finis lohanna, vxor lohannis Bal, de fine pro eadem per 
plegium Thome Bal xii d. 

Finis lohanna Longespey de fine pro eadem per plegium 
lohannis Boteler xviii d. 

Finis Willelmus Aleyn de fine pro eadem per plegium lo- 
hannis Souternian xii d. 

Finis Willelmus Malyne et Editha vxor eius de fine pro 
eadem per plegium Clementis le Eyr ii s. 

Finis Johannes Drake de fine pro eadem per plegium Rogeri 
Gonyz xl d. 

Finis Willehnus Chynnokes de fine pro eadem per plegium 
Willelmi Samuel ii s. 

Finis Editha Paynot de fine pro eadem per plegium lohan- 
nis Palmere xii d. 

Finis Ricardus Chaz de fine pro eadem per plegium Thome 
Chaz xii d. 

Finis Thomas Chaz de fine pro eadem per plegium pre- 
dicti ^ xii d. 

Finis Willelmus Chas de fine pro eadem per plegium pre- 
dicti xii d. 

Finis Johannes Bakere de fine pro eadem per plegium lo- 
hannis Skot xl d. 

Finis Alicia, vxor lohannis Scot, de fine pro eadem per ple- 
gium lohannis Bakere ii s. 

Finis Ricardus Lynstede de fine pro eadem per plegium Wil- 
lelmi Samuel xii d. 

Finis Robertus Burnam de fine pro eadem per plegium Ri- 
cardi Pet)ruyn xviii d. 

Finis Adam Soutere de fine pro eadem per plegium lohan- 
nis Southerman ii s. 

The dates and places of sessions are all noted in the extracts 
printed; four Mondays in the 32nd year, and two Mondays^ 
in the 33rd year, at four different places. 

'This seems to make Thomas Chaz his own "plegium;" probably 
Ricardus Chaz is meant. 



DOCUMENTS, LISTS AND TABLES 211 ♦ 

XIV. Assize Roll, Surrey, 907. 25-26 Edw. III. 4 mem- 
branes. 

Praesentationes et Indictamenta coram Ricardo de Bir- 
ton et aliis. 

Placita de quibusdam servitoribus et laboratoribus apud 
Limenesfeld.* 

Two distinct rolls. 

Roll I. 

The first membrane contains a copy of the letter patent, 
dated 15 March, 1351, appointing Huse, de Wylughby, de 
Grene, de Notton, de Birton, de Bekwell, de Roulegh, atte 
Wode and atte Watere on the joint commission of the peace 
and for labourers; de Loxleye was associated to the commis- 
sion on 27 Nov. of the same year. On 15 Sept., also 1351, de 
Roulegh and atte Wode were removed from the commission 
and were ordered to deliver to Huse and de Bekwell any 
records in their possession; see "List of justices," app., B, 3. 

Attached to this roll is the following writ : 

Edwardus, Dei gracia Rex Anglie et Francie et dom- 
inus Hibernie, dilecto et fideli suo Henrico de Beke- 
welle, salutem. 

Volentes certis de causis cerciorari super omnibus in- 
dictamentis, recordis et processibus coram vobis et 
sociis vestris iusticiariis nostris ad diuersas felonias et 
transgressiones in comitatu Surreie audiendum et ter- 
minandum assignatis habitis, inchoatis et non termin- 
atis et in custodia vestra, vos, prefate Henrice, existen- 
tibus, vobis mandamus quod omnia huiusmodi indic- 
tamenta, recorda et processus penes vos residencia 
habeatis coram nobis in crastino Sancti Martini vbi- 
cumque tunc fuerimus in Anglia, vt hiis inspectis 
vlterius inde facere valeamus quod de iure et secundum 
legem et consuetudinem regni nostri Anglie inde fore 
viderimus faciendum. Et habeatis ibi hoc breve. 

^ Now Limpsfield. 



212 ♦ APPENDIX 

Teste W. de Shareshull apud Kingeston super Tha- 
misiam, quarto die Novembris anno regni nostri Anglie 
vicesimo septimo, regni vero nostri Francie quarto- 
decimo. 

m. I. Presentaciones et indictamenta facta coram prefatis 
Ricardo de Birton, Henrico de Loxele et Henrico de 
Bekewell iusticiariis etc. apud Guldeford predicto die 
Lune proximo post festum Sancti Hillarii anno regni 
vicesimo quinto. 

m. I d. (Presentment against de Roulegh for breaking his 
oath as justice of labourers in the 24th year ; see pt. i, 
ch. i, s. 5.) 

m. 2. Presentaciones et indictamenta facta apud Guldeford 
coram prefatis Ricardo de Birton, Henrico de Loxele 
et Henrico de Bekwell iusticiariis etc. die Martis prox- 
imo post festum Annunciacionis beate Marie anno regni 
vicesimo sexto. 

Surr' 

luratores diuersorum hundredorum comitatus pre- 
dicti . . } presentant quod vbi lohannes de Rowele 
extiterat vnus iusticiariorum domini Regis ad inqui- 
rendum de diuersis feloniis et transgressionibus et ad 
statutum de operatoribus conseruandum et ad alia male- 
ficia audienda et terminanda in comitatu predicto, ibi 
lohannes de Rowele pluribus vicibus solus sedebat 
sine warranto, videlicet apud Certeseye, Kyngeston, 
Guldeford et alibi in comitatu predicto et populum 
domini Regis coram eo iniuste vexauit et indictamenta 
cepit et indictatos inprisonauit et tali colore de homin- 
ibus sic indictatis cepit diuersos fines ad opus suum 
proprium, scilicet de quodam Henrico de Roppele de 
Chidyngfold x s., de Willelmo de Twynam de Kynge- 

^ Names of jurors. 



DOCUMENTS, LISTS AND TABLES 213 * 

ston dimidiam marcam per manus cuiusdam lohannis 
Burcebrige, clerici sui et de pluribus aliis ad magnam 
pecuniarum summam et de quolibet laborario ad minus 
V d. ; que se excedit ad summam xxxv li. et plus in 
oppressionem et graue dampnum tocius populi domini 
Regis et in ipsius Regis contemptum. (There are also 
other charges against him.) . . . Per quod preceptum 
fuit vicecomiti quod caperet eum etc. 

Coram Rege Roll, 27, Mich., Rex, rot. 52, Surrey. 

A long and important process against de Roulegh 
includes, among numerous charges, specific reference 
to his extortions from labourers. He is finally con- 
victed and committed to prison. 

Ibid., Rex, rot. 46, Surrey. 

Jurors indict John Bushbrugg, lately clerk of John 
atte Roughle, for taking a bribe to conceal an accusa- 
tion against a certain man for sale of leather at an 
excessive price. He is convicted and "fecit finem." 

Roll n. 

m. 2. Lymenesfeld. 

Placita diuersorum artificum et aliorum laborariorum 
tenta ibidem ^ coram lohanne de Hadresham infra 
libertatem abbatis de Bello die Mercurii proximo ante 
festum Carnipriuii anno regni Regis Edwardi tercii 
post conquestum xxvii incipiente. 

(The earliest record of the appointment of Hadre- 
sham is 20 June, 1354, as justice of labourers for Sur- 
rey; see "List of justices," app., B, 3.) 

Finis vi d. lohannes Croucheman, rotarius, venit et ponit se 

in graciam domini Regis. Et est finis vi d. 



^/. e* at Lymenesfeld. 



214* APPENDIX 

Finis vi d. Robertus Terselyn, pottere, venit et ponit se. Et 

est finis vi d. 

Finis Symond Duraunt inuenit plegium ad seniiendum 

condonatur. infra Hbertatem, S3mioneni de Excefre. 

Finis vi d. Walterus Ede venit et ponit se in graciam domini 

Regis per plegium Willelmi atte Quarere. Et est 
finis xii d. 

Finis lohannes Merre venit et ponit se in graciam dom- 

condonatur. ini. Et est finis. 

Finis vi d. Symond de Stonehamme venit et pro excessiva 

donacione ponit se, per plegium Roberti Nutfilde 
et R * wyndenne ; finis vi d 

m. 2 d. Placita diuersorum artificium et laborariorum tenta 
apud Lymnesfeld coram lohanne de Haderesham in- 
fra Hbertatem abbatis de Bello die Sabbati proximo 
ante festum Sancte Marie Magdalene, anno regni . . . 
xxvii® incipiente. 

• •••■••• 

Edonia de Lyde liberata est Thome vicario de Cater- 
ham seruiendum eidem Thome usque finem [termini 
sui]' secundum statuttun etc. 

Finis lohannes Proflete quia retraxit Edoniam de Lyde, 
vi d. seruientem Thome, vicario de Caterham, ponit se in 
graciam domini Regis. 

Inquisicio capta secundum ordinacionem statuti per 
sacramentum Ricardi de Stafhurst, . . .• iuratorura 
qui dicunt . . . quod Ricardus Taillour, carpentarius, 
seruit extra feodum domini contra ordinacionem. 
(Eat quietus eo quod est in seruicio domini Regis.) 

* MS. faded. * Probably to be thus read. 

' Names of eleven other jurors. 



DOCUMENTS, USTS AND TABLES 215 * 

lohannes Crouchman, Alexander Pottere (ponit se. 
vi d.), Andreas Crouchman (ponit se), rotarii, ven- 
dunt contra statutum. 

Ricardus Terselyn (ponit se. vi d.) et Robertas Ter- 
selyn (ponit se. vi d.), potteres, vendunt contra statu- 
tum; Hugo Horsman (capiatur), carbonarius, seruit 
extra feodum domini, Robertus Mowere (ponit se. vi 
d.), Lucia Frere (finis iii d.), braciatrix, vendunt pro 
ii d. contra statutum. Nicholas Payn (finis iii d.)> 
faber, negauit seruire patriam, Walterus Ede, Thomas 
atte Mede (finis vi d.), faciunt carbones et vendunt 
extra dominicum (ita quod libere ^ non potest seruire, 
finem), Robertus Lyngelegh facit ut dictus Thomas, 
Nicholas Payn, Walterus Ede, Thomas atte Mede, 
contra ordinacionem. Ideo preceptum est attachiare 
omnes supradictos quod sint coram lohanne de Ha- 
deresham die Lune in festo Sancte Marie Magdalene 
proxime futuro ad audiendum et faciendum ea que ' 
ex parte domini Regis eis iniungentur. 

m.4. Surr'. Lymenesfeld. 

Placita de seruitoribus, artificibus et aliis laborariis 
tenta ibidem coram Roberto de Belknappe infra vide- 
licet libertatem abbatis de Bello virtute quarumdam 
literarum patencium predicto abbati inde directarum.' 
Et eciam virtute eiusdem libertatis coram Rogero 
Huse et sociis suis iusticiariis allocatis apud Geldeford 
die louis in Octabis Assensionis, anno regni .... 
vicesimo quinto 

(On 15 March, 1351, Huse was appointed on the 
joint commission of the peace and for labourers for 
Surrey, and on 20 June, 1354, on the commission 
for labourers; see "List of justices," app., B, 3. Of 
Belknap's appointment I have found no trace.) 

• ...a... 

> A doubtful reading; MS. lib. 'MS. quod. 'MS. directo. 



2l6* 



APPENDIX 



Famuli conuicti 



conuicti 



Nicholaus de Stafhurst (vi d.), Rogerus 
Daly (vi d.), lohannes Melleward (vi d.). 
Thomas Waterman (iii d.), Willelmus 
(pauper), cartere, lohannes Belamy (pau- 
per), Willelmus Aaron (pauper), lohan- 
nes Bayllyf (pauper), Walterus Notfeld 
(xii d.), Rogerus Lambard (iii d.), lo- 
hannes Melleword, senior (iiii d.), lohan- 
nes Merey (x d.), Willelmus Spadiere (iii 
d.), Willelmus Wastel (vi d.), famuli et 
seruitores conuicti sunt ad sectam lohannis 
de Pondfolde quod propter pestilenciam 
Excessus iiii s. vii d. mercedes ceperant excessiuas vltra id quod 

in partibus illis dare consueuerint, quilibet 
videlicet secundum quod super nomen 
ipsius annotatur. Ideo preceptum est 
quod summe predicte leuentur de eisdem. 
Et modo omnes predicti fecerunt sacra- 
mentum quod de cetero in libertate ista 
commorabunt, capientes stipendia et sala- 
ria in statuto contenta etc. 



XV. Assize Roll, Warwick, 971. 31 Edw. III. 3 membranes. 

Praesentationes ad Sessiones lohannis Sparry et aliorum 
de Statutis de Operariis, etc. 

On 5 Feb., 1357, de Conyngesby, Sparry and Spyneye were 
appointed justices of labourers and of weights and measures; 
see "List of justices," app., B, 3. 

Attached to this roll are eleven writs addressed to the jus- 
tices, issued by the king as a result of petitions to him. 



No. I. 



Edwardus, Dei gracia Rex Anglie et Francie et 
dominus Hibernie, iusticiariis nostris ad ordina- 
cionem et statuta de operariis, seruientibus et arti- 
ficibus ac de mensuris et ponderibus edita in 
comitatu Warr' custodienda assignatis, salutem. 



DOCUMENTS, IJSTS AND TABLES 217 * 

Volentes certis de causis cerciorari que et quot 
fines, amerciamenta et exitus forisfacta in ses- 
sionibus vestris anno regni nostri Anglie tricesimo 
primo vsque ad Clausum Pasche eodem anno quo 
die parliamentum nostrum incepit, facta, affirata 
et adiudicata fuerunt, et de quibus personis, 
vobis mandamus quod scrutatis rotulis vestris de 
sessionibus predictis nos inde sub sigillis vestris 
in cancellaria nostra reddatis distincte et aperte 
sine dilacione cerciores, hoc breue nobis remit- 
tentes. 

Teste me ipso apud Westmonasterium, xvi die 
Octobris, anno regni nostri Anglie tricesimo se- 
cundo, regni vero nostri Francie decimo nono. 

Cf. with the above writ the following enroll- 
ment: 

Mem. K. R., 34, Hill., Breu. Baron., rot. 3d. 

pro Rege. Rex thesaurario et baronibus suis de scaccario 

ac camerario suis, salutem. Quandam bagam cum 
diversis rotulis et recordis in eadem inclusis nobis 
in cancellaria nostra per lohannem de Conyng- 
esby et socios suos nuper iusticiarios nostros ad 
statuta de artificibus et seruientibus ac de pon- 
deribus et mensuris abusis edita in comitatu Warr' 
custodienda assignatos de mandato nostro liber- 
atam vobis mittimus, mandantes quod bagam pre- 
dictam recipiatis et inde fieri faciatis quod * fore 
videritis faciendum. 

Teste Thoma filio nostro carissimo custode An- 
glie apud Westmonasterium, xxvi die lanuarii, 
anno regni nostri Anglie tricesimo quarto, regni 
vero nostri Francie vicesimo primo. 

No. 2. Edwardus, Dei gracia Rex Anglie et Francie 

et dominus Hibernie, dilectis et fidelibus suis lo- 

^ In MS. quod is repeated. 



2i8 * APPENDIX 

hanni Sparry et sociis suis iusticiariis ad excessus 
operariorum et seruiencium in comitatu Warr' 
audiendos et terminandos assignatis, salutem. 
Querelam dilecti nobis in Christo abbatis de 
Pippewell recepimus continentem quod cum ipse 
habeat diuersas grangias et alia loca ad domum 
suam pertinencia quorum terre pro defectu opera-» 
riorum et seruiencium iacent frisce et inculte, et 
licet idem abbas diuersos habeat tenentes in villis, 
grangiis, et locis predictis contiguis qui terras suas 
colere et sibi deseruire possent et pre ceteris de- 
seruire deberent, vos, nichilominus, ad hoc con- 
sideracionem non habentes, tenentes huiusmodi 
ad procuracionem quorundam emulorum ipsius 
abbatis aliis deseruire compellitis et per alios com- 
pelli facitis minus iuste, quamquam prefatus abbas 
sepius et cum instancia vobis supplicauerit huius- 
modi tenentes suos ad deseruiendum ei pro com- 
petenti salario sibi liberari, super quo supplicauit 
sibi per nos de remedio congruo prouideri. Nos 
aduertentes non esse consonum racioni quod 
tenentes ipsius abbatis aliis deseruire cogantur 
dumtamen idem abbas de eorum seruiciis indigeat, 
vobis mandamus quod habito respectu ad neces- 
sitatem ipsius abbatis in hac parte ei tot operarios 
et seruientes de tenentibus suis et aliis quot ei 
pro terris suis colendis et aliis operibus suis per- 
ficiendis racionabiliter sufficere poterunt habere 
faciatis prout de iure et secundum formam ordi- 
nacionis in hac parte facte fuerit faciendum. 

Teste me ipso apud Westmonasterium, secundo 
die Maii, anno regni nostri Anglie tricesimo se- 
cundo, regni vero nostri Francie decimo nono. 
No. 3. An order addressed to the justices for the mak- 

ing of standard weights and measures, on com- 
plaint of Walter Gutyng, of Evesham, whom the 



DOCUMENTS, LISTS AND TABLES 219 ♦ 

same justices had proceeded against for selling 
wool by the old weights ; 16 March, 32 Edw. III. 

No. 4. On complaint of the mayor, the justices are 

forbidden to interfere with the assize of bread 
and ale within the town of Coventry, this assize 
having been granted by Queen Isabel to the 
mayor, bailiffs and men of Coventry; 3 April, 
31 Edw. III. 

No. 5. Edwardus, Dei gracia Rex Anglie et Francie et 

dominus Hibernie, iusticiariis suis ad ordinacio- 
nem et statuta de operatoribus, seruientibus et 
vitelariis et de mensuris et ponderibus edita in 
comitatu Warrewichie, salutem. Monstrauit 
nobis luliana, comitissa Huntyngdon', domina 
maneriorum de Alleslee, Filonglee, Burthyngbury, 
Aston, Cauntelou, et Stodleyely,* in comitatu pre- 
dicto quod cum ipsa habeat et habere debeat ipsa- 
que et omnes alii domini maneriorum predictorum 
a tempore cuius contrarii memoria non existit, 
habere consueuerint visum franciplegii ibidem de 
omnibus hominibus et tenentibus suis in eisdem 
maneriis residentibus et emendas assise panis et 
ceruisie ibidem fracte et omnia alia ad huiusmodi 
visum franciplegii pertinencia; et licet eadem 
comitissa per balliuos suos maneriorum predic- 
torum pistores et braciatores ac alios infra ma- 
neria predicta residentes pro assisa huiusmodi 
panis et ceruisie fracta et pro abusu* mensura- 
rum et ponderum in maneriis predictis per amer- 
ciamenta et alio modo per ministros suos puniri 
et amerciamenta ilia ad opus suum leuari fecerit, 
vos tamen eosdem pistores et braciatores et alios 
residentes predictos pro huiusmodi assisa panis et 
ceruisie fracta et abusu mensurarum et ponderum 
predictorUm, ac si prius ea de causa puniti non 

'A mistake for Stodleye, now Studley. *MS. absa. 



420 ♦ • APPENDIX 



fuissent, per amerciamenta grauia alias punire in- 
tenditis, quod si fieret in ipsius comitisse preiu- 
dicinm, ac hominum et tenendum suorum predic- 
torum oppressionem cederet manifeste. Et quia 
in magno consilio nostro apud Westmonasterium 
anno regni nostri Anglie vicesimo septimo tento 
extitit concordatum quod in inquisicionibus et 
punicionibus pro transgressionibus huiusmodi fa- 
ciendis, libertates dominorum et aliorum semper 
saluentur, nolentes prefate comitisse aut hominibus 
seu tenentibus supradictis iniuriari in hac parte, 
vobis mandamus quod si vobis legitime constare 
poterit prefatam comitissam visum franciplegii in 
maneriis predictis ac emendas assise panis et cer- 
uisie de hominibus et tenentibus suis predictis in 
eisdem maneriis habere vt predictum est, tunc 
punicionibus huiusmodi pistorum, braciatorum et 
aliorum hominum et tenencium suorum predic- 
torum ibidem pro huiusmodi assisa fracta et 
abusu mensurarum et ponderum, pro quibus 
coram balliuis comitisse predicte puniti fuerint, 
coram vobis iterato faciendis supersedeatis om- 
nino, ipsos pistores et braciatores, ac homines et 
tenentes suos predictos ex hac causa non mole- 
stantes in aliquo seu grauantes, prouiso semper 
quod mensure et pondera hominum et tenencium 
suorum predictorum standardo nostro sint con- 
cordancia, iuxta formam statutorum ^ inde edi- 
torum et quod omnia falsa mensure et pondera 
comburentur et adnullentur et quod ipsi pro de- 
lictis pro quibus prius puniti non fuerint, per vos 
puniantur prout decet. 

Teste me ipso, apud Westmonasterium, xx die 
lunii, anno regni nostri Anglie tricesimo primo, 
regni vero nostri Francie decimo octauo. 

'MS. statuorum. 



DOCUMENTS, LISTS AND TABLES 221 * 

The following six writs deal with the same 

matters : 
No. 6. On complaint of the mayor of Coventry within 

the town of Coventry; 2 Aug., 31 Edw. III. 
No. 7. Within the jurisdiction of the prior of Coven- 

try ; 28 July, 31 Edw. III. 
No. 8. On complaint of John de Mohun within the 

manors of Great Compton and Whichford; 15 

Nov., 31 Edw. III. 
No. 9. On complaint of the prioress of Eton ; 18 May, 

31 Edw. III. 
No. ID. On complaint of the prior and convent of 

Kirkeby " monachorum;" ^ 8 May, 31 Edw. III. 
No. II. On complaint of Fulk de Bernyngham, lord of 

the manor of Bernyngham ; 3 July, 31 Edw. III. 

m. I. Sessio lohannis Sparry et sociorum suorum 

apud Warr*, die Lune proximo post festum Sancti 
Gregorii Pape anno Regis Edwardi tercii post 
conquestum tricesimo primo. 

Kyngton. 

Mandatum fuit vicecomiti ex parte domini 
Regis quod venire faceret coram lohanne Sparry 
et sociis suis iusticiariis domini Regis per com- 
missionem suam eis directam ad excessus opera- 
riorum, servientium et artificum ac defectus pon- 
derum et mensurarum in comitatu Warr' puni- 
endos assignatis hie ad hunc diem xxiiii probos 
et legales homines de hundred© de Kyngton ac 
omnes constabularios villatarum et hameletarum 
eiusdem hundredi ad faciendum etc. Et vice- 
comes modo retumauit xxiiii etc. et similiter con- 
stabularios etc. secundum tenorem dicti mandati. 
Set inquisicio ilia remanet capienda pro defectu 

' Now Monks' Kirbv. 



222 ♦ APPENDIX 

iuratorum. Ideo precepttim est vicecomiti quod 
distringat predictos iuratos, scilicet Henricum de 
Pipe et alios per omnes terras etc. et quod de 
exitibus etc. ita quod habeat corpora eorum 
apud Warr' die Lune proximo post festum An- 
nunciacionis beate Marie proxime futurum ad 
faciendum etc. 

Constabularii dicti hundredi venerunt et fece- 
runt sacramentum. Et onerantur per eorum 
sacramentum ad inquirendum de omnibus arti- 
culis in ordinacionibus et statutis de operariis, 
seruientibus et artificibus ac de ponderibus et 
mensuris editis, et de nominibus illorum qui in 
abusu ponderum seu mensurarum deliquerint. Et 
ad capiendum sacramentum omnium et singu- 
lorum operariorum, seruiencium et artificum in 
balliuis suis commorancium ad dictas ordina- 
ciones et statuta observanda. Et habent diem ad 
presentandum et certificandum hie ut supra, qui- 
Pena libet constabularius sub pena xx s. 

Venerunt eciam xii liberi de villatis de Warr' 
qui fuerunt iurati et onerati ad inquirendum de 
articulis predictis. Et habent diem hie vt supra, 
quilibet iuratus sub pena xx s. ad presentandum 
etc. 



Couentre. 

Sessio lohannis Sparry et sociorum suorum 
apud Couentre die Lune proxima ante festum 
Annunciacionis beate Marie anno supradicto. 

Knyghtlow. 

Ad quem diem veniunt xxiiii etc. de hundredo 
de Knyghtlow per magnam districcionem, de 
quibus xii fuerunt triati, iurati et onerati ad in- 
quirendum etc. qui nichil presentant ad hunc diem. 
Et datus illis dies ad presentandum apud G)uentre 



DOCUMENTS, LISTS AND TABLES 223 * 

die Mercurii in septimana Pasche, cuilibet eorum 
sub pena xl s. 

Presentacio constabulariorum hundredi de 
Knyghtlow. 

Caldecote. 

Constabularius presentat quod Willelmus de 
Sutton, lohannes Malynes, Willelmus Harrys, 
Henricus Tayllour, lohannes Prat, Rogerus Shep- 
herde, lohannes Pount, lohannes Trauers, Ricar- 
dus Helpete, habent bussellos non concordatos 
standardo. Item lohannes Pount vtitur auncella 
contra formam statuti, Avicia Simond, braciatrix 
et operatrix, recusat iurare propter constabula- 
rium ; Willelmus Harrys habet lagenam non con- 
cordatam standardo. 

FolkeshulL 

Constabularius presentat quod lohannes Wolf, 
Thomas Holbrok,^ habent bussellos non concor- 
datos standardo. 

Item lohanna, vxor Thome Rondulf, Hauicia, 
uxor lohannis Vynsent, braciatrices, vtuntur 
mensuris non concordatis standardo. 

Item presentat quod Robertus,J quondam ser- 
uiens Ricardi Vynsent, lohannes Curly, lohannes, 
seruiens Willelmi Bandy, lohannes J othe Lane, 
wyrdrawere, Ricardus Vynsent, wyrdrawere, 
lohannes, seruiens lohannis Scot, Henricus 
Bod)m et lohannes Marchal,J faber, recusarunt 
iurare coram constabulario et sunt rebelles. 

Item Willelmus Bown de Cleybrok recessit a 
seruicio lohannis Wolf ante finem termini sui 
contra formam ordinacionis etc. 

■ 

' Seven others named. 



224 * APPENDIX 

m. I d. Adhuc Knythlow. 

Lodbroke. 

Constabularius presentat quod . . . Rogeras le 
Coltherde non uult seruire per terminum set per 
diem. 

Wyleby. 

Constabularius presentat quod .... 

Item Willelmus le Cok, Thomas Crok4 Hugo 
le Cartere, Ricardus de Keresleye, Thomas Bithe 
Brok, et Hugo Pant non tenent nisi quartronam 
terre et nolunt seruire etc. 

• ••••••»• 

Presentacio iuratorum et constabulariorum vil- 
late de Couentre ad eundem diem. 

Couentre. 

Diuersi constabularii presentant quod Willel- 
mus Typet recessit a seruicio suo ante finem ter- 
mini et cepit per diem iiii d. 

Johannes de Bilneye et Henricus, seruiens Wil- 
lelmi Marchal, negauerunt iurare et sunt rebelles. 



Agnes que fuit seruiens Willelmi Bray non vult 
seruire per annum pro minore quam xxx s 

Reginaldus de Teue recusat iurare et est rebel- 
lis et cepit per diem v d 

Couentre. Sessio . . . apud Couentre, die Martis proxima 

ante festum Annunciacionis beate Marie anno 
regni Regis supradicto. 

Knythlow Presentacio iuratorum. 

Kirkeby. 

Item presentant quod . . . Cristiana, vxor Reg- 
eri Ferst, exiit in aliam villam in autumpno post- 



DOCUMENTS, LISTS AND TABLES 225 * 

quam requisita fuit ad metendum in eadem villa 
qua morabatur et cepit in excessu xii d. 

BuIk3mton. 

Rogerus de Barton cepit in excessu in au- 
tumpno ii s. et est vacuus et non vult operare nee 
seruire et alias finiuit. 

Willelmus Martyn est a longo^ vacuus et 
potuit operare set illud recusat omnino. 

Margeria Mart)m elongauit et retinuit Willel- 
mum Martyn, seruientem lohannis de Couentre, a 
seruicio dicti lohannis etc. 

(A long list of presentments for receipt of ex- 
cess wages follows, most of the offenders belong- 
ing to Coventry.) 

m. 2. Sessio lohannis Sparry et sociorum suorum 

apud Solyhull die Veneris in septimana Pasche, 
anno regni . . . tricesimo primo. 



Presentacio constabulariorum hundredi de 
Humel'. 

Aston. 

. . . Willelmus, filius Willelmi Watten, non 
vult iustificari ad seruiendum et est rebellis. 

Pollesworth. 

Item David Walsheman recusauit artem suam. 
Adam, seruiens Willelmi Dodenhale, est rebellis 
et recusauit iurare coram dicto constabulario. 



1 MS. ain. 



226 * APPENDIX 

m. 2 d. Presentacio constabulariorum hundred! de 

Kyngton. 



Pabyngton. 



Willelmus Marchal cepit pro operacione vnius 
pecie ferri ii d. obolum et pro ferro equino i d. 
obolum. 

m. 3 Path* Sessio lohannis de Conyngesby et sociorum 

suorum apud Stretford die Sabbati proximo post 
festum Exaltacionis Sancte Crucis anno xxxi™**. 

Stretford. 

Constabularius presentat quod dominus lohan- 
nes Rydel, monachus de Sounger, Henricus, bal- 
liuus de Qifford Chaumberleyn, . . . .^ condux- 
erunt messores in autumpno per diem pro v d. 
vel vi d. contra formam ordinacionis et statuti etc* 



(Presentments follow for hiring "messores in 
autumpno pro duplici salario solito, videlicet pro 
vi d. per diem.") 

Barlichway. Sessio lohannis de Conyngesby et sociorum 

suorum apud Alyncestre die Lune proximo post 
festum Exaltacionis Sancte Crucis anno supra- 
dicto. 



Stodleye. 

Constabularius presentat quod Margeria, ser- 
uiens lohannis Buryman, recessit a villa de Stod- 
leye in autumpno pro maiore salario habendo. . . . 

Alyncestre. 
Constabularius presentat quod lohanna Cherle- 

' Nine others. 



•' DOCUMENTS, LISTS AND TABLES 227 * 

ford,J lohanna Pupelton,^ Cristiana Webbe, Pe- 
tronilla Romay,{ et Alicia Palmere ceperunt per 
diem in autumpno iiii d. et noluerunt seruire infra 
villam de Alyncestre causa maioris salarii lucri. 

Snytenfeld. 
•Constabularius presentat quod nuUi seruientes, 

operarii nee artifices fecerunt contra statutum etc. 
Inquisicio de luratores hundred! de Barlichway, vicelicet Ra- 
Alyncestre. dulfus Pauncefot et socii sui presentant [etc.]. 

Item prepositus de Cherlecote allocauit mes- 
sores per diem in autumpno pro vi d. publice. 

m. 3 d. Path' Sessio lohannis Conyngesby et sociorum su- 

orum apud Henleye, die Martis proximo post 
festum Sancte Fidiei virginis anno xxxi. 

Barlichway luratores hundredi de Barlichway 

Inquisicio. presentant 

Item presentant quod Alicia Portreve,^ vxor 
Willelmi Portreve de Henleye, dat excessiua sala- 
ria mulieribus filantibus. 

Item presentant quod Galfridus de Welneford, 
rector ecclesie de Kynenarton, dedit duobus fa- 
mulis suis pro termino yhemali viii s. cum libera- 
cionibus eorum et cibo cotidiano percipiendo in 
aula sua. 

DATES AND PLACES OF SESSIONS. 

m. I. Warwick.^ 31"* year. Monday after St Gregory, 

Pope (12 March). 
Coventry. Tuesday ditto. 

Monday before Annunciation 
of Blessed Virgin Mary 
(25 March). 

* Town of. 



228* 




APPENDIX 


m. I d. 




Tuesday ditto. 




ColleshuU. 


Wednesday ditto. 




Warwick. 


Monday after Annunciation. 




Coventry. 


Wednesday in Easter week. 




Warwick. 


Thursday ditto. 


m. 2. 


SolyhuU. 


Friday ditto. 


m. 3. 


Stratford. 


Saturday after Exaltation of 
Cross (14 Sept.). 




Alyncestre. 


Monday ditto. 


m. 3 d. 


Henleye. 


Tuesday after St. Faith (6 
Oct.). 




Alyncestre. 


^ after Epiphany (6 



Jan.). 
13 days; 7 places. 

Endorsement of roll. 

Memorandum quod prefati iusticiarii tenuerunt ses- 
siones suas in diuersis locis infra comitatum ad omnia 
predicta terminanda et ad querelas conquerencium audi- 
endas et similiter terminandas per xxvii dies, quorum 
fines patent in rotulo de finibus, videlicet in anno present! 
post vltimum diem suprascriptum. 

% XVI. Assize Roll, Wiltshire, 1018. 26 Edw. III. 16 mem- 
branes. 

Praesentationes. 

This roll consists entirely of proceedings on the statutes of 
labourers "coram deputatis iusticiariorum Regis," as well as 
before the justices themselves, and is especially valuable for 
the variety of occupations represented by the offenders. I gfive 
no extracts from it, as it was translated by Miss E. M. Thomp- 
son and printed in the Wiltshire Archaeological and Natural 
History Magazine, xxxiii, under the title of "Offenders against 
the Statute of Labourers in Wiltshire, A. D. 1349." 

* No day. 



DOCUMENTS, LISTS AND TABLES ^229 * 

m. 7 contains the following heading : 

Responsum lohannis de Flory et Walteri de Littlecote depu- 
tatorum iusticiariorum domini Regis in Kynbridge apud Deuises 
die Lune in festo Sancti Barnabe anno xxvi^^. 

Inquisicio capta apud Kynbridge coram lohanne de Flory et 
Waltero de Littlecote deputatis Willelmi de Schareshull et soci- 
orum suorum die Mercurii proximo post festnm Sancte Trini- 
tatis anno regni .... xx^ sexto per sacramentum. . . . 

On 15 March, 1351, William de ShareshuU and six others 
were appointed on the joint conmiission of the peace and for 
labourers; see "List of justices," app., B, 3. 

jXVn. Ancient Indictments, Wiltshire, 131. 29 Edw. IIL* 

This roll consists entirely of proceedings on ithe statutes of 
labourers " coram deputatis iusticiariorum." 

m. 2. Kyngbridge. 

Presentaciones et examinaciones facte coram Wil- 
lelmo de Chuselden et sociis suis deputatis iusticia- 
riorum in eodem hundredo anno regni . . xxix^. 

Finis. Et quod Stephanus Hobecok, tannere, cepit excessiue 
de diuersis hominibus ii s. 

Quia habet Et quod lohannes le Soutere de Netherworfton 
terram qui alias iuratus fuit ad excercendum artem su- 

sufficientem. toris etc. dictam artem recusauit contra formam 

statuti. 
Finis. Et quod Willelmus Burgh, stonleggere, cepit 

excessiue pro arte sua xii d 

m. 3. Responsum deputatorum de Candon et Cadeworth. 

• ••••••« 

lohannes Blampe, seruiens de Berford, summonitus 
fuit coram deputatis et non venit. 
Alexander Merchant, seruiens de Hurdkote, summo- 

' M. 7 includes the 28th year. 



230 ♦ APPENDIX 

nitus fuit coram deputatis apud Netheraton et noluit 
venire. 

Idem Alexander de villa summonitus fuit coram de- 
putatis apud Notton et noluit venire. 

• ••••»•• 
m. 4. Nona Sarum. 

• •■••••a 

lohannes Stut elongauit et receptauit Cristinam Con- 
ynges a seruicio lohannis lustice ante finem termini 
inter eos concordati sine causa racionabili vel licencia 
recedendi * etc. ; manucaptores lohannes Scut, lohan- 
nes Cole, Thomas Webbe. 

• •■•••■• 
lohannes Charlemayn non est prosecutus versus Ricar- 
dum Pateneye de placito noui statuti. 

Plegii de prosequendo, Thomas TuflFe, lohannes de 
Langeforde. 

• ••••••• 

(ms. S, 6, 7, contain lists of labourers and craftsmen, weavers, 

butchers, etc, in various districts who were guilty of 
the receipt of excess wages and prices.) 

m. 8. Hundredum de Werminstre. 

• •••■•■• 
Finis Alicia Pryns, braciatrix, cepit excessiue prius indictata 

xld. 
Finis. Agnes Stiles, braciatrix, cepit excessiue vi d. 

'. * . . • • • • 

Finis Emma Bledon, braciatrix, cepit excessiue xii d. 

......a. 

Margareta Taillour, filatrix, cepit excessiue xii d. 
Finis. Alicia Rattes, filatrix, cepit excessiue iii d. 

m. 9. Worwelesdon. 



' MS. recedent. 



DOCUMENTS, LISTS AND TABLES 231 * 

Finis. lohannes Elys, braciator, cepit excessiue xii d. 

• • ■ • • •• • 

Finis. Emma Goldes, filatrix, cepit excessiue xii d. 

Finis. lohannes Ballare, senior, triturarius, cepit excessiue 
xii d. 

• «•••••• 

Finis. lohannes Howes, carnifex, cepit excessiue xii d. 

m. 12. Selkele. Responsum deputatorum ibidem. 

Finis. Nicholaus Danyel de Ricardeston, triturarius, cognouit 
quod percepit pro iiii quarteriis ordei viii d. et sic cepit 
excessiue ii d. 

Idem Nicholaus { et Cristina vxor eius metierunt fru- 
mentum per vi dies in autumpno et ceperunt xvi"*"* 
garbam, quequidam garba preualuit alias de tanto, quod 
quilibet cepit per diem excessiue i d. 

Henricus Faber J de Henton cepit per totum annum 
ad fabricandum i libram de spaynyschire iii quarteria. 
lohannes % Tullok de Rabbedestone, braciator, vetuit 
vendere ceruisiam extra domum, set eam custodit de 
vno die ad aliam quod eam carius vendat etc. 

% XVIII. Assize Roll, Wiltshire, 1019. 31 Edw. III. 3 mem- 
branes. 

Inquisitiones de ponderibus, mensuris, etc. 

Although the larger part of this roll consists of offences 
against the statute of weights and measures, it also contains 
instances of offences against the wages and price clauses of 
the statutes of labourers. The following entry explains its 
preservation : 

Mem. K. R., 34, Hill., Breu. Baron., rot. 7 d. 

pro Rege Rex thesaurario et baronibus suis de scaccario, salu- 
tem. Quandam bagam cum quibusdam rotulis et re- 
cordis in eadem inclusis nobis in cancellariam nostram 



232 ♦ APPENDIX 

per lohannem de Roches et socios suos nuper iustid- 
arios nostros ad statuta de operariis, seruientibus et 
artificibus ac de mensuris et ponderibus abusis in comi- 
tatu Wilt' custodienda assignatos de mandato nostro 
missam, vobis mittimus, mandantes quod dictam 
bagam cum rotulis et recordis predictis recipiatis et 
inde faciatis quod fore videritis faciendum. 

Teste Thoma fiiio nostro carissimo custode Anglie, 
apud Redynges, xxx die lanuarii anno regni nostri 
Anglie tricesimo quarto, regni vero nostri Francie 
vicesimo primo. 

m. I. Inquisicio capta apud Deuyses die Mercurii in septi- 

mana Pasche coram lohanne Euerard et sociis suis 
iusticiariis domini Regis assignatis per commissionem 
domini Regis anno regni Regis Edwardi tercii post 
conquestum xxxi® per sacramentum ^ . . . . qui dicunt 
super sacramentum suum quod omnes subsequentes 
nominati vendiderunt [et] emerunt per mensuras non 
concordantes ad standardum et excessive ceperunt. 



(On 5 Feb. 1357, Everard, de Roches and atte 
Bergh were appointed justices of labourers and of 
weights and measures ; see " List of justices," app.,. 

B. 3) 
Quedhampton. 

Finis. lohannes le Fysschere, senior, pistor, cepit excessiue 
VI d. 

Finis. lohannes Oldebury, dobbere, cepit excessiue vi d. 

Finis. Robertus Muleward, carpentarius, cepit excessiue vi d^ 

• ••••••ft 

Sharreneton. 

^ Names of the jurors. 



DOCUMENTS, LISTS AND TABLES 233 '^ 

Finis. lohannes Shoppere, cissor, cq>it excessiue vi d. 
Finis. lohannes Crowere, braciator, cepit excessiue vi d. 

Hanggynggelangeford. 

Walterus le Smyth, sunyere, cepit excessive ii d. 

m. I d. Tydolueshyde. 

Rc^erus Haydon, braciator, cepit excessiue iii d. finis. 

Walterus Pullyng, carnifex, cepit excessiue iii d. 

Willelmus Floxhalkere, triturarius, cepit excessiue iii d. 

m. 3. Inquisicio capta coram lohanne de Roches, Waltcro 
Attebergh et lohanne Everard die Lune proxima ante 
festum Annunciacionis beate Marie anno regni Regis 
Edward i tercii a conquestu xxxi^ iusticiariis domini 
Regis ad audiendum et terminandum omnes transgres- 
siones factas in comitatu Wiltes' per mensuras exces- 
siuas cuiuscumque mensure seu ponderis contra ordi- 
nacionem domini Regis nunc, et eciam predecessorum 
suorum a tempore quo non extitit memoria, et eciam 
super operarios, laborarios et alios contentos in ordi- 
nacione domini Regis capientes mercedes excessiuas 
de nouo constituta ^ et edita et de assensu communis 
consilii magnatum regni sui per sacramentum 

(Presentments by jurors of a long list of "vendi- 
tores " and of five " emptores " guilty of excess 
prices.) 

Omnes isti infrascripti et extra, venditores et 
emptores vnusquisque in gradu suo, vendiderunt et 
emerunt per buschellos excessiuos. Set dicunt dicti 
iurati quod dicti venditores quicquid vendiderunt ex~ 

* Probably 27 Edw. Ill, st. i, c. 3; cL app., 17. 



234 * APPENDIX 

cessiue contra voluntatem suam hoc fecerunt quia 
totum ad dampnum eorum. Set dictint eciam quod 
emptores infrascripti et extra, ut in ciuitatibus^ et 
burgis et aliis villis mercatoriis, pistores, braciatores et 
alii mercatores emptores fecerunt buschellos suos ita 
excessiuos et per longum tempus sic eos continuarunt 
et adhuc continuant, ita quod nuUus venditor aliter 
potest blada sua vendere et sic mensuram rectam 
domini Regis et predecessorum suorum spreuerunt et 
omnino deliquerunt ad graue [dampnum] domini 
Regis, magnatum suorum et aliorum terras tenencium 
regni sui. 

In cuius rei testimonium sigilla sua apposuerunt 

• ••••••• 

m. 3 d. Isti subscripti sunt qui ceperunt mercedem excessiue 
in eadem villa (Fouente). 
Robertus Warde, laborarius, cepit excessiue vi d. 
lohannes Silke, victualarius, cepit excessive xii d. 
lohannes Coke, victualarius, cepit excessive xii d. 
Willelmus Mulewarde cepit in excessu vi d. 
lohannes Rede, laborarius, cepit in excessu xii d. 
Rogerus Chalunners, laborarius, cepit in excessu ii s. 
lohannes Rolfe, braciator, cepit in excessu vi d. 
Ricardus Tiverton, victualarius, cepit in excessu iii d. 
lohannes Bocher, laborarius, cepit in excessu iii d. 

(An undated writ ' at end of roll.) 

Thomas Hungerford, vicecomes Wilt*, balliuo hundredi de 
Alwardby, salutem. Ex precepto lohannis de Roches et soci- 
orum suorum iusticiariorum domini Regis tibi mando quod dis- 
tringas priorem del luychurch, Henricum le Foxhuntere . . . .• 
ita quod habeas corpora eorum coram prefatis iusticiariis apud 

' MS. ciuibus. 

'Attached to it are sixteen narrow slips of parchment containina^ 
some of the names in the body of the writ. 

' A long list of indicted. 



DOCUMENTS, LISTS AND TABLES 235 ♦ 

Nouum Sarum die Lune proximo post festum Sancti Nicholai 
ad respondendum domino Regi quare emerunt et vendiderunt 
per mensuras discordantes standardo. Et tu ibidem sis cum 
sufficienti responso tuo et hoc mandato. 

Ancient Indictments, 164. Divers Coimties.* 

Edwardus, Dei gracia Rex Anglie et Francie et dominus 
Hibernie, vicecomiti Wiltes', salutem. Precipimus tibi quod 
exigi facias Walterum atte Bergh, J ^ braciatorem hundredi de 
Calne, Ricardum Barleger,J braciatorem, et Cristiniam,J 
vxorem Willelmi Thomelyn, braciatricem de eodem hundredo, 
Willelmum % le carpenter de Immere, hundredi de Swan- 
borough, Cristiniam Tabours de Schawe, Margeriam Sylle de 
Wylecote, vitellarias,{ Willelmum Dounyng de Escote, carpen- 
taritmi, et Margaretam Magotes de eodem hundredo de Swan- 
borough, Willelmum loye, triturarium hundredi de Calne, Wil- 
lelmum % Muleward, messorem hundredi de Alwardby, Cris- 
tiniam % Dorsete, lohannem % Coo, Editham % Muleward, luli- 
anam le Batyere, Radulfum % Lollow, Rogerum Waleys, Tho- 
mam le Tayllour, Ricardum le Webbe de Westdeone, Isabel- 
lam % Laurentz, messorem,J Cristiniam | le Freynsche, mes- 
sorem, Robertum Boucher { de Westdeone, Aliciam { la Deye, 
messorem, Elenam { Wylles, messorem, et Streche atte Forde 
de eodem hundredo de Alwardby, lohannem Chesman, tayl- 
lour, lohannem le Smith de Deuises et Nicholaum le Smith 
de N)rwebury, de comitatu in comitatum quousque secundum 
legem et consuetudinem regni nostri Anglie vtlagentur si non 
comparuerint. Et si comparuerint tunc eos capias et saluo 
custodiri facias ita quod habeas corpora eorum coram dilectis 
et fidelibus nostris Willelmo de SchareshuUe et sociis suis ius- 
ticiariis nostris ad omnes excessus in comitatu tuo factos 
audiendos et terminandos assignatis apud Nouum Sarum die 

* I print extracts from the roll for Wilts, as completing the process 
already given in the three preceding Wilts, rolls. 

'The t indicates that sr, meaning "supersedeas," is written over the 
name in the original. 



236 



APPENDIX 



Martis proximo post festum Sancti lohannis ante Portam Lati- 
nam ad respondendum nobis de diuersis excessubus vnde in- 
(lictati sunt. £t habeas ibidem inde responsum tuum et hoc 
breve. 

Teste I. de Roches, apud Deuises, vi^ die Nouembris, anno 
regni nostri Anglie vicesimo octauo, regni vero nostri Francie 
quinto decimo. 

(On the dorse of above writ) : 

Ego lohannes Euerard vicecomes exigi feci Walterum atte 
Bergh, braciatorem hundredi de Calne et omnes alios in isto 
breui nominatos quousque quidam eorum venerunt et tulerunt 
brevia domini Regis de supersedeas, quidam vtlagati fuerunt et 
quidam lohannes le Smyth de Deuises venit et reddidit se 
prisone domini Regis prout in recordo et processu inde habitis 
huic brevi annexatis plenius continetur; que quidem breuia de 
supersedendo sunt huic breui consuta. Et corpus predicti 
lohannis le Smyth habebo coram vobis ad diem et locum infra- 
scriptos prout in isto breui michi precipitur. 

Ad comitatum tentum apud Wilton die Martis proximo post 
festum Sancti Martini episcopi primo exacti sunt. 

Edwardus, Dei gracia Rex Anglie et Francie et dominus 
Hibemie, vicecomiti Wiltes', salutem. Cum nuper tibi precep- 
erimus per breue nostrum quod exigi faceres Walterum atte 
Bergh, braciatorem hundredi de Calne, Ricardum Barleger, 
braciatorem et Cristiniam, vxorem Willelmi Thomelyn, bracia- 
tricem de eodem hundredo, de comitatu in comitatum quousque 
secundum legem et consuetudinem regni nostri Anglie vtla- 
gentur, si non comparuissent. Et si comparuissent, tunc eos 
caperes et saluo custodiri faceres, ita quod haberes corpora 
eorum coram dilectis et fidelibus nostris Willelmo de Schares- 
huU et sociis suis iusticiariis nostris ad omnes excessus in 
comitatu tuo factos audiendos et terminandos assignatis apud 
Nouum Sarum die Martis proximo post festum Sancti lohannis 
ante Portam Latinam ad respondendum nobis de diuersis ex- 
cessubus vnde indictati sunt : ac postmodum predicti Walterus, 
Ricardus et Cristinia venerunt coram prefatis iusticiariis et 



DOCUMENTS, LISTS AND TABLES 237 * 

satisfecerunt nobis pro excessubus predictis. Ideo tibi pre- 
cipimus quod de eisdem Waltero, Ricardo et Cristina vlterius 
exigendo, capiendo, vtlagando, seu quouismodo molestando 
occasione predicta supersedeas omnino. 

Teste G. de Berewyk, apud Nouum Sarum, xxv*® die No- 
uembris, anno regni nostri Anglie vicesimo octauo, regni vero 
nostri Francie quinto decimo. 

(There follow similar writs of supersedeas for William 
Muleward, Cristina Dorsete, John Coo, Edith Muleward, Ralph 
LoUow, Isabella Laurentz, Christina le Freynsche, Robert Bou- 
cher and Ellen Wylles, dated at New Sarum, 24 Feb., 29th 
year, and for William the carpenter of Immere, and Alice la 
Deye, dated at New Sarum, 4 March, 29th year.) 

Wiltes' Comitatus tentus apud Wilton, die Martis proximo 
post festum Sancti Martini, anno regni Regis Edwardi tercii 
post conquestum vicesimo octauo. 

Ad hunc comitatum dominus Rex mandauit hie breue suum 
in hec verba. Edwardus, Dei gracia etc. (the above writ of 
exigend is quoted in full) ; virtu te cuius breuis predictus 
Walterus atte Berwe, braciator hundredi de Calne et omnes alii 
supradicti ad hunc diem primo exacti fuerunt. Et non com- 
paruerunt. Ideo secundo exigantur ad proximum comitatum. 

Comitatus tentus apud Wilton, die Martis proximo post fes- 
tum Sancte Lucie virginis, anno supradicto [anno vicesimo 
octauo] . 

Ad hunc comitatum Walterus atte Berwe, braciator hundredi 
de Calne et omnes alii superius nominati secundo exacti fuerunt 
per breue domini Regis ad respondendum domino Regi de 
diuersis excessubus vnde indictati sunt. Et non comparuerunt. 
Ideo tercio exigantur ad proximum comitatum. 

Comitatus tentus apud Wilton, die Martis in festo Sancti 
Hillarii, anno supradicto. 

Ad hunc comitatum Walterus atte Berwe, braciator hun- 
dred! de Calne et omnes alii superius nominati tercio exacti 



238 * APPENDIX 

fuerunt per breue domini Regis ad respondendum domino Regi 
de diuersis excessubus vnde indictati sunt. Et non comparu- 
erunt. Ideo quarto exigantur ad proximum comitatum. 

Comitatus tentus apud Wilton, die Martis in festo Sancte 
Scolastice virginis, anno vicesimo nono. 

Ad hunc comitatum Walterus atte Berwe, braciator hun- 
dredi de Calne et omnes alii superius nominati quarto exacti 
fuerunt per breue domini Regis ad respondendum domino Regi 
de diuersis excessubus vnde indictati sunt et non comparuerunt. 
Sed quidam lohannes Broun venit et manucepit eos de habendo 
ipsos ad proximum comitatum. 

Comitatus tentus apud Wilton, die Martis proximo ante fes- 
tum Sancti Gregorii Pape, anno xxix® supradicto. 

Ad hunc comitatum Walterus atte Berwe, braciator hundredi 
de Calne et omnes alii superius nominati quinto exacti fuerunt 
per breue domini Regis ad respondendum domino Regi de 
diuersis excessubus vnde indictati sunt. Et ipsi omnes preter 
Cristinam Tabours de Shawe, Margeriam Sille de Wilcote, 
vitellarias, Willelmum Dounyng de Escote, carpentarium, Mar- 
garetam Magotes, Willelmum loye, triturarium, lulianam le 
Batiere, Rogerum Waleys, Thomam le Taillour, Ricardum Ic 
Webbe de Westdeone, Streche atte Forde, lohannem Chesman, 
tailour, lohannem le Smyth de Deuises et Nicholaum le 
Smyth de Nywebury, venerunt et tulerunt breuia domini R^s 
de supersedendo ; virtute quorum breuium lohannes Euerard, 
vicecomes, de ipsis vlterius exigendo, vtlagando seu capiendo 
occasione premissa omnino supersedit. Et predictus lohannes 
le Smyth venit et reddit se prisone domini Regis et predict! 
Cristina Tabours, Margeria Sille, Willelmus Dounyng, Marga- 
reta Magotes, Willelmus loye, luiiana le Batiere, Rogerus 
Waleys, Thomas le Taillour, Ricardus le Webbe, Streche atte 
Forde, lohannes Chesmail et Nicholaus le Smyth non com- 
paruerunt. Ideo secundum legem et consuetudinem regni An- 
glic vtlagati et weyfiate in presencia Roberti de Echelhampton 
et Roberti de Remmesbury coronatorum domini Regis. 



DOCUMENTS, LISTS AND TABLES 239 * 

For an excellent example of a pardon for outlawry of an 
offender convicted before the justices of labourers in Wilts., 
cf. Pat., 27, pt. 2, m. 14 ; Col., ix, 485.^ For an example of a 
certificate of the process of outlawry sent into chancery by 
the justices and always mentioned in the pardon, cf. County 
Placita, York, W. R., no. 61. 

The roll described in List of Plea Rolls under "Coroners' 
Rolls" as Rotulus Coronatoris, Wilts., 198, 7 membranes, 
proves to be a roll of exigends of a long list of offenders 
convicted before the justices of labourers during the years 28- 
31 Edw. III. It includes the same full details of process as 
does the roll just quoted, but gives very many more names of 
offenders. Likewise, Coroners' Rolls, Suffolk, 175, 28-31 Edw. 
Ill, 12 membranes, and 176, 29 Edw. Ill, 7 membranes, each 
described as Rotulus Coronatoris, prove to be rolls of exigends ; 
they include instances of offenders against the statutes of 
labourers convicted before the justices of labourers as well as 
in the upper courts.* 

2, Records illustrating the supervision of the justices in session. 
(Cf. pt. I, ch. ii, 7.) 

INTRODUCTORY NOTE. 

Assize Rolls. 

These have already been referred to as catalogued in List 
of Plea Rolls, in some cases with inadequate description of 
their character. My examination of the series was with the 
specific purpose of identifying sessional records, and there- 
fore included only a cursory glance at rolls that were plainly 
rolls of oyer and terminer; but even this slight investigation 
showed several instances where the justices were under in- 
dictment for misdeeds in session, and there are probably more 
such instances. 

Chancery as a Court of Law. 

The latter half of the fourteenth century is the period dur- 

* Cf. also app., F, 2. *Pt. ii, ch. ii, s. i, and app., F, 2. 



240 



APPENDIX 



ing which tlie process of separation of the jurisdiction of the 
chancellor from that of the council began, — a process that was 
not completed until the next century. Cf, Palgrave, The 
King's Council; Spence, Equitable Jurisdiction of Chancery, 
especially v. i, pt. 2, bk. i, chs. 2, 3 and 4; and Baildon, Select 
Cases from Chancery, especially introduction, xvi et seq., xxix- 
XXX, and xlv. See also Mr. Baldwin's article on the council 
in Trans. Royal Hist. Soc, xix, 47-54, for an account of the 
judicial side of the council at a little earlier date. 

The case recorded by Burton, in Chron. de Melsa (see pt. i, 
ch. ii, s. 7), is an excellent example of the difficulty during this 
transition period of making clear-cut distinctions between the 
jurisdiction of the king, the king's council, and the chancellor ; 
undoubtedly further study will show similar cases. 

Judicial proceedings on the equity side are usually said to 
have been formally recorded only from the reign of Richard II ; 
cf. Baildon, op. cit., and List of Early Chancery Proceedings, 
V. i. Lists and Indexes, no. xii. 

The series known as County Placita are classified by Scargill- 
Bird, op. cit.y under "Chancery, common law side" — a classifi- 
cation which according to Mr. Pike ("Common Law and Con- 
science" in Law Quarterly Review, i) is not always correct 
He analyzes one of the documents in the series to show that it 
comes under the head of equity, not common law, and quotes 
it as proof of his contention that at this date there is no 
broadly marked distinction between the two types of judicial 
functions. 

The County Placita inclurle transcripts of proceedings 
brought into chancery by writ of certiorari and often sent hence 
by a mittimus into other courts. A manuscript catalogue 
gives county, regnal year, and a brief summary of contents. 
For this decade there are three rolls of transcripts of pro- 
ceedings before the justices of labourers, one of which seems 
to be merely a part of the regular outlawry process. 



DOCUMENTS, LISTS AND TABLES 24I * 

King's Bench. 
Coram Rege Rolls. Cf. pt. ii, ch. ii, s. i, for description. 

A very slight search through these rolls showed several in- 
teresting proceedings before the justices of labourers, and an 
exhaustive examination would undoubtedly discover more. 

The series known as Ancient Indictments contains several in- 
stances where justices are indicted " coram Rege " for extor- 
tion in their sessions. 

Extracts from Assize Rolls, Coram Rege Rolls and County 

Placita. 

Assize Roll, Lancaster, 436, 28-29 Edw. III. (Annis Ducatus 
iiii*° et v*®.) 16 membranes. 

Indictamenta capta apud Preston coram eisdem (i. e. 
Thoma de Seton et sociis suis). 
Placita querelarum et Coronae. 
"Cokayn." 

m. I. Indictamenta capta coram T. de Seton et sociis suis 

iusticiariis domini ducis Lane' apud Preston die Mer- 
curii post festiun Sancti Matthei apostoli anno duca- 
tus quarto. 

m. 2 d. Derbishire. Secunda Inquisicio de eadem sessione. 

(William de Chorley, clerk of the wapentake of 
Derby, is indicted for conspiracy.) Et dicunt quod 
Trans- cum lohannes de Linlegh indictatus fuit coram lo- 
gressio. hanne Hauerington et sociis suis iusticiariis de nouo 
statuto de excessu, predictus Willelmus de Chorlay, 
clericus iusticiariorum predictorum, ipsum lohannem 
de indictamento predicto recusauit et vnum alitun 
lohannem de Legh per falsitatem ipsius Willelmi in- 
trauit, die Martis proximo post festum Sancti Hil- 
larii, anno xxvii^. 



242 ♦ APPENDIX 

m. 10. Indictamenta capta apud Preston coram I. Cokayn 
et sociis suis iusticiariis domini ducis Lane' die Lune 
proximo ante festum Sancti Laurencii, anno ducatus 
Lane' quinto. 

Ammundemesse. 

Item dieunt quod [eum] quidam lohannes de Lyn- 
legh, seruienSy et indietatus eoram iustieiariis seruien- 
eium et per proeessum exigatus fuit in eomitatu, tunc 
Willelmus de Chorley, elerieus predictorum iustieia- 
riorum, rasuram feeit del L3m in deeepeione cuiusdam 
lohannis del Legh; qui quidam lohannes del Legh 
vtlagatus fuit in loeo predieti lohannis de Lynlegh 
eausa deeepeionis predieti Willelmi et prediete rasure 
del Lyn pro qua eausa predietus lohannes del L^fh 
omnia bona sua amisit. 

Assize Roll, Lineoln, 524. 26-27 Edw. III. 3 membranes. 

Plaeita Coronae eoram eisdem (i. e. de Skjrpwyth et sociis 

suis). 
Praesentationes et Indictamenta. 

(For the composite nature of the roll, see app., 195.) 

m. 3. Presentaeiones facte * apud Ludam eoram Willelmo 
de Skypwyth et sociis suis iusticiariis domini Regis ad 
diuersos felonias, transgressiones, oppressiones, extor- 
siones, dampna, grauamina, contemptus et exeessus in 
comitatu Lincoln' facta, audienda et terminanda assig- 
natis die Lune proximo post festum Sanete Trinitatis, 

anno regni vieesimo septimo .... 

lurati diuersorum wapentaeiorum presentant quod 
Hugo Cressy, eonstabularius castri Lincoln', cepit per 
extorsionem et colorem officii sui deeem et nouem libras 
argenti pro feodo suo de Roberto atte Beck et multis aliis 
indictatis coram Gilberto de Umframuill, comite de Ane- 

'MS. factos. 



DOCUMENTS, USTS AND TABLES 243 * 

gos et scx:iis suis iusticiariis domini Regis etc. assignatis 
et custodibus pads de excessubus contra formam statuti 
de operariis inde editi/ pro quo excessu idem Robertus 
et multi alii de comitahi predicto finem fecerunt coram 
prefato comite et sociis suis iusticiariis domini Regis 
apud Lincoln' anno regni domini Regis nunc Anglie 
vicesimo quarto, et sic idem Hugo cepit anno vicesimo 
quarto predicto summam predictam in depauperacionem 
populi domini Regis. 

Per quod preceptum est vicecomiti quod venire faciat 
predictum Hugonem apud Ludam coram Willelmo de 
Skypwyth et sociis suis iusticiariis etc., die Mercurii 
proximo ante festum Corporis Christi, ad responden- 
dum etc. 

Ad quem diem apud Ludam coram prefatis Willelmo 
de Skypwyth et sociis suis iusticiariis etc. venit pre- 
dictus Hugo in propria persona sua et quesitum est per 
prefatos iusticiarios a prefato Hugone qualiter se velit 
de premissis super ipsum presentatis acquietare. Dicit 
quod ipse alias die Mercurii proximo post Clausum 
Pasche anno regni Regis nunc Anglie vicesimo sexto, 
coram Willelmo de Skypwyth et lohanne de Moubray 
iusticiariis domini Regis etc. apud Lincoln' extitit indie- 
tatus de eo quod ipse cepit colore officii sui viginti libras 
sterlingorum pro feodo suo de operatoribus et artiiicibus 
qui coram predicto comite et sociis suis iusticiariis etc. 
de diuersis excessubus indictati fuerunt et occasionibus 
illis iinem cum domino Rege fecerunt; pro quibus qui- 
dem viginti libris ipse coram prefato Willelmo de Skyp- 
wyth et lohanne de Moubray die et anno predictis finem 

* There is some difficulty about Umframviirs appointment. In the 
commissiO'i for labourers of 12 Nov., 1350 for Lindsey (cf. pt. i, ch. i, 
s. I.) he is referred to as keeper of the peace for the district, but his 
name does not appear in the commission of the peace of 10 Feb. of that 
year (Cal, Fat, Rolls, viii, 516) although a few days later [jibid,, 527, 
and app., 33) he was appointed on the joint commission for Holland 
and Kesteven. 



244 * APPENDIX 

fecit cum domino Rege prout patet per rotulos predic- 
torum Willelmi de Skypwyth et lohannis de Moubray; 
qui quidem rotuli affilantur inter rotulos predictorum 
Willelmi et lohannis de deliberacionibus gaole Regis 
castri Lincoln' etc. Et dicit quod predicte decern et 
novem libre unde ipse modo indictatus est fuerunt par- 
cella de predictis viginti libris; et quod postquam per 
consilium domini Regis ordinatum fuit quod nuUus min- 
ister, iusticiarius nee alius officiarius feoda aliqua de 
operariis et seruientibus caperet,* ipse colore officii sui 
nullos denarios cepit, nee postquam ipse fecit finem cum 
domino Rege occasione predicta per extorsionem prout 
per presentacionem predictam supponitur, et hoc paratus 
est verificare etc. 

Ideo fiat inde iurata. lurati super premissis electi» 
Ideo ipse eat inde sine die etc. 

County Placita, Bedford, no. 9. 

Edwardus, Dei gracia Rex Anglie et Francie et domi- 
nus Hibernie, dilecto sibi lohanni Mareschal, salutem. 
Quia quibusdam certis de causis cerciorari volumus 
super tenore recordi et processus loquele que fuit coram 
vobis et sociis vestris iusticiariis ad omnia et singula 
que contra formam ordinacionis et statuti de opera-* 
toribus, artificibus et seruientibus attemptata fuerint in 
comitatu Bed' audienda et terminanda assignatis sine 
breui nostro inter Rogerum Atte Welle de Couteshale et 
lohannem de Sekford, seniorem, de quadam transgres- 
sione eidem Rogero per prefatum lohannem illata, vt 
dicitur, et super tenore recordi et processus loquele que 
fuit coram vobis et sociis vestris predictis sine breui 
nostro inter Thomam Atte Welle de Couteshale et pre- 
fatum lohannem de quadam transgressione eidem 
Thome per prefatum lohannem illata, vt dicitur, ac 
eciam super tenore recordi et processus loquele que fuit 

*C/". app., 16. 



DOCUMENTS, LISTS AND TABLES 245 ♦ 

coram vobis et sociis vestris predictis sine breui nostro 
inter Stephanum Atte Welle de Couteshale et prefatum 
lohannem de quadam transgressione eidem Stephano 
per prefatum lohannem illata, vt dicitur, et similiter 
super tenore recordi et processus loquele que fuit coram 
vobis et sociis vestris predictis sine breui nostro inter 
Galfridum Atte Welle de Couteshale et predictum lo- 
hannem de quadam transgressione eidem Galfrido per 
prefatum lohannem illata, vt dicitur, necnon super tenore 
recordi et processus loquele que fuit coram vobis et 
sociis vestris predictis sine breui nostro inter lohannem 
Atte Welle de Couteshale et prefatum lohannem Sek- 
ford de quadam transgressione eidem lohanni Atte 
Welle per predictum lohannem de Sekford illata, vt 
dicitur, vobis mandamus quod tenores recordorum et 
processutun predictorum nobis in cancellaria nostra sub 
sigillo vestro distincte et aperte sine dilacione mittatis et 
hoc breue. 

Teste me ipso, apud Westmonasterium, quinto die 
Nouembris, anno regni nostri Anglie tricesimo secundo, 
regni vero nostri Francie decimo nono. 

(Endorsed.) 

Per Dauid de Woll ad instanciam lohannis de Herlyng. 
Virtute istius breuis tenorem recordorum et proces- 
suum infranominatorum in quadam sedula huic consuta 
coram vobis mittimus. 

Bed' Placita coram lohanne Mareschal et lohanne de 
Rokesdon iusticiariis domini Regis super statutum de 
seruientibus, operariis et artificibus in comitatu Bed' 
assignatis apud Pullokeshull, die Veneris proximo post 
festum Assumpcionis beate Marie, anno regni . . . tri- 
cesimo secundo. 

Sed' lohannes de Sekford, senior, attachiatus fuit ad re- 
spondendum Rogero atte Well de Couteshale de eo quod 
cum idem Rogerus conuenit cum Simone Challeye de 



246 * APPENDIX 

Cadyngdon in comitatu Bedeford* ad seruiendum eidem 
Simoni apud Cadyngdon ad metenda blada sua et prata 
sua falcanda ac alia necessaria eidem facienda a festo 
Sancte Margarete virginis, anno regni Regis Edwardi 
tercii post conquestum tricesimo secundo, vsque festum 
Sancti Michaelis tunc proxime sequens, capiendo dc 
predicto Simone decern solidos et mensam, et predictus 
lohannes de Sekford venit et eum cepit et abduxit vsque 
ad manerium de Sharpenho et eum ibidem diu detinuit 
per quod predicto Simoni seruire non potuit prout illi 
conuetiit, contra formam statuti de seruientibus editi, 
vnde deterioratus est et dampnum habet ad valencian^ 
viginti solidorum et inde producit sectam. 

Et predictus lohannes dicit quod predictus Rogerus 
responderi non debet quia dicit quod idem Rogerus est 
natiuus suus ut de manerio suo de Couteshale et ipse et 
antecessores sui a tempore quo non extat memoria de 
predicto Rogero et antecessoribus suis semper seisiti 
fuerunt ad talliandum ad altum et bassum [et] facien- 
dum prepositum etc. 

Et predictus Rogerus inde examinatus non potuit hoc 
dedicere, immo expresse cognouit; ideo consideratum 
est quod predictus Rogerus nichil capiat per billam suam 
set sit in misericordia. 

Bed' lohannes de Sekford, senior, attachiatus fuit ad re- 
spondendum Thome atte Well de Couteshale de eo quod 
cum idem Thomas conuenit cum Simone Power de" 
Stretlee in comitatu Bed' ad seruiendum eidem Simoni 
apud Stretlee in officio carectarii a festo Annunciacionis 
beate Marie anno regni Regis Edwardi tercii post con- 
questum tricesimo secundo vsque festum Sancti Mich- 
aelis tunc proxime sequens, capiendo de predicto Simone 
ad duodecim septimanas vnum quarterium bladi et sex 
solidos argenti pro labore suo, et venit predictus lohan- 
nes de Sekford et eum cepit et abduxit. . . . (The re- 
mainder is identical with the first entry, mutatis mu- 
tandis.) 



DOCUMENTS, LISTS AND TABLES 247 ♦ 

Bed' lohannes de Sekford, senior, attachiatus fuit ad re- 
spondendum Stephano atte Well de Couteshale de eo 
quod cum idem Stephanus conuenit cum Willelmo Why- 
tyng de Luton in comitatu Bed' ad seruiendum eidem 
Willelmo apud Luton a festo Sancti Petri Aduincula 
anno regni Regis Edwardi tercii post conquestum tri- 
cesimo secundo vsque ad festum Sancti Michaelis tunc 
proxime sequens ad metendum blada sua ac alia neces- 
saria eidem facienda, capiendo de predicto Willelmo 
octo solidos et mensam, ac venit predictus lohannes 
de Sekford et eum cepit et abduxit vsque ad manerium 
de Sharpenho et eum ibidem diu detinuit, per quod pre- 
dicto Willelmo seruire non potuit prout illi conuenit 
neque stipendium suum capere, contra formam statuti 
de seruientibus editi, vnde deterioratus est et dampnum 

habet ad valenciam xx s. et inde producit sectam 

(The remainder is identical with the first en try , mutatis 
mutandis.) 

\ 
Bed' lohannes de Sekford, senior, attachiatus fuit ad re- 
spondendum Galfrido atte Welle de Couteshale de eo 
quod cum idem Galfridus conuenit cum lohanne atte 
Park de Luton in comitatu Bed' ad seruiendum eidem 
lohanni in officio carucarii apud Luton a festo Annun- 
ciacionis beate Marie anno regni Regis Edwardi tercii 
post conquestum tricesimo secundo vsque ad festum 
Sancti Michaelis tunc proxime sequens, capiendo de 
predicto lohanne in duodecim septimanis vnum quar- 
terium biadi et sex solidos et octo denarios pro stipendio 
suo et venit predictus lohannes de Sekford et eum cepit 
et abduxit. . . . (The remainder is identical with the 
first entry, mutatis mutandis.) 

Bed' lohannes de Sekford, senior, attachiatus fuit ad re- 
spondendum lohanni atte Welle de Couteshale de eo 
quod cum idem lohannes atte Welle conuenit cum lo- 
hanne Draper de Sancto Albano ad deseruiendum eidem 



248 ♦ APPENDIX 

lohanni Draper in artificio mercatoris a festo Annun* 
ciacionis beate Marie anno regni Regis Edwardi tercii 
post conquestum tricesimo secundo vsque festum Sancti 
Michaelis tunc proxime sequens, capiendo de predicto 
lohanne Draper viginti solidos et mensam, et venit pre- 
dictus lohannes de Sekford et eum cepit et abduxit. . . . 
(The remainder is identical with the first entry, mutatis 
mutandis.) 

County Placita, Surrey, no. 8. 

Edwardus, Dei gracia Rex Anglie et Francie et domi- 
nus Hibemie, dilecto et fideli suo Thome de Brewes,. 
salutem. Volentes certis de causis cerciorari super qua- 
dam cognicione quam Willelmus atte Mere de Merwe 
nuper fecit coram vobis et sociis vestris nuper iusticiariis 
nostris ad ea que contra formam ordinacionis et statuti 
de operariis, artificibus et seruitoribus factorum attemp- 
tata fuerint in comitatu Surr' audienda et terminanda 
assignatis, de seruitute ipsius Willelmi, vobis mandamus 
quod scrutatis rotulis vestris et sociorum vestrorum pre- 
dictorum de tempore predicto que sub custodia vestra 
existunt, vt dicitur, nos in cancellaria nostra de eo quod 
inde inueneritis sub sigillo vestro distincte et aperte cer- 
tificetis indilate. 

Teste me ipso apud Westmonasterium, xxvi die No- 
uembris, anno regni nostri Anglie tricesimo, regni vcro 
nostri Francie decimo septimo. 

Surr' Placita tenta apud Guldcford coram Thoma dc 
Brewes, Reginaldo Forster, et lohanne de Roulec die 
Martis proximo post octabas Sancte Trinitatis, anno 
regni Regis Edwardi tercii post conquestum xxiiii**, 
virtute cuiusdam commissionis predictis Thome et aliis 
in commissione predicta nominatis ad inquirendum de 
omnibus et singulis que contra formam ordinacionis et 
statuti de operariis, artificibus et seruitoribus factorum 



DOCUMENTS, LISTS AND TABLES 249 ♦ 

attetnptata fuerunt in commissione predicta audienda et 
terminanda assignatis. 

Wokyngg. 

Willelmus atte Merre de Merwe attachiatus fuit ad 
respondendum Petro Semere de placito quare quod cum 
ordinatum sit quod quilibet homo et femina regni domini 
Regis Anglie, potens in corpore et infra etatem sexa- 
ginta annorum, nou viuens de mercatura nee certum ex- 
sercens artificium nee ^ terram propriam circa cuius 
culturam se poterit occupare et alteri non seruiens, si 
deseruiendo considerato statu suo in seruicio congrua 
fuerit requisitus, seruire teneatur illi qui ilium sic dux- 
crit requirandum et percipiat dum taxat vadia, liber- 
aciones, mercedas seu salaria que in locis vbi seruire 
debeant constituta sunt prestari anno domini Regis An- 
glie xx^ vel annis communibus quinque vel sex prese- 
dentibus. Et vnde idem Petrus dicit quod ipse die Lune 
proximo post festum Purificacionis beate Marie anno 
supradicto vicesimo quarto apud Merwe in presencia 
lohannis atte Dene et Willelmi Hereward predicto Wil- 
lelmo* seruicium congruum deseruiendo predicto Petro 
in villa de Merwe optulit, capiendo de predicto Petro 
prout in predicto statuto superius declaratum est, [et] 
predictus Willelmus deseruire predicto Petro in forma 
predicta omnino contradixit et adhuc contradicit in con- 
temptum domini Regis et contra ordinacionem statuti 
predicti et ad dampnum predicti Petri centum solidorum^ 
et inde producit sectam etc. 

Et predictus Willelmus defendit vim et iniuriam etc. 
et quicquid est in contemptu domini Regis et statuti etc., 
et dicit quod ipse non potest predicto Petro seruire quia 
dicit quod ipse est natiuus prioris et conuentus ecclesie 
beate Marie de Boxgraue de manerio suo de Merwe et 

'There should be a "habens'' here; cf. the ordinance; app., 9. 
>MS. predia Willelmum. 



2SO * APPENDIX 

quod dictus prior ecclesie predicte qui nunc est, fuit 
seisitus de eo vt de natiuo suo et de seruiciis suis natiuis 
vt de iure ecclesie sue predicte, et quod idem prior et 
omnes predecessor es sui predicte ecclesie a tempore 
cuius contrarii memoria non existit, seisiti fuerunt de eo 
et de omnibus antecessoribus suis vt de natiuis suis ad 
talliandum eos ad altum et bassum et ad capiendum de 
eis redempciones pro iiliabus suis maritandis vt de iure 
ecclesie sue predicte de manerio suo predicto, et dicit 
quod predictus prior et conuentus dimiserunt dictum 
manerium cum omnibus pertinencibus lohanni Chene 
de Tortyngton habendum et tenendum ad terminum vite 
sue. Et quod predictus lohannes Chene habet ipsum 
Willelmum in seruicio suo necessarie in manerio pre- 
dicto. Et petit indicium si predicto Petro seruire de- 
beat etc. Et quia predicti iusticiarii dubitauerunt de 
cognicione dicti Willelmi optulerunt ei librum ad iuran- 
dum dicendi veritatem de factis predictis; qui Sacra- 
mento prestito dixit et cognouit vt prius, per quod con- 
sideratum est quod predictus Petrus nichil capiet per 
querelam suam predictam, et quod predictus Willelmus 
seruiet predicto lohanni Qiene tanquam domino suo et 
super hoc liberatur Waltero de Wernham, balliuo dicti 
lohannis Chene, ad seruiendum ei secundum statutum 
predictum et consuetudinem manerii predicti. 

(Endorsed) 

Recordum iusticiariorum de operariis pro Petro Semerc. 

A chanceller nostre seignur le Roy 

par Thomas de Breouse. 

Coram Rege Roll, no. 454. 

Placita coram domino Rege apud Westmonasterium de 
termino Sancte Trinitatis anno regni Regis Edwardi tercii 
post conquestum Anglie quadragesimo octauo. I. Cauen- 
dissh. 



DOCUMENTS, USTS AND TABLES 25 1 * 

Adhuc de termino Sancte Trinitatis. I. Cauendissh. 
rot. 87.^ 

Lincoln' Dominus Rex mandauit iusticiariis hie breue suum 
clausum in hec verba : Edwardus, Dei gracia Rex An- 
glie et Francie et dominus Hibernie, dilectis et fidelibus 
suis lohanni de Cauendissh et Thome de Ingelby ius- 
ticiariis ad placita coram nobis tenenda assignatis, salu- 
tem. Recordum et processum coram iusticiariis nos- 
tris ad pacem nostram necnon ad statuta et ordina- 
ciones de operatoribus, seruientibus et artiiicibus in 
partibus de Holand in comitatu Lincoln' conseruanda 
assignatis habita de loquela que fuit coram eisdem 
iusticiariis inter Robertum de Meres de Soterton ct 
Rogerum Roper de eo quod idem Rogerus prefato 
Roberto deseruire iuxta formam statutorum et ordi- 
nacionum inde editorum recusauit que coram nobis in 
cancellaria nostra venire fecimus, vobis mittimus sub 
pede sigilli nostri, mandantes quod hiis inspectis 
vlterius inde fieri facialis quod de iure et secundum 
legem et consuetudinem regni nostri Anglie fuerit fac- 
iendum. 

Teste me ipso, apud Westmonasterium, xx die lunii, 
anno regni nostri Anglie quadragesimo octauo, regni 
vero nostri Francie tricesimo quinto. 

Breue domini Regis prefatis iusticiariis ad pacem con- 
seruandam inde directum sequitur in hec verba: 

Edwardus, Dei gracia Rex Anglie et Francie ct 
dominus Hibernie, iusticiariis suis ad pacem nostram 
necnon ad statuta et ordinaciones de operatoribus, 
seruientibus et artificibus in partibus de Holand in 
comitatu Lincoln' conseruanda assignatis vel eorum 
alicui, salutem. Volentes certis de causis cerciorari 

'It is possible that this record refers to case 39, list in app., F, 3; 
unforttinately a search through several succeeding rolls has failed to 
reveal the conclusion of the process. 



252 * APPENDIX 

super recordo et processu coram vobis habitis de 
loquela que fuit coram vobis inter Robertum de Meres 
de Soterton et Rogerum Roper de eo quod idem 
Rogerus prefato Roberto deseruire iuxta formam 
statutorum et ordinacionum inde editorum recusauit, 
vobis mandamus quod recordum et processum pre- 
dicta cum omnibus ea tangentibus nobis in cancellaria 
nostra sub sigillis vestris vel alicuius vestrum distincte 
et aperte sine dilacione mittatis et hoc breue, vt vlte- 
rius inde fieri faciamus quod de iure et secundum 
legem et consuetudinem regni nostri Anglie fuerit 
faciendum. Ac vicecomiti nostro comitatus predicti 
detis in mandatis quod capcioni corpus predicti Rc^eri 
occasione premissa faciende supersedeat et si ipse ex 
hac causa captus existat tunc ipsum a prisona qua sic 
detinetur deliberet indilate. 

Teste me ipso, apud Westmonasterium, viii die 
lunii, anno regni nostri Anglie quadragesimo octauo^ 
regni vero nostri Francie tricesimo quinto. 

Recordum et processus de quibus in breuibus pre- 
dictis fit mencio sequntur in hec verba: 

Placita domini Regis tenta apud Sanctum Botol- 
phum coram Willelmo de Spaigne, Rogero Top, 
Thoma de Pynchebek et Ricardo de Launde iusticia- 
riis domini Regis pacis necnon ad statuta et ordina- 
ciones de operatoribus, seruientibus et artificibus in 
partibus de Holand in comitatu Lincoln' audienda et 
terminanda assignatis, die Mercurii proximo post fes- 
tum Sancte Trinitatis, anno regni Regis Edwardi 
tercii post conquestum quadragesimo octauo. 
Lincoln' Robertus de Meres de Soterton qui sequitur tam 
pro domino Rege quam pro se ipso queritur de 
Rogero Roper de Soterton de eo quod cum idem 
Rogerus vacuus fuit et nulli seruiens nisi per dietas 
idem Robertus die dominica in octabis Pasche anno 
regni Regis Edwardi tercii xlviii® apud Soterton re- 



DOCUMENTS, LISTS AND TABLES 253 * 

quisiuit dictum Rogerum dum vacuus fuit ad seruien- 
dum sibi in villa de Soterton in officio carucarii et 
aliis seruiciis, videlicet a predicto die per annum in- 
tegrum proxime sequentem, idem Rogerus seruire 
eidem Roberto penitus contradixit et recusauit contra 
statutum et ordinacionem de operatoribus editos in 
contemptum domini Regis et dampnum ipsius Roberti 
xl li., plegii de prosequendo, lohannes Batson et Ro- 
bertus, filius Rogeri. 

Per quod preceptum est vicecomiti quod attachiat^ 
predictum Rogerum ita quod habeat corpus eius coram 
prefatis iusticiariis apud Sanctum Botulfum die Ven- 
eris proximo post festum Sancte Trinitatis tunc prox- 
ime sequens ad respondendum tam domino Regi qitam 
prefato Roberto de placito predicto. 

Placita Regis tenta apud Sanctum Botulphum 
coram prefatis Willelmo de Spaigne et Ricardo de 
Launde iusticiariis, die Veneris proximo post festum 
Sancte Trinitatis, anno regni Regis Edwardi tercii 
xlviii®. 

Preceptum fuit vicecomiti quod attacheret Rogerum 
Roper de Soterton ita quod haberet corpus eius coram 
prefatis iusticiariis etc. ad hunc diem etc. ad respon- 
dendum tam domino Regi quam Roberto de Meres de 
Soterton de placito contemptus et transgressionis con- 
tra statutum etc. Et ipse non venit. Et vicecomes 
retornauit quod mandavit balliuo libertatis comitis 
Richemundie in wappentachio de Kirketon cui exe- 
cucio precepti Regis restat facienda qui sic respondit 
quod predictus Rogerus Roper non est inuentus in 
balliua sua. Ideo preceptum est vicecomiti quod 
capiat eum si etc. et saluo etc., ita quod habeat cor- 
pus eius coram prefatis iusticiariis etc. apud Sanctum 
Botulfum die Mercurii proximo ante festum Sancte 
Margarete virginis proxime sequens ad responden- 
dum tam domino Regi quam prefato Roberti de Meres 



254 * APPENDIX 

de placito contemptus et transgressionis contra statu- 
turn etc. Postea, scilicet quinto die lulii isto eodem 
termino, venit predictus Rogerus Roper et reddidit se 
etc. occasione predicta. Et super hoc venerunt Ri- 
cardus de Pereres, lohannes de Wabham, lohannes de 
Sledmer de Beuerle et Robertus Ragemill et manu- 
ceperunt habendi corpus predicti Rogeri coram dom- 
ino Rege a die Sancti Michaelis in xv dies vbicunque 
etc. Ideo preceptum est vicecomiti quod per probos 
etc. scire faciat predicto Roberto de Meres quod sit 
coram domino Rege ad prefatum terminum ad sequen- 
dum si etc. 



DOCUMENTS, LISTS AND TABLES 255 * 

D. Exchequer. (C/. pt. i, ch. iii.) 

INTRODUCTORY NOTE. 

The greater part of the material dealing with the work of 
the exchequer is, of course, preserved in the exchequer; but 
there are some important documents connected with exchequer 
processes that appear among chancery enrollments. Examples 
of these are the writs for the payment of the justices' wages 
on the Close Rolls; commissions to collectors of the subsidy, 
occasionally on the Patent Rolls, regularly on the Fine Rolls ; 
special commissions of investigation as to arrears of penalties 
or as to instances of peculation, and special grants disposing 
of the penalties, on the Patent Rolls. Many of these chancery 
enrollments are, however, duplicated in that branch of ex- 
chequer enrollments known as Originalia which for conveni- 
ence I included under "Chancery;" c/. app., 19. 

The main classes into which the exchequer material is divided 
are: the Memoranda Rolls, the Placita de Scaccario, Accounts, 
both original and enrolled, and the records of the exchequer 
of Receipt, 

Memoranda Rolls of the two Remembrancers, the King's and 
the Lord Treasurer's. 

The contents of these rolls have been described by Madox, 
in Hist, of Exchequer, by Scargill-Bird, op. ciL, and by Gross 
in his summaries, op. cit. For this decade there is nothing in 
print except a few summarized selections in Jones' Index to the 
Originalia and the Memoranda. 

In my search through these two series of rolls from 23 Edw. 
Ill to 35 Edw. Ill, I made an attempt to note all references 
to the statutes of labourers; but the rolls are so voluminous 
and the amount of material on the statutes so great that my 
search cannot be called exhaustive. 

The entries having to do with the statutes are of many kinds : 
commissions to the collectors of the subsidy, and additional 
instructions to them; innumerable writs of the great seal and 



256 * APPENDIX 

of the treasurer directed to the various officials concerned 
with the statutes, both as to the proper levying and final dis- 
position of the penahies and as to the payment of the justices' 
salaries; statements as to the penalties in "states and views 
of accounts " both of sheriffs and of collectors ; numerous 
actions brought by the exchequer against all these officials for 
failure to do their duty in regard to the penalties ; and finally 
the claims of the lords of franchises. These latter are recorded 
in great detail and are important for many reasons, and more 
especially because they often include long schedules of accounts 
of the penalties imposed under the statutes, entered on separate 
membranes, and attached to the Memoranda Rolls. 

It is essential to remember in using this material that ac- 
cording to the exchequer's method of computation of dates 
for Edward's reign Michaelmas term precedes Easter term; 
so that e, g., Mich. 29th year on the Memoranda Rolls is really 
only Mich. 28th year.* 

Exchequer Proceedings subsidiary to the Memoranda Rolls. 

Cf. Scargill-Bird, op. cit., 213. This series has not been in- 
cluded in my search. 

Placita de Scaccario. 

The List of Plea Rolls includes merely a catalogue of thesc^ 
classified by regnal year and law term. The roll for the 34th 
year is omitted from the printed list ; by accident I found it 
misplaced among the Memoranda Rolls, K. R. It has now 
been transferred to its proper place, as 82a. My examination 
has covered only a few of these rolls; these few contained 
many important proceedings connected with the levying of the 
penalties under the statutes. 

Accounts, original and enrolled. 

A distinction between these two types of accounts, 
important for purposes of investigation, is that the 

' Cf. Ramsay, '* Expenditure of Edw. Ill " in Antiquary, i, 156. 



DOCUMENTS, USTS AND TABLES 257 ♦ 

former include specific details — the amount of the 
penalty imposed on an individual offender, often the 
exact nature of his offense, and the character of his 
occupation; while the latter include otfly the total 
sums for which a given official is responsible. 

Original. 

Fines and Amercements ; Exchequer, K. R. 

The manuscript list contains dates and brief 
summaries of the contents of each roll. A thor- 
ough examination revealed only a few of the 
accounts of the penalties under the statuteB of 
labourers. 

Sheriffs' Accounts. 

The manuscript list gives only the regnal year ; 
I did not examine this series at all. 

Lay Subsidies ; the original accounts of the collectors. 
For a description of these cf, app., D, 4. A 
printed list is in progress of all the above. 

To these must be added the schedules of ac- 
counts handed in at the exchequer by the lords 
of franchises, already referred to ; cf, app., D, 6. 

Enrolled. 

Enrolled Subsidies. 

For a description of these cf, app., D, 4. 
" States and views of accounts " of both sheriffs and 
collectors, enrolled on Memoranda Rolls. 

Pipe Rolls. 

Until 42 Edw. Ill, these included Foreign ac- 
counts (i. e. those foreign to the jurisdiction of 
the sheriff except subsidy accounts), as well as 
those for which the sheriff was responsible; cf. 
Scargill-Bird, op. cit., 4. They are exceedingly 
valuable both for total sums of penalties under 
the statutes and for amounts paid as salaries to 



258 * APPENDIX 

the justices; but they are so bulky and volum- 
inous, with no guide to contents except as fur- 
nished by the regnal year and the county, that 
my search has included only a few. 

Exchequer of Receipt. 
Issue Rolls. 

These have been examined but contain nothing 
important for my purpose. 
Receipt Rolls. 
Praestita Rolls. 

Neither of the above has been examined. 
It will appear from this account of the ex- 
chequer material that nearly all the sources util- 
ized for ch. iii on the disposition of the penalties 
are included in this section of the appendix. 

1. Extracts from Assize Rolls, Memoranda Rolls and Orig- 

inalia Rolls. 

2. Extracts from Lay Subsidies and Memoranda Rolls. 

3. Extracts from Memoranda Rolls. 

4. Accounts of collectors of the triennial of 1352. 

A table of figures taken from Enrolled Subsidies. 
Extracts from Accounts, K. R., Enrolled Subsidies and 
Lay Subsidies. 

5. Extracts from Accounts, K. R., Qose Rolls, Memoranda 

Rolls and Pipe Rolls. 

6. Extracts from Accounts, K. R., Memoranda Rolls, Patent 

Rolls and Pipe Rolls. 

/. Extracts from Assize Rolls, Memoranda Rolls and Orig^ 
inalia Rolls. {Cf. pt. i, ch. iii, i. A.) 

Originalia, 23 Edw. Ill, m. 25. 

De leuando quintamdecimam de seruientibus. 

Rex taxatoribus et collectoribus decime et quintedecime nobis 
per laicos vltime concessarum in comitatu Cumb', salutem. 



DOCUMENTS, LISTS AND TABLES 259 * 

Cum nos nuper contra desidiam et maliciam seruientum, qui 
mortuis aliis aliis in ista pestilencia, videntes necessitatem domi- 
norum, seruire noluerunt nisi stipendia reciperent excessiua, de 
consilio prelatorum, nobilium, aliorumque peritorum nobis 
assistencium, ordinauerimus quod seruientes huiusmodi tarn 
femine quam viri seruire tenerentur et perciperent dumtaxat 
salaria et vadia que in locis vbi seruire deberent anno regni 
nostri Anglie vicesimo vel annis communibus quinque vel sex 
proxime precedentibus solita sunt prestari, et quod seruire re- 
cusantes incarceracione corporum punirentur, et plus soluentes 
vel promittentes duplum illius quod sic soluerint vel soluere 
promiserint illi qui se grauatum senserit, et nuUo tali volente 
prosequi, tunc cuicumque de populo hoc prosequenti soluere 
cogerentur, quodque dicti artifices et operarii quicumque pro 
laboribus et artificiis suis non caperent vltra id quod anno 
vicesimo et aliis annis predictis, in locis quibus eos operari con- 
tingeret, talibus solui consueuit prout in ordinacione predicta 
plenius continetur. lamque ex populari conquestione, accepe- 
rimus quod ipsi propter huiusmodi excessiua stipendia, libera- 
clones et precia que seruitoribus, operatoribus et artificibus 
soluere sunt coacti, taliter deprimuntur quod decimam et quin- 
tamdecimam ipsos contingentes, nobis soluere nequeunt nisi 
aliud eis apponatur remedium oportunum. 

Nos attendentes quod huiusmodi artifices, seruitores et arti- 
fices nos et ordinatores nobiscum ipsamque ordinacionem nos- 
tram publice deridentes, stipendia, liberaciones et precia exces- 
siua, sic in ipsa pestilencia et post eam inducta et quandoque 
ampliora, non obstante ordinacione predicta, exigunt, quasi extor- 
quendoetpercipiunt,nec sit aliquis qui contra tales prosequatur, 
ad dictum sic ordinatum commodum optinendum, et quod equi- 
tati consonat, vt quod vsibus singularibus sic ordinatum fuerit 
applicandum ipsis prosequi nolentibus in publicum commodum 
conuertatur, et ne dicta ordinacio cum maturitate consilii nostri 
pro vtilitate communi facta derisoria videatur, ex deliberacione 
dicti consilii nostri, adiciendo duximus ordinandum quod omnes 
et singuli operarii, seruitores et artifices tam femine quam viri 



26o * APPENDIX 

cuiuscumque videlicet status aut condicionis fuerint, plus pro 
laboribus, seruiciis et artificiis suis, quam anno vicesimo et aliis 
annis supradictis soliti sunt percipere, capientes, ad totam illam 
summam quam vltra receperint cum aliis laicis, tarn pro tem- 
pore preterito, quo sic stipendia, salaria, liberaciones et precia 
augmentata fuerint, quam pro tempore iam futuro assideantur, 
totaque ipsa summa sic vltra recepta a singulis eorundem 
leuetur et colligatur ad opus nostrum, in alleuiacionem singu- 
lartun villartmi vnde dicti artifices, seruitores et operarii fuerint 
in auxilium solucionis summarum ad quas eedem ville seu 
homines earum ad decimam et quintamdecimam iam currentes 
sunt assessi; ita semper quod finitis decima et quintadecima 
iam currentibus, tota ilia pecunia, precia et liberaciones siue 
valor liberacionum earundem, que vltra vt premittitur extunc 
pecierint et receperint, ab eis et eorum singulis ad opus nos- 
trum in subuencionem supportacionis onerum r^^ nostri per 
illos quos ad hoc in comitatu predicto duxerimus assignandos 
leuentur et coUigantur, et quod illi qui forsan propter hoc 
renuent deseruire vel summas per ipsos sic vltra perceptas, et 
super eos assessas soluere vel artificia sua et opera excercere 
statim per vos vel aliquem vestrum seu alios per vos vel ali- 
quem vestrum in singulis villis ad premissa exequenda depu- 
tandos vel per balliuos locorum seu constabularios villarum cum 
de hoc constiterit, arestentur et carceri conunittantur in eodem 
detinendi quousque ad seruiendum securitatem prestiterint et 
soluerint, quod sic vltra perceperint iuxta ordinaciones easdem 
vel donee aliud inde duxerimus demandandum. 

Intencionis tamen nostre existit quod secundum dictam pri- 
mam ordinacionem liceat cuilibet contra excedentes eandem, vel 
ei non parentes prosequi et applicare suo vsui, quod per ipsam 
conceditur prosequenti. Et ideo vobis committimus et manda- 
mus quod dictos operarios, seruitores et artifices vniuersos in 
comitatu predicto, tam infra libertates quam extra, ad summas 
quas vltra receperint vt premittitur per vos seu deputatos ves- 
tros assideatis seu assideri faciatis et eas ab eis ad opus nostrum 
leuetis et coUigatis in forma predicta et alia premissa ordinata 



DOCUMENTS, LISTS AND TABLES 261 * 

faciatis et exequamini, prout superius est expressum, inquisita 
super premissis quociens et quando opus fuerit per sacramen- 
tum proborum et legalium hominum de comitatu predicto, tarn 
infra libertates quam extra, plenius veritate. Et hoc nullatenus 
omittatis sub periculo quod incumbit. Mandauimus autem 
vicecomiti nostro comitatus predict! quod arestatos huiusmodi 
a vobis et vestrum quolibet et deputatis predictis recipiat in 
carcere detinendos, quousque paruerint, et fecerint cum effectu 
iuxta ordinaciones predictas, vobisque et vestrum cuilibet ac 
deputandis vestris predictis circa premissa facienda et exe- 
quenda quociens opus fuerit vel ei inde scire feceritis ex parte 
nostra pareat et intendat; et vt ordinaciones predicte pateant 
vniuersis, eas, prout in mandato nostro sibi directo continentur, 
in ciuitatibus, burgis et villis mercatoriis et aliis locis in balliua 
sua vbi expedire viderit infra libertates et extra publice proda- 
mari faciat, et quantum ad ipsum attinet obseruari. 

Teste Rege apud Westmonasterium, xxi die Nouembris. 

Consimilia breuia diriguntur coUectoribus dictarum decime et 
quintedecime in singulis comitatibus Anglie, sub eadem data. 

Originalia, 24 Edw. Ill, m. 4. 

Essex' De stipendiis operariorum leuandis. 

(To the assessors and collectors of the tenth and fifteenth; 
substantially the same as the above but condensed (prout in 
Uteris nostris predictis plenius continetur) continues) : Ac iam 
intellexerimus quod quamplures operariorum, seruientum et 
artificum predictorum huiusmodi pecunie summas vltra stipen- 
dia et salaria consueta receptas, pro maiore parte iam expen- 
derunt et consumpserunt, ita quod ad solucionem illarum pe- 
cunie summarum per ipsos sic vltra receptarum, sufficere non 
poterunt, et si in prisona detinerentur magis depauperarentuc 
et homines comitatus illius seruiciis et laboribus eorundem 
operariorum, seruitorum et artificum frustrarentur. Nos ad- 
uertentes paucitatem operarionmi, seruitorum et artificum 
huiusmodi in comitatu predicto, et quod homines de eodem 
comitatu seruiciis et laboribus eorundem commodo carere non 



262 * APPENDIX 

possunt, ac proinde volentes remedium congruum poni in hac 
parte^ vobis mandamus quod receptis a seruitoribus, operariis 
et artiiicibus qui sufiicientes et potentes fuerint pecuniarum 
summis per ipsos vltra stipendia et salaria consueta vt premit- 
titur receptis, reliquos seruitores, operarios seu artifices qui ad 
solucionem integre summe per ipsos sic vltra recepte patenter 
sunt impotentes, ad illud dumtaxat quod soluere poterunt, per 
incarceracionem corporum suorum, et aliis viis et modis quibus 
poteritis, compellatis, capta ab eis sufficiente securitate de ser- 
uiendo exnunc pro stipendiis et salariis dictis annis solui con- 
suetis. Prouiso quod de tota pecunie summa vltra ratam 
decime et quintedecime predictarum remanente si que fuerint, 
solutis decima et quintadecima predictis nobis respondeatur, 
prout decet. Volumus eciam et vobis mandamus quod versus 
omnes et singulos iuratores quos per retuma vicecomitis comi- 
tatus predicti coram vobis facta seu facienda inueneritis fuisse 
premunitos, et qui iuxta premunicionem huiusmodi coram vobis 
venire n^lexerint vel n^ligunt, processus per amerciamenta 
et districciones necnon forisfacturas exituum cousque compar- 
uerint vt sic venire cogantur fieri faciatis, prout in consimilibus 
casubus secundum legem et consuetudinem regni nostri fuerit 
faciendum, eadem amerciamenta et exitus in extractis vestris 
ad scaccarium nostrum mittenda, vt de leuacione eorundem ad 
opus nostrum ordinari valeat, inserentes vlteriusque ad execu- 
cionem dicte ordinacionis nostre pro nostra et dicti populi nos- 
tri vtilitate procedentes iuxta vim et effectum literanun pre- 
dictarum. 

Teste Rege, apud Westmonasterium, viii die Marcii. 
Somerset; De eodem; 28 May. 
Middlesex; De eodem; 12 Nov. 

Memoranda Roll, L. T. R., no. 120. 

Adhuc Communia de termino Sancti Michaelis anno 
xxix Regis Edwardi tercii. Adhuc Presentationes, Attor- 
natus. Dies dati et Respectus ; rot. 12. 

Surr' De die dato. 
Memorandum quod Henricus de Bekwell, vnus iusticiariorum 



DOCUMENTS, LISTS AND TABLES 263 * 

operariorum in comitatu Surr' venit hie coram baronibus, 
xxviii^ die Nouembris hoc termino, et liberauit curie hie xiii 
rotulos de finibus, excessubus, exitibus et amerciamentis huius- 
modi operariorum, qui rotuli sunt in custodia huius rememora- 
toris, et recordatur quod liberauit transscriptum eorundem rotu- 
lorum Thome de Weston, Nicholao atte Welle, Ade de Sancto 
Albano et lohanni de Godestou nuper coUectoribus tercii anni 
solucionis xv* et x« triennalium Regi a laicis anno xxii<* con- 
cessartmi in comitatu predicto die Sabbati proximo post festum 
Natiuitatis Sancti lohannis Baptiste anno xxv^^, per inden- 
turam cuius alteram partem ostendit, videlicet pro denariis in 
transcripto illo contentis leuandis in exoneracionem communi- 
tatis dicti comitatus. Super quo predicti Thomas de Weston 
et lohannes de Godestou, presentes hie in curia super premissis 
alloeuti, bene concedunt quod ipsi simul cum predictis Nicholao 
et Adam receperunt transcriptum predietum et quod distrib- 
uerunt magnam partem inde inter pauperes villatas dicti comi- 
tatus in allocaeionem, videlicet, solucionis dicti tercii anni solu- 
cionis XV® et X* predictarum dicto anno xxii<* eoncessarum, 
asserentes ipsi Thomas et lohannes quod in absencia predicti 
Nicholai atte Welle et heredis et exeeutoris predicti Ade in 
premissis computare non possunt petentesque proinde quod 
veniant etc. 

Et viso statuto per quod Rex concessit huiusmodi fines etc. 
in auxilium communitatis regni etc., quod quidem statutum 
factum fuit in parliamento Regis apud Westmonasterium eon- 
uocato in octabis Purificacionis beate Marie Virginis, anno 
xxv*<* et residet in custodia alterius rememoratoris, compertum 
est in eodem quod Rex inter cetera concessit quod viceeomites, 
constabularii, balliui et gaolarii, clerici iusticiariorum vel vice- 
comitum, nee alii ministri quieumque, nichil capiant racione 
officiorum suorum de huiusmodi operariis pro feodis, sectis 
prisonum vel alio modo, et si quid inde eeperint modo predicto 
id liberent coUectoribus xv« et x* in auxilium communitatis pro 
tempore quo eedem xv® et x® currant tam pro tempore preterito 
quam futuro, concordatum est quod dicti coUectores compu- 
tent etc. 



264 * • APPENDIX 

Ideo preceptum est vicecomiti Surr' quod distringat prcdic- 
tum Nicholaum atte Welle et Adam de Sancto Albano vd 
heredes et executores suos si ipsi mortui fuerint ac tenentes 
terrarum et tenementorum que fuerunt ipsorum Nicholai et 
Ade in feodo per terras etc. ; ita etc. a die Sancti Hillarii in 
XV dies ad computandum, vna etc. Et idem dies datus est 
prefatis Thome et lohamii ad computandum, vna etc. 

Ad quem diem predicti Thomas de Weston et lohannes de 
Godestou ac Nicholaus atte Welle veniunt. Et quoad predic- 
ttun Adam de Sancto Albano vicecomes retornauit quod idem 
Adam obiit et quod lohannes de Sancto Albano, filius et heres 
predicti Ade de Sancto Albano, vnus executorum testament! 
predicti Ade ac tenens terrarum et tenementorum que fuerunt 
eiusdem Ade, et Radulfus Hert et Henricus atte Cauce de 
Croydon, coexecutores ipsius lohannis de Sancto Albano testa- 
menti predicti Ade, districti sunt et exitus etc. 

Et predictus Radulfus Hert venit et tam ipse quam predicti 
Thomas de Weston, lohannes de Godestou et Nicholaus atte 
Welle cognoscunt et concedunt se velle et debere computare 
tam pro se ipsis quam pro predictis lohanne de Sancto Albano 
et Henrico atte Cauce in premissis et satisfacere Regi de arre- 
ragio eiusdem compoti. Et super hoc prestiterunt sacramentum 
de fideliter computando. Postea predicti Thomas de Weston 
et lohannes de Godestou computarunt tam pro se ipsis quam 
predictis Nicholao atte Welle in premissis; qui quidem com- 
potus remanet in custodia ingrossatoris, particule vero dicti 
compoti remanent in custodia huius rememoratoris, per quem 
compotum nichil debetur. 

Assize Roll, Sussex, 941. 26 Edw. HI. 63 membranes. 

Placita (de transgressionibus, etc.) coram J. de Molyns 
et sociis suis. 

m. I. Presentaciones apud Elstgrentede coram lohanne de 

Molyns, Ricardo de Cresseuill et lohanne Qeymond 
iusticiariis domini Regis ad quosdam contemptus, trans- 
gressiones, confederaciones, conspiraciones et alios ar- 



DOCUMENTS, LISTS AND TABLES 265 * 

ticnlos in comitatu Sussex' vna cum .... audiendos 
ct terminandos assignatis die Mercurii proxima post 
festum concepcionis beate Marie Virginis anno regni 
.... vicesimo sexto. Molyns. 

m. 8. Item dicunt quod lohannes de Sutton, anno regni 

domini Regis nunc vicesimo tercio, quo anno extitit 
collector quintedecime domini Regis in comitatu Sus- 
sex' et habuit commissionem ad inquirendum de labora- 
riis et salariis suis excessiuis et ad eadem ^ salaria 
ponenda in exoneracionem quintedecime villatarum in 
quibus ilia salaria capta fuerunt, idem ' lohannes de 
Sutton per extorsionem cepit de Thoma de Preston, 
laborario, viginti sex solidos octo denarios pro quibus 
denariis idem lohannes de Sutton liberauit in prisona 
domini Regis in castro de Lewes corpus predicti Thome 
custodiendum ibidem quousque plenarie satisfecerit de 
summa predicta ; quam quidem summam * idem 
Thomas postea soluit prefato lohanni, qui eam retinuit 
ad opus suum proprium sine aliquo inde soluendo seu 
ponendo in auantagium quintedecime domini Regis, 
tenente Regina villatam de Preston in qua dicta summa 
leuata fuerat. 

(m. 23 contains more presentments against de Sutton for ex- 
torsion as collector; he pleads guilty and is fined.) 

Assize Roll, Essex, 267. 25 Edw. III. 66 membranes. 

Praesentationes apud Chelmsford. 

(For evidence that these are "coram Rege" indict- 
ments, see app., F, i.) 

m. I. (No heading.) 

Item dicunt quod Edmundus de Nortot cepit de villa 
de Fynchingfeld de laboratoribus et seruitoribus de 

*MS. eandem. 'MS. eidem. 'MS. summa. 



266 ♦ APPENDIX 

anno Regis nunc xxiiii^, x li. vnde dominus Rex nichil 
habuit. 

m. 7. Item dicunt quod dictus Edmundus de Northhofts 

per consilium et assensum lohannis Houel in omnibus 
sessionibus suis habuit mariscallum, videlicet lohannem 
Northtofts, qui cepit de quolibet laborario iurato fere 
iiii d. (Item Thomas de Haueryng, clericus, i d. Item 
lohannes Castel, crior, id.) et inprisonauit omnes 
laborarios et seruitores qui noluere dictum feodum 
soluere quousque etc., ad anuUacionem et paupcra- 
cionem hominum et feminarum hundredi et contra 
ordinaciones domini Regis inde factas. 

m. 51. Essex. Magna Inquisicio. 

m. 54 d. 

Item ils presentent qe com Esmund de Northtuft vn 
des iustices sur laborers, le ludy proscheyn apres la 
feste de Seynt Matheu Ian du regne nostre Seignur le 
Roy qore est xxiiii, fuist asis en le Chaustel Daung^e, 
et fist apeller deuant luy toutz les artificers et laborers 
de chescun ville del hundred Daungre, et Waulter 
Salkyn deuant le dit Esmund pour exces par fyn deuers 
le Roy puny; al ysser de mesme celuy Waulter a la 
porte du chastel auandict, lohan de Bamptone, senes- 
chal et baillif du dit hundred, le dit Waulter arestut et 
enprisona et de luy prist v deners par extorsion enr 
countre la pees, et par mesme la cause et en mesme la 
manere de William Tracp v d. [etc.] ^ et de plusurs 
aultres artificers et laborers et seruantz a la mount- 
aunce de c. souldz par voie de extorsion prist encountre 
lestatut. 

Assize Roll, Essex, 268. 25 Edw. III. 27 membranes. 
Praesentationes Juratorum. 

(For an account of the probable character of this 

*Tcn others. 



DOCUMENTS, USTS AND TABLES 267 ♦ 

roll, see app.', 169, and F, i ; the portions here quoted 
arc probably "coram Rege" indictments.) 

m. 6. Magna Inquisicio. 
Rugford. 



Item presentant quod Edmundus Nortoft, collector 
quindecime comitatus Essex', cepit de villa de Stur- 
mere xxxii s. ii d. de laboratoribus ^ eiusdem ville et 
nilominus Ixxviii s. pro Integra solucione quindecime 
predicte, et pro qualibet acquietancia vi d. anno Regis 
nunc XXV. 

» 

m. 6 d. 

Item presentant quod Edmundus Nortoft, collector 
quindecime Regis in comitatu Essex', cepit de villa de 
Wetheresfeld xii s. de laborariis ville et nilominus in- 
tegram summam quindecime ville anno xxv. 

m. 16. Hundredum de Dunmawe. 

Item presentent qe lohan Walter de Fifhyde fut iure 
deuaunt Edmund de Nortoft et son compaignoun qe il 
Trans- laboreyt et prendreyt soloun la ordinaunce de nouele 
gressio. estatut, la ou il prist en Ian nostre seignur le Roy qe 
ore est xxiiii en Aust vi d. manger et be)rure de iour 
en iour par viii semaygnes encontre lestatut, et est rebel 
et ne wit estre iustifise par le conestablis de la ville. 

Cf. Mem. K. R., 26 Edw. Ill, Trin., Recorda, 
Essex. A long process against Thomas de Lacy, Ed- 
mund de Northtoft and John Waleys, collectors of the 
grant of the 22nd year, who had failed to account for 

^MS. laboribus. 



268 * APPENDIX 

the third year of the pajonent ; ^ they were convicted, 
imprisoned, and fined. 

2. Extracts from Lay Subsidies and Memoranda Rolls. 

(Cf. pt. I, ch. iii, I, B, a.) 

Memoranda Roll, L. T. R., no. ii8. 

Adhuc Communia de termino Sancti Michaelis anno 
xxvii Regis Edwardi tercii. Adhuc Recorda, rot. 20. 

(Enrolled Mem. K. R., 26, Trin., Recorda, Anglia; and 
Orig., 26, m. 27, Anglia.) 

Essex' Forma leuacionis et distribucionis finium et amercia- 
mentorum operariorum. 

Leo de Bradenham et socii sui coUectores xv* et x® trienna- 
lium Regi a laicis anno xxv^ concessarum in coimitatu Essex* 
exhibuerunt curie literas Regis patentes quas pecierunt irrotu- 
lari in hec verba : Edwardus, Dei gracia Rex Anglie et Francie 
et dominus Hibernie, dilectis et fidelibus suis Leoni de Braden- 
ham et lohanni de Depeden, salutem. Sciatis quod cum duces, 
comites, barones, milites et communitates comitatuum regni nos- 
tri Anglie quintamdecimam, ac cives et burgenses ciuitatum et 
burgorum eiusdem regni decimam omnium bonorum suorura 
mobilium in presenti parliamento nostro apud Westmonaster- 
ium ad diem Veneris in f esto Sancti Hillarii proxime preteritum 
conuocato, pro triennio tunc proxime futuro in auxilium ex- 
pensarum quas pro expedicione guerrarum nostrarum et sal- 
uacione et def ensione dicti regni facere nos oportet, concessermt 
eodem modo quo huiusmodi decime et quintedecime nobis 
vltimo concesse leuate fuerunt leuandas et nobis ad ternunos 
Pasche et Sancti Michaelis quolibet anno dicti triennii per 
equales porciones soluendas, et nos habita consideracione quod 
quamplura ville et hameletta tam per pestilenciam quam ex 
aliis variis causis in multo depauperantur quam pluraque alia 

^ Undoubtedly, therefore, the same date as that of the offences referred 
to in the "coram Rege'' indictments. 



DOCUMENTS, LISTS AND TABLES 269 ♦ 

totalitCT vastantur, ad requisicionem eiusdem communitatis de 
assensu prelatorum, ducum, comitum et baronum predictorum 
concesserimus eidem communitati omnes fines, redempciones, 
exitus, forisfactiones et amerciamenta omnium operariorum, 
seruientum et artificum que de eis vel causa eorum coram iusti- 
ciariis nostris ad inquirendum de huiusmodi operatoribus, ser- 
uientibus et artificibus iuxta formam statuti inde editi facta et 
adiudicata existunt de quibus nobis seu communitatibus ciuita- 
tum, burgorum et villarum predictorum in subsidium decime et 
quintedecime nobis alias concessarum iuxta ordinacionem tunc 
inde factam non est responsum, et eciam que imposterum vsque 
ad finem vltimi termini solucionis decime et quintedecime predic- 
tarum fieri et adiudicari continget, in auxilium et supportacionem 
solucionis decime et quintedecime earundem per taxatores et col- 
lectores decime et quintedecime illarum in singulis comitatibus 
per extractas iusticiariorum predictorum eisdem taxatoribus et 
collectoribus liberandas iuxta formam nobis in dicto parlia- 
mento per dictam communitatem liberatam et per nos accep- 
tatam quam vobis mittimus in forma patenti sigillo nostro 
signatam leuanda et colligenda. 

Nos volentes de dictis decima et quintadecima pro primo 
anno dicti triennii responderi iuxta concessionem nobis inde 
factam, assignauimus vos coniunctim et diuisim ad leuan- 
dum, colligendum et recipiendum ad opus nostrum pro 
primo anno predicto de singulis ciuitatibus, burgis et villis 
in comitatu Essex' tam infra libertates quam extra tantam 
pecunie summam quanta de eisdem ciuitatibus, burgis et 
villis in comitatu predicto in vltima concessione huiusmodi 
decime et quintedecime leuata f uit ad opus nostrum ; ita quod 
nobis de vna medietate omnium denariorum de decima et 
quintadecima predictis in dicto comitatu proueniencium in festo 
Pasche proxime futuro et de altera medietate denariorum 
eorundem in festo Sancti Michaelis proxime sequente respon- 
deatis, et eciam assignauimus vos ad omnia predicta fines, re- 
dempciones, exitus et amerciamenta leuanda et colligenda et 
inter villatas et hameletta predicta distribuenda et liberanda 
iuxta formam supradictam. 



270 



APPENDIX 



' £t ideo vobis mandamus quod^ statim visis presentibus, 
vos de villa ad villam et loco ad locum infra comitatum 
predictum tarn infra libertates quam extra prout expedire 
videritis personaliter diuertatis et venire faciatis coram vobis 
de qualibet villa dicti comitatus duos homines et prepositum 
et de qualibet ciuitate et burgo eiusdem comitatus maiorem 
et balliuos et quatuor homines de discrecioribus et probior- 
ibus hominibus eorundem villarum, ciuitatum et burgorum 
ad certos dies et loca eis magis acomoda per vos desig- 
nanda ; iniungentes eisdem quod pecuniam predictam decime et 
quintedecime predictarum per vnum vel duos de singulis vil- 
larum, ciuitatum et burgorum predictorum magis sufficientes 
leuari et vobis liberari faciant indilate. Alioquin dictam pecu- 
niam de decima et quintadecima predictis de ipsis ciuitatibus, 
burgis et villis cum omni celeritate leuari et nobis inde respon- 
deri et dicta fines, redempciones, exitus et amerciamenta collegi 
et leuari et inter villatas et hameletta predicta distribui faciatis 
sicut predictum est. 

Damns autem vobis et cuilibet vestrum plenam tenore 
presencium potestatem distringendi et amerciandi omnes illos 
quos ad veniendum coram vobis premuniri feceritis si coram 
vobis venire recusauerint, necnon capiendi et arestandi omnes 
illos si qui vobis vel alicui vestrum in execucione premis- 
sorum resistentes fuerint, necnon castigandi et puniendi 
omnes huiusmodi rebelles aliis viis et modis quibus pro celeri 
leuacione denariorum predictorum melius videritis expedire. 
Damns eciam ducibus, comitibus, baronibus, militibus et 
liberis hominibus et toti communitati comitatus predict! tarn 
infra libertates quam extra, necnon maioribus et balliuis 
ciuitatum et burgorum in eodem comitatu ac balliuis prela- 
torum, ducum, comitum, baronum et aliorum quorumcumque 
infra libertates et extra et vicecomiti nostro eiusdem comitatus 
tenore presencium in mandatis quod vobis et cuilibet vestrum 
in premissis omnibus et singulis faciendis et exequendis inten* 
dentes sint respondentes, consulentes et auxiliantes prout eis 
scire feceritis ex parte nostra, et quod idem vicecomes omnes 



DOCUMENTS, LISTS AND TABLES 271 ♦ 

homines porciones ipsos inde contingentes soluere recusantes 
vna vobiscum distringat et ad solucionem huiusmodi compellat 
quociens et quando per vos vel aliquem vestrum super hoc 
fuerit premunitus. 

In cuius rei testimonium, has literas nostras fieri fecimus 
patentes. 

Teste me ipso, apud Westmonasterium, xxv**^ die Februarii, 
anno regni nostri Anglie vicesimo sexto, regni vero nostri 
Francie terciodecimo. 

Per ipsum Regem et consilium. 

Exhibuit eciam hie prefatus Leo de Bradenham formam 
leuacionis et concessionis de quibus fit vlterius mencio in breui 
in hec verba: (duplicated in Miscellanea of the Exchequer, no. 
4/39; printed from a British Museum transcript in Statutes of 
the Realm, as 25 Edw. Ill, st. vii, Statutum de Forma leva- 
tionis Decimequinte.) 

Come notre seignur le Roi, prelatz, dues, countz, barons et 
autres grantz assembleyz en cest parlement tenuz a Wey- 
monster en la feste de Seint Hiller Ian du regne meisme nostre 
seignur le Roi Dengleterre vintisme quint et de Fraunce dous- 
zisme eient grantez as les communes de dit roialme Dengle- 
terre en eide des disme et quinzisme queles les ditz communes 
ount grantez au nostre dit seignur le Roi, pur lesploit de sa 
guerre de France et defense de son dit roialme Dengleterre, 
pur trois aunz proscheinz ensuantz, toutz les fynes, issuez, for- 
faitz, amerciementz et toutz altres profitz que sount ou serount 
leuez ou prises des laborers, artificers, regraters, vitaillers, hos- 
tillers et totes manere dez ouerours et dez seruantz en toutz 
pointz, (comme pleinement est contenuz en lestatut ent fait au 
dre3m parlement tenuz a les oetaues de la Chaundeloure Ian 
susdit,) de la feste du Pasche drayne passe tanques a dreyn 
terme du payement des dismes et quinzismes susditz. Et oues- 
ques ceo si rien soit aderiere dez dites fynes, amerciementz et 
autres profitz susditz de la fesaunce de dit estatut, que nest mye 
paye a les commtmes en eide de lour disme et quinzisme cur- 



2/2 



APPENDIX 



rantz deuant sez heures (ou des summes de queles le Roi nest 
mye respounduz), adonqes eient les dites communes ceo que 
issint est aderere en eide de lour disme et quinzisme triennales 
a cest parlement grantez ; les ditz communes prient a nostre dit 
seignur le Roi et a les grantz, que commissions dez laborers 
soient faites as certeignes gentz en chescune countee nomez 
par les ditz communes en meisme le parlement, denquere et de 
fair droit solonq lestatut auantdit; et que meismes les iustices 
preignent gagez resonablez, chescun solonq son estate, des 
issuez et profitz de lour sessions ; et que les iustices f acent de- 
liuerer lour extretz as coillours de les dismes et quinzismes es 
counteez ou ils serront par endenture, et que extretes ent 
liueretz en lescheqier soient liueretz as ditz iustices, qi les fer- 
rount liuerer hors de lour gard as ditz coillours; et meisme 
les iustices auant lour leuer en chescun session facent affirer 
les amerciementz come appent; et quant ils serrount issint 
affirez soient touz les extretes et touz profitz de lour sessions a 
la fyne de chescun session mys en certeyn somme en presence 
des ditz iustices, coillours et des chiualers et des sergeantz des 
mieltz vans de pays, et soit apporcione meisme la somme par 
serement des bones et loials chiualers et altres de chescune 
hundred en la forme qensuit: cest assauoir que de chescun 
hundred soient certeynes gentz eslut deuant mesmes les iustices 
tanque il bosoignera iuretz a monstrer et a dire de chescune 
ville del hundred et de chescun hamel le gast mischiefes et lem- 
pouerissement des yceles, sibien deinz franchise come dehors, 
saunz celer ou fauere fair a nully, et soit la somme, quant ele 
serra issint mys en certeyne, a fyne de chescune session, appor- 
cione entre lez ditz villes et hameles par lauys dez ditz iustices 
et par serement des ditz coillours et altres sousnomez solonc 
lestat des ditz villes et hamels et lour mischiefes et solonc ceo 
que lour necessite demande ; issint que a chescune ville et hamel 
soit allote sa porcioune, et mys en certeyn, et la cause dycel, 
deuant les ditz iustices, et mys en lour recordes, et recoupe en 
partye du payement del aunciene taxe des ditz villes et hamels ; 
et que le remenant du taxe des dites villez et hamels soit leue 



DOCUMENTS, LISTS AND TABLES 273 ♦ 

par les ditz coillours outre les extretes liueretz a eux par les 
ditz iustices solonc laporcionement susdite, et nient pluys, sour 
peyne de perder la treble as parties des queux les choses serront 
leuetz, et qui de ce se senterent greuez et destre retynte a la 
volente le Roi ; et que les ditz iustices eient poair a oier et ter- 
miner, si bien a la suyte du partie come a la suyte le Roi, des 
coillours, soutcoillours, taxours et altres ministres qecumqes, et 
de totez altres qui ferrount ou vendront contre lour ordinances 
susdites, et afaire sour ceo redde punissement, et que toutz les 
profitz issantz des tieux punissementz en qecomque manere, que 
serront aiuggetz deuant les ditz iustices des tieux laboriers, 
ouerours et artificers, ou par cause de eux, soient en eide de la 
commune, pur porter la charge de lour disme et quinzisme 
auantdites. Et contenuz soit en les commissions ent faites, que 
touz ministres, seignurs des franchises et lour baillifs soient 
attendantz a les ditz iustices sour gref payne ; as queux choses 
susdites nostre seignur le Roi, prelatz, dues, countes et altres 
grantz au dit parlement donez lour assent pleinerement ; issint 
totes voies, que par cause de nul poynt susdit de leuer ne la 
paier des dites disme et quinzisme triennales ne soit pas delaye 
en nul manere as nuls des termes susdites. 

Memoranda Roll, L. T. R., no. 118. 

Adhuc Communia de termino Sancti Hillarii anno xxvii^ 
Regis Edwardi tercii post conquestum. Adhuc Recorda, 
rot. 19. 

Anglia, De modo et forma admissionis compotorum de 
finibus etc. operariorum, seruienttim et artificum. 

Memorandum quod cum in quodam statuto . . . (t. e. statute 
of labourers of the 25th year ; there follows, first, a brief sum- 
mary of both the ordinance and the statute, and second, a literal 
quotation in Latin of the clause of the statute beginning "Item 
que viscontes"^) datum est curie intelligi quod denarii pro- 
uenientes de finibus, redempcionibus, excessubus, exitibus et 

^App., 16. 



274 * APPENDIX 

amerciamentis predictis concellantur per diuersos ministros 
Regis qui denarios illos leuare et sibi ipsis appropriare ac in 
vsubus suis propriis conuertere intendunt, absque eo quod 
quicquam solutum sit Regi inde in exoneracionem communitatis 
regni Anglie de predicta xv*, videlicet, triennali concessa supra- 
dicto anno xxv^ iuxta formam statuti predicti, ad dampnum 
Regis et dicte communitatis. Ideo pro huiusmodi dampno eui- 
tando in euentu et vt sciatur quod denarii predicti rite leuentur, 
soluantur et expendantur in exoneracionem dicte communitatis 
et celeriori solucione xv® predicte, pro commodo Regis concor- 
datum est quod mandetur omnibus huiusmodi iusticiariis per 
Angliam quod extractas suas liberent collectoribus xv* predicte 
per indenturas et quod alteras partes indenturarum illanim 
penes eosdem iusticiarios remansuras post confecciones earun- 
dem mittant hie sub sigillis suis de tempore in tempus prout etc 
Mandetur eciam collectoribus dicte xv« et x* triennalium in 
singulis comitatibus Anglie quod dictas extractas a prefatis 
iusticiariis recipiant per indenturas in forma predicta et dena- 
rios in eisdem extractis contentos leuent et inde respondeant 
hie proporcionaliter in exoneracionem communitatis singulorum 
comitatuum Anglie in quibus leuati fuerint de solucione xv« et 
X* predictarum. Ipsique coUectores computent hie ad scacca- 
rium per extractas predictas eis per dictos iusticiarios liber- 
andas per quas et similiter per certificaciones eorundem ius- 
ticiariorum faciendas hie, ipsi coUectores onerentur super com- 
potis suis. 

Concordatum est insuper quod auditis compotis illis hie 
in forma predicta capiantur pedes compotorum illonun et 
respondeant coUectores statim de summis suis antequam rece- 
dant in exoneracionem, videlicet, dicte communitatis de solu- 
cione XV® et X* predictarum, dictique compoti non ingrossentur 
quousque etc. Set remaneant in custodia ingrossatoris huius 
scaccarii et quod extracte super eosdem compotos restitute ac 
particule compotorum lUorum remaneant in custodia rememora- 
toris; que quidem extracte innouentur de tempore in tempus 
cum necessitas requiratur currentibus xv* et x* predictis. Ita 



DOCUMENTS, LISTS AND TABLES 275 ♦ 

quod cessantibus ipsis xv^ et x^ satisfactoque Regi inde, id 
quod superfuerit non leuatum per extractas predictas leuetur 
ad opus Regis. 

Memoranda Roll, K. R., no. 129. 

Adhuc Breuia directa baronibus de termino Sancte Trini- 
tatis anno xxvii<* Regis Edwardi tercii ; rot. 5 d. 

Pro coUectoribus x™® et xv™® Regi anno xxv^ conces- 
sarum in comitatu Buk' pro primo anno solutionis earun- 
dem. 

Rex thesaurario et baronibus suis de scaccario, salutem. 
Cum nuper in parliamento nostro apud Westmonasterium con- 
uocato, concordatum fuisset quod omnes pecuniartun summe 
de finibus, amerciamentis et exitibus operariorum, seruiencium 
et artificum prouenientes per collectores decime et quintedecime 
per extractas iusticiariortmi nostrorum ad inquirendum de 
huiusmodi operariis, seruientibus et artificibus assignatorum eis 
liberandas leuarentur et inter villatas vbi magis indigerit in 
auxilium solutionis decime et quintedecime predictarum dis- 
tribuerentur, ac iam ex parte collectorum dictarum decime et 
quintedecime in comitatu Buk' pro primo anno concessionis 
earundem nobis sit ostensum quod, licet vos extractas huius- 
modi finium, amerciamentorum et exituum operariorum, ser- 
uientum et artificum coram Willelmo de ShareshuU et sociis 
suis iusticiariis nostris ad placita coram nobis tenenda assig- 
natis in sessione sua in comitatu predicto factorum et adiudica- 
torum prefatis coUectoribus de mandato nostro liberaueritis ad 
eosdem fines, amerciamenta et exitus per extractas illas leuanda 
et distribuenda in forma predicta, vos tamen iam pretendentes 
fines, amerciamenta et exitus predictos coram prefato Willelmo 
et sociis suis predictis factos et adiudicatos ad nos pertinere 
debere, dictos fines, amerciamenta et exitus per ipsos collectores 
per extractas predictas leuatos eis allocare distulistis et diuersas 
pecuniarum summas de finibus, amerciamentis et exitibus pre- 
dictis ad opus nostrum leuari fecistis contra formam concordie 
supradicte. Et quia intencionis nostre et consilii nostri extitit 



276 * APPENDIX 

et existit quod omnes huiusmodi fines, amerciamenta et exitus 
operariorum, seniientum et artificum tarn coram iusticiariis ad 
placita coram nobis tenenda assignatis quam aliis iusticiariis 
nostris quibuscumque facti et adiudicati in auxilium solucionis 
decime et quintedecime predictarum conuertantur, vobis man- 
damus quod prefatis coUectoribus omnes pecuniarum summas 
de huiusmodi finibus, amerciamentis et exitibus coram prefato 
Willelmo et sociis suis predictis factis et adiudicatis tam per 
ipsos collectores quam per vos leuatas eisdem coUectoribus in 
alleuiacionem porcionum pauperes villatas comitatus predicti 
de decima et quintadecima predictis contingencium ad scacca- 
rium predictum allocetis iuxta intencionem nostram supra- 
dictam. 

Teste me ipso, apud Westmonasterium, vi die lunii, anno 
regni nostri Anglie vicesimo septimo, regni vero nostri Francie 
quartodecimo. 

Cf. ibid,, Trin., Recorda, Bucks.; De allocacione facienda 
coUectoribus xv™*. 

Lay Subsidy, 242/81, Derby.^ 

No. 2. Edwardus, Dei gracia Rex Anglie et Francie et dom- 
inus Hibemie, coUectoribus decime et quintedecime in 
comitatu Derb', salutem. Mandamus vobis quod dilecto 
et fideU nostro Hugoni de MeigniU vni iusticiariorum 
nostrorum ad inquirendum de operariis, seruientibus et 
artificibus in comitatu predicto assignatorum sex solidos 
et octo denarios pro se et clericis suis per diem pro vadiis 
suis tam pro tempore quo sessiones suas circa premissa 
in comitatu predicto fecit quam exnunc pro tempore quo 
sessiones suas huiusmodi in eodem comitatu facere con- 
tinget, videUcet pro quadraginta diebus per annum si 
sessiones suas huiusmodi per tot dies ibidem fecerit ex 
hac causa de exitibus extractarum finium, amerciamen- 
torum et exituum huiusmodi operariorum, seniientum et 
artificum vobis liberatarum et liberandarum solui et 
habere faciatis. 

*App., D, 4. 



DOCUMENTS, LISTS AND TABLES 277 * 

Teste me ipso, apud Westmonasterium, xii die Maii, 
anno regni nostri Anglie vicesimo sexto, regni vero nos- 
tri Francie terciodecimo. 

Hank. 

(Enrolled Claus., 26, m. 16, under the date i May; 
printed in Rot, Pari., ii, 455, and Cal, Close Rolls, ix, 
436.) 

No. I. Nouerint vniuersi per presentes me EQigonem de 
Meignill, militem, iusticiarium domini Regis in comitatu 
Derb' ad diuersa grauamina, extorcione's, excessus la^ 
borancium et seruiencium audienda et terminanda as- 
signatum, recepisse de lohanne de Greseley et sociis suis 
collectoribus xv® et x^ secundi anni triennalium domino 
Regi concessarum in comitatu Derb' viginti marcas ster- 
lingorum de feodo meo pro me et clericis meis, ab vltimo 
die Marci anno regni Regis nunc xxv^^ vsque festum 
Michaelis anno xxvii^, pro xl diebus quibus sessiones 
meas feci in hac parte, percipiendo per diem dimidiam 
marcam, virtute breuis domini Regis dicto lohanni et 
sociis inde directi. De quibus vero viginti marcis fateor 
me fore pacatum et dictos lohannem et socios suos quie^ 
tos per presentes. 

In cuius rei testimonium, presentibus sigillum meum 
apposui. Data apud Derb' die Veneris proximo post 
festum Sancti Michaelis Archangeli, anno regni Regis 
Edwardi tercii post conquestum vicesimo septimo. 

Similar writs as follows : no. 6, to William de Wakebrugg, 
12 May, 26th year ; Henry de la Pole, 12 July, 26th year ; en- 
rolled on Qose Rolls, ut supra, with slight differences of dates 
of the months; no. 4, to John Coke3m, 20 July, 27th year. 
Receipts from all the above. All these are the original docu- 
ments, consisting of small pieces of parchment fastened to- 
l^ether in one bundle. 



2/8 ♦ APPENDIX 

Memoranda Roll, L. T. R., no. 1 19. 

Adhuc breuia retomabilia de termino Sancti Michaelis 
anno xxviii<> Regis Edwardi tercii post conquestum. 

Bed' Rex dilectis et fidelibus suis lohanni Morice et lohanni 
Mareschal iusticiariis ad transgressiones et excessus 
operariorum, seruientum et artificum in comitatu Bed' 
puniendos assignatis, salutem. Mandamus vobis quod 
omnes extractas finium, exituum, amerciamentonun et 
excessuum coram vobis et sociis vestris adiudicatorum 
penes vos adhuc existentes et collectoribus primi et 
secundi anni solucionis xv et x® triennalium nobis a 
laicis anno regni nostri Anglie xxv*® concessartun in 
comitatu predicto nondum liberatas, dilectis nobis col- 
lectoribus tercii anni solucionis xv* et x* predictarum 
per indenturas inde debite conficiendas liberetis, vt ipsi 
coUectores tercii anni fines, exitus, amerciamenta et ex- 
cessus predictos in alleuiacionem communitatis dicti 
comitatus de solucione eiusdem tercii anni ad opus nos- 
trum leuare et super compotum suum inde nobis respon- 
dere [possint] iuxta formam concessionis nostre et sta- 
tuti inde editi et prouisi. Et partes indenturarum 
illarum penes vos remansuras post confeccionem earun- 
dem habeatis sine mittatis ad scaccarium nostrum apud 
Westmonasterium, a die Pasche in xv dies sub sigillis 
vestris vel vnius vestrum et hoc breve, vt per partes 
illas per vos sic mittendas et liberandas dicti coUectores 
tercii anni super compotum suum de eodem tercio anno 
onerari valeant, prout decet. 

Teste G. de Wilford, apud Westmonasterium, ix die 
Decembris. 

Per Originalia de anno xxv**^ quoad commissionem 
iusticiariorum et formam concessionis et statuti predic- 
torum, et per barones. 

Memoranda Roll, K. R., no. 129. 

Breuia irretornabilia de termino Pasche anno xxvii^ 
Regis Edwardi tercii. 



DOCUMENTS, LISTS AND TABLES 279 * 

Warr' Rex collectoribus xv^ et x* triennalium nobis a laicis 
anno regni nostri Anglie xxv concessarum, secundo, 
videlicet, anno solucionis earundem in comitatu Warr', 
salutem. Cum Willelmus atte Spyne nuper vnus coUec- 
torum XV* et x® predictarum de primo, videlicet, anno 
solucionis earundem iam computauerit ad scaccaritun 
nostrum pro se et sociis suis nuper collectoribus ipsarum 
XV® et X® de finibus, excessubus, exitibus et amercia- 
mentis seruientum, operariorum et aliorum artificum per 
ipsum Willelmum leuatis per extractas inde ei per ius- 
ticiarios nostros ad transgressiones et excessus huius- 
modi seruientum, operariorum et artifictmi in dicto comi- 
tatu puniendos assignatos,^ per quem compotum idem 
Willelmus cognoscit se habere in custodia sua xxv s. 
iam levatos de finibus, excessubus, exitibus et amercia- 
mentis predictis et quod Ixii li. xv s. vi d. adhuc debentur 
per extractas predictas, ac iniunxerimus eidem Willelmo 
quod predictos xxv s. vobis soluat per indenturam indi- 
late pro distribucione inde facienda inter villatas dicti 
comitatus per pesilenciam et paupertatem magis depres- 
sas, iuxta concessionem et ordinacionem nostras in vltimo 
parliamento nostro factas, vobis mandamus quod eosdem 
xxv s. a prefato Willelmo in forma predicta recipiatis 
et eos fideliter distribuatis, indeque nobis respondeatis 
in exoneracionem communitatis dicti comitatus, iuxta 
formam concessionis et ordinacionis predictarum, mitti- 
mus eciam vobis quatuor cedulas presentibus tachiatas 
nomina predictos Ixxii * li. xv s. vi d. adhuc debencium 
continentes, mandantes quod eosdem Ixii li. xv s. vi d. 
de terris et catallis eorundem debitorum et plegiorum 
eorundem proporcionaliter, prout debentur in eisdem 
ceduHs, leuari et distribui faciatis, indeque necnon de 
predictis xxv s. respondeatis in forma predicta super 
compotum vestrum in proximo reddendum de secundo, 
videlicet, anno solucionis xv* et x« predictarum. Et 

^MS. assignatas. 'Clearly an error for Ixii. 



28o * APPENDIX 

habeatis ibi tunc alteram partem dicte indenture penes 
vos remansuram, dictas quatuor cedulas et hoc breue. 

Teste G. de Wylford, apud Westmonasterium, vii* 
die Maii. 

Per rotulum Memorandorum de eodem anno xxvii^> 
Pasche; Visus compotorum. 

Memoranda Roll, L. T. R., no. 120. 

Adhuc Breuia retomabilia de termino Sancti Hillarii, 
anno xxix Regis Edwardi tercii post conquestum. 

Norff' 

Rex dilectis sibi Hugoni Peuerell, Edmundo de Reynham et 
Roberto atte Park, coUectoribus xv® et x* triennalium nobis a 
laicis anno regni nostri Anglie xxv^<> concessarum in comitatu 
Norff', videlicet, de tercio anno solucionis eartmdem, salutem. 
Mandamus vobis firmiter iniungentes quod omnes fines, exitus, 
amerciamenta et excessus per vos leuatos seu leuandos per ex- 
tractas vobis liberatas de tempore ante festum Sancti Michaelis 
proxime preteritum distribui et allocari faciatis pauperibus 
villatis dicti comitatus et vadia iusticiariorum huiusmodi opera- 
riorum inde soluatis iuxta formam statuti inde editi et manda- 
torum nostrorum vobis inde directorum, per visum et testi- 
monium lohannis de Berneye quem ad vos ea de causa duximus 
transmittendum ne per vestri defectum seu necligenciam in hac 
parte querimonia ad nos perueniat iterata, per quod ad vos 
grauiter capere debeamus. Et quid inde feceritis thesaurario et 
baronibus de scaccario nostro apud Westmonasterium in octabis 
Purificacionis beate Marie distincte et aperte constare faciatis. 

Teste G. de Wilford, xxiii die lanuarii. 

Per thesaurarium et barones ac alios de consilio. 

Memoranda Roll, L. T. R., no. 123. 

Adhuc Communia de termino Sancti Michaelis anno 
xxxii^ Regis Edwardi tercii a conquestu. Adhuc Recorda, 
rot. 21 d. 



DOCUMENTS, LISTS AND TABLES 281 * 

Derb' De Henrico de la Pole et aliis iusticiariis at- 
tachiatis pro liberacione extractarum. 
Comperto in Originalibus de anno xxv^ Regis nunc quod 
Rex per literas suas patentes datas xv die Marcii eodem anno, 
assignauit lohannem de Grey de Codenore, Hugonem de Mey- 
nill, Nicholaum de Langeford, Willelmum de Skypwyth, lohan- 
nem de Moubray, Rogerum Michel de Breydeston, lohannem 
Cokayn et Thomam Adam de Assheburn ad pacem et statuta 
apud Wyntoniam et Norhamptoniam pro conseruacione pacis 
eiusdem edita in omnibus et singulis articulis suis in comitatu 
Derb' custodienda et custodiri facienda et eciam ad ordina-, 
clones de operatoribus per Regem et consilium suum pro com- 
muni vtilitate regni tam in consilio Regis quam in vltimo par- 
liamento apud Westmonasterium tentis factas in omnibus et 
singulis suis articulis in comitatu predicto infra libertates et 
extra custodiendas et custodiri faciendas et ad omnes illos quos 
contra formam earundem inuenirent in aliquo delinquentes 
castigandos et puniendos prout secundum formam earundem 
foret faciendum, et ad ordinandum, superuidendum et facien- 
dum quod omnes et singuli articuli in dictis ordinacionibus con- 
tenti in comitatu predicto infra libertates et extra debite exc- 
cucioni demandarentur ; et quod postmodum, videlicet, xx die 
lulii proxime sequente, Willelmus de Wakebrugg et Henricus 
de la Pole et eorum alter associati fuerunt dicto lohanni de 
Grey et sociis suis predictis et eorum cuilibet ad premissa 
omnia et singula in eodem comitatu facienda et explenda in 
forma predicta; preceptum fuit vicecomiti dicti comitatus 
quod distringeret predictos lohannem de Grey, Hugonem de 
Meynill et executores testamenti predicti Nicholai de Lange- 
ford, Willelmum de Skypwyth, lohannem de Moubray, Rog- 
erum Michel, lohannem Cokayn, Thomam Adam, Willelmum 
de Wakebrugg et Henricum de la Pole per terras etc.; ita 
quod haberet corpora eorum hie modo in crastino Sancti 
Michaelis ad liberandum hie extractas de finibus, exitibus, 
amerciamentis et excessubus coram eisdem iusticiariis Regi 
adiudicatis in sessionibus per ipsos factis pretextu literarum 
predictarum. 



282 * APPENDIX 

Et ad predictum crastinum dictus vicecomes retomauit breue 
quoad predictum lohannem de Grey et executores testamenti 
predict! Nicholai de Langeford et mandauit quod predictus 
lohannes de Grey et Alicia que fuit vxor predicti Nicholai et 
Nicholaus de Langeford, lunior, executores testamenti predicti 
Nicholai, districti sunt et exitus etc. Et prefatus lohannes de 
Grey per lohannem de Wodehous et predicti Alicia et Nicho- 
laus, executores etc., per lohannem de Edenesouere attomatos 
suos veniunt. Et idem lohannes de Grey pro se dicit quod 
dicte litere patentes ad manus suas nunquam deuenerunt nee 
ipse de aliqua sessione pretextu literarum illarum in dicto comi- 
tatu Derb' se intromisit, nee alique extracte penes ipsum rema- 
nent. Et hoc pretendit verificare etc. Et predicti Alicia et 
Nicholaus, executores etc., dicunt quod dicte litere patentes 
nunquam deuenerunt ad manus predicti Nicholai nee ipse ali- 
quam sessionem fecit aut se inde in aliquo intromisit nee alique 
extracte penes ipsum remanserunt. Et hoc pretendunt similiter 
verificare etc. Et quoad predictos Hugonem de Menyl, Willel- 
mum de Skypwyth, lohannem Moubray, Rogerum Michel, lo- 
hannem Q)kayn, Thomam Adam, Willelmum Wakebrugg et 
Henricum de la Pole, vicecomes non retomauit breue. Set 
prefatus Henricus de la Pole, inuentus hie in curia et super 
premissis allocutus, recordatur quod ipse intromisit se de ses- 
sione predicta et quod nuUe extracte inde penes ipsum rema- 
nent, set quod omnes extracte de sessionibus illis remanent 
penes predictum Hugonem de Menyll. Predictique Willelmus 
de Skypwyth, lohannes de Moubray, Willelmus de Wakebrugg, 
inuenti in curia et super premissis allocuti, recordantur quod in 
nullo se intromiserunt se sessione predicte iusticiarie nee alique 
extracte inde remanent penes ipsos Willelmum, lohannem et 
Willelmum. Ideo tam ipsi Willelmus de Sk)^wyth, lohannes 
de Moubray et Willelmus de Wakebrugg quam predictus Hen- 
ricus de la Pole inde ad presens sine die. Et quoad predictos 
Hugonem de Meynill, Rogerum Michel, lohannem Cokayn et 
Thomam Adam, preceptum est vicecomiti Derb' quod distringat 
eos per terras etc. ; ita etc. in octabis Sancti Hillarii ad liberan- 



DOCUMENTS, LISTS AND TABLES 283 * 

dum extractas etc. Et idem dies datus est predictis lohanni de 
Grey de Codenouere, Alicie et Nicholao de Langford, execu- 
toribus etc., ad faciendum quod etc. 

Ad quern diem predicti lohannes de Grey de Codenore, 
Alicia et Nicholaus de Langeford, executores etc., veniunt per 
dictos attornatos suos.^ Et vicecomes retomauit quod predicti 
Hugo de Meignill, Rogerus Michel, lohannes Cokeyn et 
Thomas Adam districti sunt et exitus etc. Et ipsi non veniunt. 
Ideo sicut alias, ita etc. in crastino Clausi Pasche. Et idem 
dies datus est predictis lohanni de Grey, Alicie et Nicholao ad 
faciendum quod etc. Ad quem diem predicti lohannes de Grey 
de Codenore, Alicia et Nicholaus de Langeford, executores etc., 
veniunt per dictos attornatos suos. Et vicecomes non retor- 
nauit breue quoad predictos Hugonem de Me)aiill, Rogerum 
Michel, loRannem Cokayn et Thomam Adam. Set predictus 
Hugo de Meignill venit per Robertum de Sekyndon, attornatum 
suum, et dicit quod qualitercumque dictus Henricus de la Pole 
recordatus fuerit quod nulle extracte de sessione iusticiarie pre- 
dicte facta dictis annis xxv^ et xxvi*^ remanent penes ipsum 
Henricum et quod omnes extracte ille remanent penes eundem 
Hugonem de Meignill, idem tamen Hugo dicit quod nulle ex- 
tracte inde remanent penes ipsum Hugonem. Set quod eedem 
extracte de predictis annis xxv*® et xxvi*® integre remanserunt 
et adhuc remanent penes dictum Henricum de la Pole, petens 
pro Rege quod idem Henricus veniat hie ad liberandum ex- 
tractas illas. 

Et facto scrutinio super liberacione extractarum de huius- 
modi finibus operariorum facta per iusticiarios inde in dicto 
comitatu Derb' a tempore quo primo assignati fuerunt ad 
transgressiones et excessus operariorum puniendos, videlicet, a 
supradicto xv^ die Marcii anno xxv*^ et deinceps, non est com- 
pertum quod alique huiusmodi extracte liberantur per dictos 
iusticiarios de tempore, videlicet, inter dictum xv diem Marcii 
anno xxv*® et festum Sancti Michaelis anno xxviii**. Comper- 
tum est tamen in rotulo compotorum de taxacionibus, in com- 

'MS. suum. 



284 * APPENDIX 

poto, videlicet, lohannis de Greseley et sociorum suorum coUec- 
torum XV® et x® triennaiium Regi anno xxv^ concessarum in 
dicto comitatu Derb', de secundo, videlicet, anno solucionis 
earundem, quod iidem coUectores onerant se et respondent de 
Ixi li. xiiii s. xi d. de finibus operariorum etc. quos computant 
liberasse diuersis villatis et burgis dicti comitatus in subuen- 
cionem xv et x predictarum, videlicet, per vii rotulos et vnam 
cedulam indentatos eisdem collectoribus per dictos iusticiarios 
liberatos et continentes ci li. xiiii s. xi d., videlicet, de sessione 
dictorum iusticiarionim de predictis annis xxvi et xxvii®; de 
qua liberacione predictorum Ixi li. xiiii s. xi d. ipsi coUectores 
liberarunt curie ccxvi indenturas inter ipsos coUectores ex parte 
vna et subcoUectores suos ex altera confectas. Residuum vero 
dictorum ci li. xiiii s. xi d. ipsi coUectores computant se liber- 
asse prefatis Hugoni de Meynill, lohanni Cokayn, WiUelmo de 
Wakebrugg et Henrico de la Pole, iusticiariis, pro vadiis suis 
sicut continetur in compoto ipsorum coUectorum de finibus pre- 
dictis etc. per ipsos coUectores leuatis per vii rotulos et vnam 
cedulam indentatos supradictos eisdem collectoribus per dictos 
iusticiarios liberatos de sessione sua de predictis annis xxvi et 
xxvii^; qui quidem compotus residet in custodia ingrossatoris 
hie in scaccario. Set non inuenitur penes scaccarium hie quod 
dicti iusticiarii liberarunt hie iuxta formam statuti etc. aliquod 
Originale de predictis finibus continens predictos ci li. xiiii s. 
xi d. de eisdem annis xxvi^ et xxvii*^ neque de aliquibus huius- 
modi finibus operariorum de supradicto anno xxv*®. Ideo pre- 
ceptum est vicecomiti Derb* quod distringat predictum Henri- 
cum de la Pole, Rogerum Michel, lohannem Cokayn et Tho- 
mam Adam per terras etc., ita etc. in crastino Sancte Trinitatis, 
ad liberandum extractas de predictis annis xxv*<*, xxvi^ et 
xxvii**. Et idem dies datus est prefatis lohanni de Grey, Hu- 
goni de MeignUl, Alicie et Nicholao de Langeford ad facien- 
dum et recipiendum inde quod etc. 

Ad quem diem predicti lohannes de Grey, Hugo de MeignUl, 
Alicia et Nicholaus de Langeford veniunt per dictos attornatos 
suos et per defaltam predictorum Henrici de la Pole, Rpgeri 



DOCUMENTS, LISTS AND TABLES 285 * 

Michel, lohannis Cokayn et Thome Adam versus quos fit exe- 
cucio vt prius, adiomantur vlterius vsque crastinum Sancti 
Michaelis. 

Ad quem diem predict! lohannes de Grey, Hugo, Alicia et 
Nicholaus veniunt per dictos attornatos suos. Et vicecomes 
Derb' retornauit quod predicti Henricus de la Pole, Rogerus 
Michel, lohannes Cokayn et Thomas Adam districti sunt et 
exitus etc. Et ipsi non veniunt. Ideo distringantur sicut plu- 
ries, ita etc. in crastino Sancti Hillarii. Et idem dies datus est 
prefatis lohanni de Grey, Hugoni, Alicie et Nicholao ad facien- 
dum et recipiendum inde quod etc. 

Ad quem diem predicti lohannes de Grey, Hugo de Meignill, 
Alicia et Nicholaus de Langeford veniunt per dictos attornatos 
suos. Et predicti Henricus de la Pole et Rogerus Michel veni- 
unt in propriis personis suis. Et predicti lohannes Cokayn et 
Thomas Adam non veniunt. Et predicti lohannes de Grey, 
Hugo de Meignill, Alicia et Nicholaus pro se ipsis dicunt vt 
prius. Et predicti Henricus de la Pole et Rogerus Michel pro 
se ipsis dicunt quod non habent penes se aliquas extractas de 
predictis annis xxv, xxvi et xxvii**. Dicunt enim quod non 
fuerunt alique extracte prouenientes de sessione sua dicte ius- 
ticiarie de predicto anno xxv*® et quod alie partes dictorum vii 
rotulorum et vnius cedule indentatorum de extractis de predictis 
annis xxvi*** et xxvii® deuenerunt in custodiam lohannis Beek, 
clerici sui, et postmodum casualiter sunt deperdite vt intelli- 
gunt. Set dicunt sub omni periculo quod etc. quod dicte partes 
vii rotulorum et vnius cedule indentate sic deperdite non con- 
tinebant maiorem summam denariorum quam predictos ci li. 
xiiii s. xi d. contentos in dictis vii rotulis et vna cedula inden- 
tatis per dictos collectores xv® et x® hie ad scaccarium liberatis. 
Super quo, dictum est eisdem Henrico et Rogero quod diligen- 
cius scrutari faciant dictas vii partes rotulorum et cedule in- 
dentatorum, ita quod eas habeant hie a die Pasche in unum 
mensem liberandas etc. et quod tunc sint hie ad audiendum et 
recipiendum quod etc. quoad extractas de predicto anno xxv***. 
Et preceptum est vicecomiti quod distringat predictos lohan- 



286 * APPENDIX 

nem Cokayn et Thomam Adam per terras etc. ita etc. ad dic- 
tum mensem. Et idem dies datus est predictis lohanni de Grey, 
Hugoni, Alicie et Nicholao ad recipiendum quod etc. 

Ad quem diem predicti lohannes de Grey, Hugo, Alicia et 
Nichplaus veniunt per dictos attornatos suos. Et vicecomes 
retornauit breue et mandauit quod predicti lohannes Cokayn et 
Thomas Adam districti sunt et exitus etc. Et idem lohannes 
Cokayn venit in propria persona sua et cognoscit quod ipse in- 
tromisit de quibusdam sessionibus, set dicit quod nulle extracte 
penes ipsum remanent nee alique extracte ad manus ipsius 
lohannis vnquam deuenerunt, et quia idem lohannes assignatus 
fuit iusticiarius et premissa recordatur, dictum est ei quod eat 
ad presens inde sine die, salua accione Regis si alias etc. Et 
prefatus Thomas Adam non venit. Ideo distringatur ita etc. 
in crastino Sancte Trinitatis sicut continetur in ligea breuium 
de termino Pasche anno xxxiii*^. Et idem dies datus est pre- 
fatis lohanni de Grey, Hugoni, Alicie, Nicholao et Henrico de 
la Pole et Rogero ad recipiendum super premissis quod etc. 

Ad quem diem dicti lohannes de Grey, Hugo, Alicia et 
Nicholaus et Rogerus Michel veniunt per dictos attornatos suos. 
Et prefatus Henricus de la Pole venit similiter in propria per- 
sona sua. Et vicecomes non retornauit breue quoad prefatimi 
Thomam Adam. Ideo sicut pluries, ita in crastino Sancti 
Michaelis. Et idem dies datus est prefatis lohanni de Grey, 
Hugoni, Alicie et Nicholao et Rogero et Henrico ad recipiendum 
inde quod etc. Ad quem diem predictus Henricus de la Pol^ 
in propria persona sua et predicti lohannes de Grey, Hugo, 
Alicia et Nicholaus, Rogerus et Henricus veniunt similiter per 
dictos attornatos suos. Et idem Henricus de la Pole liberauit 
hie Originale dictorum finium operariorum de predictis annis 
XXV***, xxvi^ et xxvii® continens viii rotulos; qui examinati 
cum dictis vii rotulis et dicta cedula indentatis concordant in 
nominibus et summis particularibus necnon predicta summa 
totali predictorum ci li. xiiii s. xi d. ; per quos quidem rotulos 
et cedulam dicti collectores xv« in comitatu Derb' computarunt 
et onerantur, responderuntque et satisfecerunt de eisdem ci li. 



DOCUMENTS, LISTS AND TABLES 287 * 

xiiii s. xi d., sicut continetur in rotulo compotorum de taxa- 
cionibus. Ideo non fiat execucio per dictum Originale iam 
liberatum hie per dictum Hem-icum de la Pole ; set idem Orig- 
inale consignetur cum litera D nominatim prout dicti rotuli in- 
dentati et cedula consignanttu* et remaneat in custodia clerici 
extractarum custodiendum prout etc. Et dictum est tam eis- 
dem Henrico quam dictis lohanni de Grey, Hugoni, Alicie, 
Nicholao et Rogero quod inde eant sine die, nee fiat vlterior 
execucio versus pref atum Thomam Adam inde. 

Memoranda Roll, L. T. R., no. 120. 

Adhuc Communia de termino Sancti Michaelis anno 
xxix Regis Edwardi tercii. 

Adhuc Presentaciones, Attornamenta, Dies Dati et Re- 
spectus ; rot. 7 d. 

Bed' Willelmus Mordaunt, Robertus Diper et Simon de 

De die Loryng, coUectores tercii anni solucionis xv® et x* tri- 
dato. ennalium Regi a laicis anno xxy concessarum in comi- 
tatu Bed', qui presentes hie admiserunt diem essendi 
hie in crastino Purificacionis beate Marie proxime 
futuro ad computandum de tercio anno predicto, sicut 
continetur inter Dies Datos de hoe termino ex parte 
alterius rememoratoris, allocuti sunt per barones super 
leuacione finium, excessuum, exituum et amerciamen- 
torum operariorum, seruientum et artificum etc., [et] 
dicunt quod nichil inde leuauerunt eo quod nuUas ex- 
tractas inde receperunt, petentes quod demandetur Gal- 
frido de Lucy et sociis suis iusticiariis ad transgres- 
siones huiusmodi operariorum etc. pro deliberacione 
extractarum etc. Ideo mandatum est eisdem iusticia- 
riis per breue, cuius data est secundo die Nouembris 
hoc termino, quod omnes extractas penes ipsos iusticia- 
rios adhuc remanentes de huiusmodi finibus etc. liber- 
ent predictis coUectoribus per indenturam etc. et partem 
indenture illius habeant hie ad dictum crastinum Puri- 



288 * APPENDIX 

ficacionis liberandam vt per eandem partem dicti col- 
lectores onerentur super compotum prout etc. Quod 
quidem breue liberatur dictis coUectoribus iiii*® die 
Nouembris hoc termino deferendum etc. Et iniunctum 
est eisdem coUectoribus quod sequantur cum ea celeri- 
tate qua etc. penes dictos iusticiarios pro dictis extractis 
habendis et quod habitis extractis iilis leuari faciant 
omnes denarios contentos in eisdem, eosdemque dena- 
rios iideliter distribuant inter pauperes villatas dicti 
comitatus et quod sint hie ad dictum crastinum Purifi- 
cacionis ad computandum inde prout etc. quern diem 
inde admiserunt sub periculo quod etc. 

Ad quem diem predicti collectores venerunt. Et pre- 
dictus Galfridus de Lucy, iusticiarius, venit et liberauit 
hie X rotulos indentatos de huiusmodi finibus operari- 
orum, continentes Ixxiii li. iiii s. viii d. ; quorum rotu- 
lorum alteram partem indentatam recordatur idem ius- 
ticiarius se liberasse pref atis coUectoribus circiter festum 
Sancte Trinitatis anno xxviii**; super quo dicti collec- 
tores allocuti cognoscunt quod receperunt alteram partem 
indenture predicte et se leuasse pro maiori parte predic- 
tos Ixxiii li. iiii s. viii d. et eos distribuerunt inter pau- 
peres villatas dicti comitatus iuxta formam statuti etc. 
ante festum, videlicet, Sancti Michaelis proxime jM-e- 
teritum quod dictus iusticiarius est testatus. Et quia in 
statuto edito super punicione huiusmodi operariorum 
inter cetera continetur quod si dicti fines, redempciones, 
amerciamenta et excessus operariorum non soluantur 
in auxilium xv* predicte et cessante xv* lUa id quod 
tunc restat leuandum de huiusmodi finibus etc. leuetur 
ad opus Regis et inde respondeatur Regi per vicecomi- 
tem comitatus in quo leuandum fuerit, iniunctum est 
prefatis coUectoribus quod id quod restat leuandum de 
predictis Ixxiii li. iiii s. viii d. leuari faciant indilate et 
inde respondeant Regi super compotum suum de finibus 
predictis; ad quem compotum Regi reddendum datus 



DOCUMENTS, LISTS AND TABLES 289 ♦ 

est dies dictis collectoribus hie a die Pasche in xv dies 
quern diem inde admiserunt sub periculo quod etc. Ad 
quern diem predict! Willelmus, Robertus et Simon 
venerunt et prestiterunt de fideliter computando etc. 
Postea percomputarunt ; qui quidem compotus liberatur 
ingrossatori custodiendus xxv*** die Aprilis hoc termino. 

J. Extracts from Memoranda Rolls. (Cf. pt. i, ch. iii, i, B, b.) 

Memoranda Roll, L. T. R., no. 119. 

Adhuc Communia de termino Sancti Michaelis anno 
xxviii® Regis Edwardi tercii ; adhuc Recorda, rot. 28. 

Suht' De collectoribus xv* et x* commissis prisone pro 
transgressionibus. 

Preceptum fuit vicecomiti Suht* quod distringerel 
lohannem Botiller, lohannem Wodelok, Stephanum de 
Welewyk, lohannem Sely de Andeure, lohannem de 
Kyngeston et Willelmum de Ryngeburn, collectores 
secundi anni solucionis xv® et x® triennalium Regi a 
laicis anno xxv*^ concessarum in comitatu predicto, 
per terras et catalla sua etc., ita quod haberet corpora 
eorum hie modo a die Sancti Martini in xv dies ad 
reddendum Regi compotum de finibus, exitibus, amer- 
ciamentis et excessubus operariorum, seruiencium et 
artiiicum per ipsos collectores leuatis per extractas eis 
liberatas per iusticiarios ad transgressiones et excessus 
huiusmodi operariorum, seruiencium et artificum puni- 
endos assignatos in comitatu predicto, pretextu, vide- 
licet, cuiusdam commissionis de magno sigillo dictis 
collectoribus inde facte, cuius tenor annotatur in quo- 
dam rotulo extracto de rotulis Cancellarie de anno 
xxvii** et liberato hie, qui adhuc remanet in custodia 
rememoratoris Regis. Et ad dictam quindenam Sancti 
Martini predictus vicecomes non retornat breue. Set 
omnes dicti collectores veniunt, videlicet, predicti Jo- 
hannes Botiller, Johannes Wodelok, Stephanus de 



290 * APPENDIX 

Welewyk et lohannes Sely in propriis personis sais et 
predict! lohannes de Kyngeston et Willelmus de Rynge- 
burn per lohannem de Holt, attornatum suum, et dicunt 
quod in premissis computare non debent. Dicunt enim 
quod predicti iusticiarii nondum liberarunt eis aliquas 
extractas pro huiusmodi finibus, exitibus, amercia- 
mentis et excessubus leuandis nee ipsi coUectorcs vel 
eorum aliquis quicquam inde leuauerunt aut se inde 
aliqualiter intromiserunt. Set quia suspicato quod pre- 
dicti collectores receperunt extractas predictas et eas 
concellarunt etc., ipsi collectores de precepto curie iurati 
et postmodum diligencius examinati super recepcione 
earundem extractarum, predictus lohannes Botiller 
cognouit quod ipse recepit ex liberacione Willelmi 
GDumfold, clerici dictorum iusticiariorum, quandam 
extractam continentem circiter xl li. et quod dicti socii 
sui, videlicet, lohannes Wodelok, Stephanus et lohan- 
nes Sely inde bonam habent noticiam, quod ipsi lohan- 
nes, Stephanus et lohannes Sely non dedicunt asse- 
rentes onines ipsi iiii®"* collectores se quicquam inde 
nondum leuasse nee predictos lohannem de Kyngeston 
et Willelmum de Ryngbourn qui intromiserunt se de 
colleccione xv* et x« predictarum in Insula Vecta in 
nullo sciuisse vel se intromisisse de leuacione finium, 
exituum, amerciamentorum et excessuum predictorum, 
eo quod predicti iusticiarii nuUam fecerunt sessionem 
in insula predicta. Et vnde Ricardus de Byrton qui est 
vnus dictorum iusticiariorum per commissionem Regis 
irrotulatam in Originalibus de predicto anno xxv*® et 
predictus Willelmus Coumfeld, clericus ipsius iusticiarii, 
et Willelmi de Fifhyde, alterius dictorum iusticia- 
riorum, presentes hie in curia et super premissis allo- 
cuti dicunt precise quod nullam fecerunt sessionem in 
dicta Insula Vecta et quod idem Willelmus Fifhyde 
per manus dicti clerici liberauit dictis collectoribus ex- 
tractas de sessione sua quas tunc habuerunt arraiatas^ 



DOCUMENTS, LISTS AND TABLES 291 * 

set de summa denariorum contentorum in eisdem 
dicunt quod non constat eis ad presens. 

Et habita deliberacione super response ipsorum col- 
lectorum quia ipsi coUectores primo responderunt quod 
nuUas extractas receperunt et postmodum iurati tarn per 
cognicionem suam quam per testimonium dictorum ius- 
ticiariorum et clerici conuicti sunt quod receperunt ex- 
tractas predictas sicque variarunt in eisdem responsis et 
cognicionibus suis in illusionem et decepcionem curie ac 
retardacionem solucionis finium etc. predictorum, nec- 
non depauperacionem communitatis dicti comitatus, 
consideratum est quod ipsi coUectores adeant prisonam. 
Flete * Et committuntur prisone de Flete, predictique lohannes 
de Kyngeston et Willelmus de Ryngebum inde eant sine 
die. Postea predicti iiii^^"^ coUectores fecerunt fines cum 
Finis Rege pro transgressionibus predictis, videlicet, predicti 
XXX s. lohannes Wodelok, Stephanus et lohannes Sely per 
in ex- XXX s., quilibet, videlicet, eorum per x s., et predictus 
tractis. lohannes Botiller per dimidiam marcam et eo minus 
quam dicti socii sui eo quod primo cognouit recep- 
Finis cionem extractarum contra voluntatem dictorum soci- 
dimidia orum suorum vt apparuit per examinacionem predic- 
marca tam. Et datus est dies eisdem im?^ coUectoribus hie a 
in ex- die Sancti Hillarii in xv dies ad computandum de iin- 
tractis. ibus, exitibus, amerciamentis et excessubus predictis 
per dictas extractas per eos iam receptas et interim re- 
cipiendas et ad soluendum Regi predictos xxxvi s. 
viii d. Et iniunctum est prefato iusticiario, manda- 
tumque est per breue tam eidem iusticiario quam dicto 
Willelmo de Fifhyde alteri dictorum iusticiariorum 
quod omnes extractas penes eos adhuc remanentes de 
sessionibus suis predictis nondum dictis coUectoribus 
liberatas, liberent eisdem iiii**' coUectoribus indilate per 
indenturam etc. vt ipsi coUectores fines etc. leuare et 
inde respondere valeant ad dictam quindenam iuxta 

'Crossed through in MS. 



292* APPENDIX 

formam concessionis R^^ et statuti inde editi etc et 
quod ipsi iusticiarii habeant vel mittant hie ad dictam 
quindenam alteras partes indenture etc., vt dicti collec- 
tores onerari valeant per easdem, prout etc. 

Quia eciam tarn predictus Ricardus de Byrtoo, iustici- 
arius quam predictus Willelmus de G)umfoldy clericus 
iusticiariorum, testati sunt quod predictus Willelmus de 
Fifhyde, vnus dictorum iusticiariorum, liberauit collec- 
toribus primi anni solucionis xv® et x^ predictarum di- 
uersas extractas de predictis sessionibus suis continentes 
magnam pecunie summam leuandam in exoneracionem 
dicte conununitatis et quod ipsi coUectores leuauerunt 
plures denarios inde, et penes se detinent nondum dis- 
tributos inter pauperes villatas dicti comitatus iuxta 
formam statuti predict!, visus est compotus ipsorum 
coUectorum primi anni et compertum est in eodem quod 
ipsi coUectores non responderunt de aliquibus denariis 
prouenientibus de finibus, exitibus et amerciamentis 
operariorum in comitatu predicto eo quod iusticiarii 
Regis ibidem nuUas extractas eisdem coUectoribus inde 
liberarunt, nee iidem coUectores inde quicquam leua- 
uerunt vt tunc asserebant per sacramentum suum. Et 
sic apparet concelamentum etc. Ideo coneordatum est 
quod ipsi coUectores primi anni, videlicet, Rogerus 
Gerueys, Ricardus de HamhuU et Willelmus Helioun 
veniant etc. Et preceptum est vicecomiti Suht* quod 
distringat eos per terras etc. ; ita etc. ad dictam quin* 
denam Sancti Hillarii ad computandum etc. et ad re- 
spondendum etc. Et mandatum est dictis iusticiariis 
quod habeant vel mittant hie ad eandem quindenam 
partes indenturarum de extractis eisdem coUectoribus 
primi anni sic liberatis vt onerari valeant per easdem 
partes indenturarum prout etc. et quod certificent hie 
quo die dictas extractas eis liberarunt Postea predict! 
coUectores secundi anni adiornantur vlterius vsque a 
die Sancte Trinitatis in xv dies ad computandum etc. 



DOCUMENTS, LISTS AND TABLES 293 ♦ 

quern diem habent ad computandum de xv^ sicut con- 
tinetur ex parte alterius rememoratoris. Et quoad 
predictos coUectores primi anni fit execucio vt prius, 
sicut continetur in ligea breuium de termino Pasche 
hoc anno, ita etc. ad dictam quindenam. 

Ad quern diem predicti collectores secundi anni vene- 
runt et computarunt de extractis predictis per quern 
compotum nichil debetur Regi sicut continetur in 
eodem compoto qui liberatur ad ingrossandum xxviii^ 
die lunii, hoc anno. Ideo, quoad ipsos non fiat vlterius 
execucio, set quoad collectores primi anni fit execucio 
vt prius. 

■ 

Memoranda Roll, L. T. R., no. 119. 

Adhuc Breuia retomabilia de termino Sancti Michaelis 
anno xxviii® Regis Edwardi tercii. 

Cant' Rex dilectis et fidelibus suis Willelmo de Lauenham 
et sociis suis iusticiariis ad transgressiones et excessus 
operariorum, seruiencium et artificum in comitatu 
Cant' puniendos assignatis, salutem. Cum lohannes de 
Schardelowe, lohannes de EUesworth et lohannes 
Cheyni, nuper collectores primi anni solucionis xv® et 
x^ triennalium nobis a laicis anno regni nostri Anglie 
xxv*<> concessarum in comitatu predicto, computauerint 
ad scaccarium nostrum de primo anno solucionis xv* et 
X® predictarum et super eundem compotum non re- 
sponderint de aliqua pecunie summa per eos leuata de 
finibus, exitibus, amerciamentis et excessubus opera- 
riorum, seruiencium et artificum predictorum, eo quod 
nuUas extractas inde a vobis receperint pro leuacione 
prout tunc asserebant; ac iam acceperimus quod licet 
vos quasdam extractas diuersos fines, exitus, amercia- 
menta et excessus vsque ad non modicam pecunie 
summam contirientes prefatis collectoribus iuxta for- 
mam statuti inde editi a diu est liberaueritis ipsique 
collectores fines, exitus, amerciamenta et excessus illos 



1 



294 * APPENDIX 

plene leuauerint, iidem tamen coUectores denarios illos 
per eos sic leuatos sibi ipsis appropriantes et in vsibus 
suis propriis conuertentes eos in dicto compoto suo 
concelarunt et nobis inde in alleuiacionem et exonera- 
cionem communitatis ^ dicti comitatus iuxta formam 
concessionis nostre inde et statuti predicti nobis respon- 
dere recusarunt in curie nostre illusionem et dicte ccxn- 
munitatis depauperacionem manifestam. 

Super quo nobis est suppiicatum vt festinum reme- 
dium in hac parte apponi iubere velimus. Nos tantam 
transgressionem si taliter fuerit perpetrata pertransire 
nolentes impunitam, vobis mandamus iirmiter iniungen- 
tes quod si aliquas huiusmodi extractas pref atis collector- 
ibus liberaueritis tunc de numero rotulorum et summis 
particularibus in eisdem rotulis contentis ac nominibus 
summas illas singulatim debentibus, necnon de die et 
anno quibus extracte ille per vos dictis collectoribus 
liberate fuerunt, thesaurario et baronibus de scaccario 
predicto apud Westmonasterium citra crastinum Sancti 
Nicholai proxime futurum vel tunc ad vltimum, dis- 
tincte et aperte certificetis, vt habita huiusmodi certifi- 
cacione vestra vlterius tam pro commodo dicte com- 
munitatis comitatus quam pro punicione dictorum col* 
lectorum fieri valeamus quod fuerit racionis. Et si 
forte aliquas huiusmodi extractas prefatis collectoribus 
non liberaueritis, tunc omnes extractas finium, exituum, 
amerciamentorum et excessuum huiusmodi coram vobis 
in sessionibus vestris in exoneracionem dicte communi- 
tatis nobis adiudicatorum collectoribus tercii anni solu- 
cionis XV* et x® predictarum per indenturam inde iuxta 
formam dicti statuti conficiendam liberetis et alteras 
partes indenturarum illarum penes vos remansuras post 
confeccionem earundem mittatis ad dictum scaccarium 
nostrum statim post liberacionem inde predictam, vt 
per easdem partes indenturarum dicti collectores tercii 

^MS. communitatus. 



DOCUMENTS, LISTS AND TABLES 295 ♦ 

anni super compotum suum de eodem tercio anno in 
exoneracionem dicte communitatis onerari valeant vt 
est moris. Et quid inde feceritis prefatis thesaurario 
et baronibus ad dictum crastinum Sancti Nicholai dis- 
tincte et aperte reddatis cerciores, hoc breue tunc ibidem 
. remittentes. 

Teste G. de Wilford, apud Westmonasterium, xxii 
die Nouembris. 

. Per rotulum compotorum de taxacionibus quoad 
nomina predictorum collectorum et non responsum ali- 
cuius summe de finibus, exitibus, amerciamentis et ex- 
cessubus operariorum, et per Originalia de predicto 
anno xxv^^ quoad statutum et nomina iusticiariorum, 
et per barones quoad alia in breui. 

Memoranda Roll, L. T. R., no. 119. 

Adhuc Status et visus compotorum de termino Sancti 
Hillarii anno xxviii; rot. 10. 

•Cant' Audito compoto lohannis de Ellesworth et lohannis 

Cheyny, collectorum xv® et x^ triennalium in comitatu 
Cant' de finibus, exitibus et amerciamentis seruientum, 
operariorum et aliorum artificum in comitatu predicto 
per ipsos leuatis per extractas coram Willelmo de 
Lauenham et sociis suis iusticiariis ad inquirendtmi 
de huiusmodi finibus, exitibus et amerciamentis ser- 
uientum, operariorum et aliorum artificum assignatis 
anno xxvi*<> prefatis coUectoribus per prefatos iusticia- 
rios liberatas et de episcopo Eliensi per indenturam 
predictis coUectoribus liberatas per manus Ricardi de 
Midelton, persone ecclesie de Litlebury, pro se, lohan- 
nis de Conygdon, attornati lohannis de Shardelowe, 
alterius collectoris xv® et x« predictarum in comitatu 
predicto, videlicet, de predictis finibus, exitibus et 
amerciamentis sic leuatis et receptis per indenturam 
predictam a festo Sancti Michaelis, anno xxvi^ 
vsque idem festum anno xxvii^, habent superplusa- 
gium xvii d. 



296 * APPENDIX 

£t quia annotatur in rotulo compotorum de taxa- 
cionibus in compoto, videlicet, dictorum collectonun 
primi anni solucionis xv^ et x^ predictanim, quod in- 
fra summam ipsorum collectorum de eisdcm xv* et x® 
continentur cccvii li. xi s. vi d. de finibus, exitibus et 
amerciamentis seruientum et operariorum vnde dicti 
collectores liberarunt hie quendam rotulum de partic- 
ulis qui remanet in quadam baga in custodia huius 
rememoratoris ; in quo rotulo inseritur quod predict! 
collectores distribuerunt predictos cccvii li. xi s. vi d. 
particulariter inter villatas dicti comitatus, quarum 
villatarum nomina et summe inde singulis ipsarum 
villatarum distribute et allocate plenius annotantur in 
eodem rotulo ; et suspicatur quod eedem distribucio et 
allocacio rite non fuerint modo quo diqti collectores 
inde computarunt ; concordatum est quod inquiratur 
inde et quod lohannes de Blockeleye et Robertus de 
Charwelton assignentur ad dictam inquisicionem cap- 
Trans- iendam. Et fit eis inde commissio, mandatumque est 
scriptum eis quod inquirant ita quod inquisicionem inde habeant 
est inter hie a die Pasche in xv dies. Et transscriptum dicti 
billas rotuli mittitur sub pede sigilli huius scaccarii prefatis 
de hoc lohanni et Roberto pro informacione etc Et precep- 
termino. turn est vicecomiti quod ad certos dies et loca quos etc 
venire faciat coram eis xxiiii tales tarn milites quam 
alios probos etc. de singulis villatis predictis qui etc. 
et quod premuniri faciat predictos collectores quod 
capcionibus dictarum inquisicionum intersint si etc. 
Et quia per extractas predictorum iusticiariorum per 
quas dicti collectores computarunt, vt predictum est^ 
Ixxi li. xvii s. viii d. ob. de huiusmodi finibus etc 
adhuc restant leuandi in comitatu predicto sicut con- 
tinetur in eisdem extractis que remanent in custodia 
huius rememoratoris inter particulas compotorum dic- 
torum collectorum et de finibus predictis, nomina eos- 
dem Ixxi li. xvii s. viii d. ob. debencium et singulos 



DOCUMENTS, USTS AND TABLES 297 * 

eorum contingentes extrahuntur de extractis predictis 
per modum summonicionis innovate et mittuntur sub 
sigillo huius scaccarii coUectoribus tercii anni solu- 
cionis XV® et x® predictarum, cum quodam breui huius 
scaccarii per quod mandatum est eisdem coUectoribus 
quod predictos Ixxi li. xvii s. viii d. ob. leuari et dis- 
tribui faciant inter pauperes villatas dicti comitatus in 
auxilium solucionis xv® et x® predictarum, iuxta for- 
mam statuti etc., ita quod inde respondeant hie super 
compotum suum, sicut continetur alibi in hiis Memo- 
randis inter Breuia retornabilia de hoc termino.^ 

Postea, videlicet, ad dictam quindenam Pasche pre- 
dicti lohannes de Blockeleye et Robertus de Cherwal- 
ton non retornauerunt hie dictam commissionem. Ideo 
mandatum est eis sicut alias, ita etc. a die Sancti 
Michaelis in xv dies. 

Ad quem diem predict! lohannes de Blocleye et 
Robertus de Cherwalton non retornauerunt dictam 
commissionem. Ideo mandatum est eis sicut pluries, 
ita etc. a die Sancti Hillarii in xv dies. Ante quem 
diem, videlicet, xx<> die Nouembris anno xxix Regis 
nunc incipiente, predicti coUectores tercii anni solu- 
cionis XV* et X® predictarum, videlicet, lohannes de 
EUesworth, lohannes de Cheyny et lohannes de 
Lyouns veniunt, et quesito ab eis si receperint extrac- 
tas continentes predictos Ixxi li. xvii s. viii d. ob., 
dicunt quod non. Super quo, Gilbertus Bernard, vnus 
dictorum iusticiariorum in comitatu predicto, restituit 
hie summonicionem predictam ob certum defectum 
contentum in eadem.* Et eadem summonicio liber- 
atur prefatis coUectoribus tercii anni et iniunctum est 

* Cf. Mem. L. T. R., 28, Hill., Brcti. Ret.; Cant'. A writ to the col- 
lectors of the third year, signed by de Wilford, 3 March, referring to 
Visvs compotonim, Hill., 28th year, sends them the names of the delin- 
quents who owed Ixviii li. xv s. vii d. ob. 

'Perhaps the discrepancy in the amount; cf, note i, supra. 



298 * APPENDIX 

eis quod predictos Ixxi li. xvii s. viii d. leuari et dis- 
tribui faciant in forma predicta, ita quod inde re- 
spondeant hie super compotum suum proximum ad 
scaccarium de xv* et x* predictis in exoneracionem 
communitatis comitatus predicti, videlicet, in octabis 
Sancti Hillarii quern diem inde admiserunt sub pericub 
quod etc. Et quia dicti coUectores dicunt quod pre- 
fati iusticiarii adhuc habent penes se diuersas extrac- 
tas finium etc. nondum eisdem collectoribus liberatas, 
petentes deliberacionem inde sibi fieri, mandatum est 
prefatis iusticiariis per breue huius scaccarii cuius 
data est xx die Nouembris supradicto, quod omnes 
huiusmodi extractas penes ipsos iusticiarios adhuc re- 
manentes prefatis collectoribus tercii anni per inden- 
turam liberent indilate et quod partem indenture illius 
penes se remansuram habeant hie ad dictas octabas 
liberandam ; quod quidem breue liberatur prefatis col> 
lectoribus tercii anni deferendum sicut continetur in 
Memorandis de anno xxix9 inter Visus compotonun 
de termino Sancti Michaelis ^ vbi fit execucio vlterius 
inde, necnon de predicta summonicione continente 
Ixxi li. xvii s. viii d. Set postea, videlicet, ad dictam 
quindenam Sancti Hillarii predicti lohannes de Block- 
eleye et Robertus de Cherwalton non retomauerunt 
hie dictam commissionem. Ideo mandattun est eis 
sicut alias ; ita etc. a die Pasche in xv dies. Ad quern 
diem predicti lohannes de Blockele et Robertus de 
Charwalton non retomauerunt dictam commissionem. 
Ideo sicut pluries ...... 

^ Rot. 9 d, Cant': " . . . Et iniunctum est eisdem collectoribus quod 
tarn predictos Ixxi li. xvii s. viii d. ob. . . . quam denarios contentos 
in extractis per ipsos coUectores sic recipiendis leuari et fideliter distriboi 
faciant inter pauperes villatas dicti comitatus iuxta for mam statuti etc., 
ita quod inde respondeant hie ad dictas octabas Sancti Hillarii . . . ." 
The collectors of the third year finally account for all their arrears at a 
date not long after Hilary, agth year. 



DOCUMENTS, LISTS AND TABLES 



299* 



(For nine successive terms similar writs are issued 
without result.) 

,* > • • * • • • 
rot. ID d. Adhuc de processu tangente coUectores xv et x 
triennalium concessarum anno xxv^. 



Canf 

Trans- 

scriptum 

commis- 

sionis 

est inter 

billas de 

termino 

Trinita- 

tis anno 

xxxii. 



Postea quia predictus lohannes de Blockeleye 
moratur in obsequio Philippe Regine Anglie et vacare 
non potest capcioni inquisicionum predictarum, con* 
cordatum est quod Almaricus de Shirlond assignetur 
loco dicti lohannis ad dictas inquisiciones simul cum 
Roberto de Charwelton capiendas. Et fit eis inde 
commissio, mandatumque est eis quod inquiratur ita 
quod inquisiciones habeant in octabis Sancti Mich- 
aelis, videlicet, anno xxxii^ finiente. 

Ad quern diem predicti Robertus et Almaricus non 
retomauerunt commissionem predictam; ideo man- 
datum est eis sicut alias, ita etc. in octabis Sancti 
Michaelis anno xxxiii^' finiente. 

Ad quem diem predicti Robertus et Almaricus 
non certificarunt. Ideo mandatum sit eis sicut plu- 
ries, ita etc. a die Pasche in xv dies. Ad quem diem 
predicti Robertus et Almaricus non retomauerunt 
commissionem predictam. Ideo mandatum est eis 
sicut alias, ita etc. in octabis Sancti Michaelis anno 
xxxiiii*® finiente. 

Et continuato processu isto vsque a die Pasche in 
XV dies anno xxxvii<> Regis nunc, quo die predicti 
Almaricus et Robertus non certificarunt. Set com- 
perto in quodam statuto facto ad quindenam Sancti 
Michaelis anno xxxvi*® * Regis nunc quod irrotu- 
latur in Memorandis de dicto anno xxxvii® inter Re- 
corda de termino Sancti Hillarii quod idem Rex per 
assensum magnatum et tocius communitatis * An- 
glie ordinauit et concessit quod omnes denarii de 



^Statutes, 36 £dw. Ill, st. i, c. 14. 



'MS. communitattts. 



300 * APPENDIX 

finibus, amerciamentis et aliis proficuis laborariorum 
de predictis tribus annis tarn leuatis quam leuandis 
sint leuati ad opus communitatis comitatus predict! 
et distributi inter eandem communitatem, et quod 
collectores eorundem comitatuum non compellantur 
ad computandum coram baronibus de scaccario de 
recepcione denariorum predictorum ; ideo reuocetur 
cotnmissio predicta et non fiat vlterius execucio in 
premissis. 

Memoranda Roll, L. T. R., no. 122. 

Adhuc Communia de termino Pasche anno xxxi™<> Regis 
Edwardi tercii post conquestum. Adhuc Recorda ; rot. 6. 

Buk' De collectoribus xv^ et x* triennalium concessarum 

anno xxv^ commissis prisone pro concelamento. 

Memorandtun quod cum Galfridus de Lucy, vnus 
iusticiariorum ad transgressiones et excessus opera- 
riorum, seruientum et artificum in comitatu Buk' puni- 
endos iuxta formam statuti inde editi assignatorum» 
alias, videlicet, xxv*** die lanuarii anno xxviii** Regis 
nunc, liberauerit hie xii rotulos indentatos de iinibus, 
excessubus, exitibus et amerciamentis huiusmodi opera- 
riorum etc. coram ipso Galfrido et sociis suis iusticia- 
riis adiudicatis et recordatus fuerit quod liberauit con- 
traindenturas inde Thome de Reynes, lohanni de la 
Penne, Hugoni de Kynebell et lohanni de Bergh, col- 
lectoribus XV® et x« triennalitun Regi a laicis anno xxv^ 
in dicto comitatu Buk' concessarum, de tercio, videlicet, 
anno solucionis earundem, pro dictis finibus, excessu- 
bus, exitibus et amerciamentis inibi contentis leuandis in 
exoneracionem communitatis pauperum villatanun dicti 
comitatus de solucione xv® et x® predictarum ; qui qui- 
dem fines, excessus, exitus et amerciamenta ad cviii li. 
vi d. particularit^r se extendunt sicut continetur in xii 
rotulis predictis et in indorsamento eorundem, qui sunt 
in custodia huius rememoratoris, factum est scrutinium 



DOCUMENTS, LISTS AND TABLES 301 * 

super responsione dictoniin coUectorum de finibus, ex- 
cessubus, exitibus et amerciamentis predictis et com- 
pertum est quod dicti collectores termino Sancti Hillarii 
anno xxix^ computarunt ad scaccarium hie de xv* et x^ 
predictis de dicto tercio anno solucionis earundem sicut 
continetur in Memorandis de eodem anno xxix^ inter 
Visus compotorum de eodem termino. Compertum est 
eciam in rotulo compotorum de taxacionibus, in com- 
poto, videlicet, dictorum coUectorum de predicto tercio 
anno quod ipsi collectores non respondent in eodem 
compoto de aliquibus finibus operariorum etc. ob cau- 
sam annotatam in rotulo de particulis eiusdem compoti. 
Quibus quidem particulis residentibus in custodia re- 
memoratoris Regis inspectis, inuentum est annotari in 
eisdem quod dicti collectores non onerant se infra 
summas dictarum xv® et x« de aliquibus denariis pro- 
uenientibus de finibus, exitibus seu amerciamentis ser- 
uienttun, operariorum vel artificum in dicto comitatu 
Buk' eo quod iusticiarii ad hoc assignati sessionem 
suam adtunc non fecerunt in eodem comitatu super 
ordinacione et auisamento inter eos et alios de com- 
munitate eiusdem comitatus ad distribuendum particu- 
lariter per villatas comitatus et burgorum tocius comi- 
tatus predicti iuxta formam, vim et eifectum statuti 
inde editi in auxilium xv® et x® predictarum, vt ipsi 
collectores tunc per sacramentum suum asseruerunt. 
Et sic per scrutinium predictum euidenter apparet quod 
predicti collectores falso respondent super compotimi 
predictum contra debitum sacramenti sui et in decep- 
cionem curie maxime cum dictus iusticiarius recordatus 
fuerit, vt est dictum, quod liberauit dictis collectoribus 
rotulos predictos diu, videlicet, per vnum annum ante 
reddicionem compoti predicti, infra quod tempus dictam 
distribucionem fecisse potuerunt si voluissent; per 
quod pro eo quod dicti collectores pluries districti et 
manucapti et per huiusmodi districcionem et manucap- 



302* APPENDIX 

cionem iusticiari non curauerant ad computandum de 
predictis finibus et ad respondendum de falsa respon- 
sione predicta set compotum et responsionem inde 
diffugierunt in contemptum Regis etc., preceptum fuit 
vicecomiti dicti comitatus quod attacheret ipsos collec- 
tores per corpora etc., ita quod eos haberet hie mode 
a die Pasche in xv dies ad audiendum indicium suum 
de contemptu predicto, necnon ad computandum de 
predictis finibus etc. 

Et ad diem ilium predicti quatuor collectores veniunt 
et allocuti per barones super premissis non dedicunt 
quin receperunt de prefato iusticiario dictos rotulos de 
finibus etc. continentes cviii li. vi d. in forma per dic- 
tum iusticiarium superius recordata, nee quicquam 
allegarunt in excusacionem sui de falsa responsione 
predicta. Ideo ipsi quatuor collectores pro eadem falsa 
Flete responsione committuntur prisone de Flete, moraturi 
etc. Postea inuenerunt manucaptores, videlicet, Gal- 
fridum de Lucy, lohannem de Olneye, Willelmum de 
Sudbury, Radulfum Pettesho, omnes de comitatu Buk\ 
et Thomam de Sayton de comitatu Norht', qui presen- 
tes manuceperunt habere corpora predictorum quatuor 
collectorum hie de die in diem et termino in terminum 
quousque computauerint de finibus predictis et fecerint 
finem cum Rege pro falsa responsione predicta, necnon 
satisfecerint de arreragio eiusdem compoti et fine pre- 
dicto, alioquin ipsi manucaptores onerentur versus 
Regem de compoti arreragio et fine predictis. Et pre- 
textu manucapcionis illius, dicti \m^^ collectores dc- 
liberantur a prisona. 

Postea datus est dies dictis quatuor collectoribus hie 
in octabis Sancte Trinitatis ad computandum et finem 
faciendum, necnon ad satisfaciendum de arreragio dicti 
compoti et de fine predicto per manucapcionem predic- 
tam. Ad quem diem predicti iiii°^ collectores venerunt 
et computarunt de finibus predictis per quem compotum 



DOCUMENTS, LISTS AND TABLES 303 ♦ 

onerant se de Ix li. receptis de huiusmodi iinibus per 
dictas, videlicet, extractas continentes cviii li. vi d. De 
residue vero denariorum illorum, videlicet, Ixxvi li. v d* 
non responderunt eo quod nichil inde leuauerunt nee 
leuasse potuerunt propter breuitatem temporis, vt di- 
cunt per sacramentum suum et sicut continetur in dicto 
compoto qui remanet penes ingrossatorem ; per quod 
concordatum est quod extracte per quas dicti coUec- 
tores reddiderunt dictum compotum liberentur Wil- 
lelmo de Wellum, custodi extractarum hie in scaccario 
pro noua summonicione facienda de predictis Ixxvi li. 
v d. leuandis ad opus Regis. Et super hoc extracte 
predicte liberantur dicto Willelmo de Wellum in forma 
predicta quinto die lulii hoc anno. Et quoad predictas 
Ix li. iidem collectores computarunt se liberasse Gal- 
frido de Lucy et Thome de Tochewyk, iusticiariis etc., 
xl li. pro feodis suis per duo breuia Regis et duas 
acquietancias ipsorum iusticiariorum separatim de re- 
cepcione; post quam liberacionem dicti collectores de- 
bent XX li. quas quidem xx li. dicunt per sacramentum 
suum de assensu communitatis villatarum dicti comi- 
tatus quibus eas distribuisse debuerant soluisse Gerardo 
de Braibrok, Galfrido de Lucy, Alano Carbonel, lo- 
hanni de Hameden et Ricardo de Arches nomine re- 
gardi pro laboribus et expensis ipsorum Gerardi et 
sociorum suorum factis circa expedicionem negociorum 
ipsarum villatarum, sub tali, videlicet, condicione quod 
si contingeret ipsos collectores impetiri ad sectam Regis 
vel aliorum racione predictarum xx li., quod ipsi Gerar- 
dus et socii sui responderent inde pro ipsis collectoribus 
et in exoneracionem eorum. 

Vnde quesitum est a dictis collectoribus quibus die 
et anno communitas dictarum villatarum concessit et 
assentiuit quod solucio fieret dictis Gerardo et sociis 
suis de predictis xx li. et quibus die et annO' 
eedem xx li. solute fuerunt eisdem Gerardo et sociis 



304 * APPENDIX 

suis per ipsos coUectores, dicunt quod dicta com- 
munitas villatarum concessit et assensum prebuit anno 
xxvii® Regis nunc quod solucio sic fieret et quod 
solucio ilia facta fuit postmodum, videlicet, secundo die 
lanuarii anno xxviii® Regis nunc. Super quo, dicti 
Gerardus et lohannes de Hameden presentes hie coram 
baronibus et super premissis allocuti cognoscunt se vna 
cum predictis Galfrido de Lucy, Alano Carbonel et 
Ricardo de Arches recepisse de prefatis iiii®' coUector- 
ibus predictas xx li. dicto secundo die lanuarii anno 
xxviii^, modo quo ipsi collectores allegarunt, asserentes 
ipsi Gerardus et lohannes habere in partibus suis fac- 
tum ipsarum villatarum de concessione facta eisdem 
Gerardo et lohanni ac predictis Galfrido, Alano et Ri- 
cardo de eisdem xx li. Et habita deliberacione inde, 
quia predicti fines et excessus operariorum etc. concessi 
fuerunt communitati dicti comitatus in auxilium solu- 
cionis XV® et x® predictarum currentibus ipsis xv* et x* 
et terminus ^ solucionis ipsarum xv* et x® finiebatur et 
cessabat ad festum Sancti Michaelis proximum ante 
dictum secundum diem lanuarii anno xxviii^, sicut con- 
tinetur in rotulo de taxacionibus et in Memorandis de 
anno xxvi*^ inter Recorda de termino Sancte Trinitatis 
ex parte rememoratoris Regis et dicti collectores nichil 
ostendunt per quod liquere potest curie dictas villatas 
recepisse de ipsis collectoribus predictas xx li., ita quod 
eedem villate nichil aliud habuerunt inde tempore dicte 
concessionis per ipsas villatas inde facte nisi accionem 
petendi fines et excessus predictos, accioque aliena alicui 
dari vel vendi non potest, consideratum est quod pre- 
dicti collectores exonerentur versus Regem de predictis 
XX li. et quod predicti Gerardus et lohannes de Hame- 
XX li. den pro se et dictis sociis suis de eisdem xx li. one- 
In ex- rentur pretextu cognicionis sue predicte et aliorum pre- 
tractis. missorum quatenus sufficientes fuerint ad soludonem 

^MS. terminis. 



DOCUMENTS, LISTS AND TABLES 305 * 

etc. ; alioquin dicti collectores respondent vna etc. Et 
Finis pro dicta falsa responsione dicti collectores fecerunt 
xl s. finem cum Rege per xl s. Ad quos soluendos datus est 
In ex- eis dies in crastino Sancti Michaelis. Et preceptum 
tractis. est vicecomiti Buk' quod de terris et catallis predic- 
torum Gerardi et lohannis de Hameden fieri faciat, ita 
etc. in crastino Sancti Michaelis. 

Ante quern diem, videlicet, x die lulii hoc anno, pre- 
dictus Galfridus de Lucy, inuentus hie in curia et super 
recepcione predictarum xx li. de finibus operariorum 
etc. allocutus, cognoscit se vna cum prefatis Gerardo, 
lohanne de Hameden, Alano Carbonel et Ricardo de 
Arches recepisse de prefatis collectoribus predictas xx 
li. supradicto secundo die lanuarii anno xxviii^ modo 
quo dicti Gerardus et lohannes de Hameden superius 
cognouerunt. Ideo consideratum est quod idem Gal- 
fridus oneretur versus Regem simul cum eisdem Ger- 
ardo et lohanne de Hameden de eisdem xx li., pretextu 
cognicionis ipsius Galfridi supradicte. Et preceptum 
est vicecomiti Buk' quod fieri faciat easdem xx li. tam 
de eodem Galfrido quam de predictis Gerardo et lo- 
hanne, ita etc. ad dictum crastinum Sancti Michaelis. 

(Cf. Mem. L. T. R., 32, Mich., Status et visus com- 
potorum ; rot. 4 ; Bedf . and Bucks. 

Facto visu compoti lohannis de Hampden, vice- 
comitis, de vltimo dimidio anno xxxi^ oneratur per 
curiam de . . . et debet xx li. de precio catallorum 
Gerardi de Braybrok, lohannis de Hameden et Galfridi 
de Lucy per ipsum vicecomitem captorum in manum 
Regis pro tot denariis quos ipsi Gerardus, lohannes et 
Galfridus receperunt de Thoma de Reynes et sociis 
suis . . . .* 

^The sheriff was therefore levying a portion of this money on him- 
self; cf. pt. I, ch. i, s. 7. 



3o6 * APPENDIX 

Memoranda Roll, L. T. R., no. 122. 

Adhuc Communia de termino Sancte Trinitatis anno 
xxxi° Regis Edwardi tercii. Adhuc Recorda, rot. 5. 

Ebor' Westrith)nig. De lohanne de Rotherfeld et 
Willelmo de Beston collectoribus tercii anni solucionis 
XV® et X® commissis prisone pro falso compoto. 

lohannes de Buk3nigham, nuper thesaurarius garde — 
robe Regis, alias, videlicet, xv die Marcii anno xxx* 
Regis nunc, liberauit thesaurario et baronibus hie quan- 
dam billam quam dicit porrectam fuisse domino R^t 
et ipsum Regem per manus suas proprias earn sibi 
liberasse deferendam ad scaccarium hie precepisseque 
execucionem fieri super contentis in eadem billa que 
est inter billas et peticiones de termino Sancti Hillarii 
dicto anno xxx?. Et in qua billa inter cetera continetur 
quod Ricardus de Goldesburgh, lohannes de Rother- 
feld et Willelmus de Beston qui fuerunt collectores xv* 
et x« triennalium Regi a laicis anno xxv^ concessarum 
in partibus de Westrithyng in comitatu Ebor', vide- 
licet, de tercio anno solucionis earundem, integre re- 
ceperunt excessus operariorum in partibus illis et indc 
computarunt ad scaccarium quod soluerunt villatis par- 
cium illarum excessus illos in auxilium solucionis xv* 
et X® predictarum vbi nulltmi denarium inde eis sol- 
uerunt, prout apporcionacio inde facta fuit per iustida- 
rios etc. et sic excessus ille adhuc remanet in manibus 
ipsorum coUectorum dictis villatis inde nondum satis- 
facto. 

Pretextu cuius bille factum est scrutinium etc. et 
compertum est in rotulo compotorum de taxacionibus,. 
in compoto, videlicet, Ricardi de Goldesburgh, lohannis 
de Rotherfeld et Willelmi de Beston nuper coUectorum 
XV* et X* predictarum de tercio, videlicet, anno solucio- 
nis earundem, quod ipsi collectores onerarunt se et re- 
sponderunt infra summas oneris sui de eisdem xv* et x* 
de xlv li. xvii s. xi d. q*. de finibus, exitibus et amcr- 



DOCUMENTS, LISTS AND TABLES 307 * 

ciamentis et excessubus operariorum, seruientum et 
artificum etc. 

Compertum est eciam in Metnorandis de anno xxix^ 
Regis nunc inter Visus compotorum de termino Sancti 
Hillarii quod dicti tres coUectores venerunt hie ad quin- 
denam Pasche eodem anno xxix^ et computarunt de 
predictis finibus operariorum etc.; qui quidem com- 
potus remanet in custodia huius rememoratoris inter 
particulas dicti compoti et in quo compoto continetur 

quod ipsi collectores onerarunt se de iiii iiii li. iiii s. 
vii d. q*. receptis de huiusmodi iinibus etc. et quod inde 
computarunt se soluisse Willelmo de F)nicheden, Wil- 
lelmo de Mirifeld et lohanni de Northland, iusticiariis 
ad excessus dictorum operariorum etc. puniendos assig- 
natis, xxxviii li. viii d. proporcionaliter pro feodis suis 
et quod residui xlv li. xvii s. xi d. q^. distribuuntur 
inter villatas et hameletta de Westrithyng per visum 
dictorum iusticiariorum per ipsos collectores et per xii 
probos homines de comitatu predicto iuratos^ in auxil- 
ium dictarum xv et x vbi mains necesse erat; de qua 
distribucione ipsi collectores non ostenderunt acquietan- 
cias sine indenturas villatarum vel hamelettorum. 

Quibus compertis, quia per naturam compoti quelibet 
solucio denariorum fieri debet de iure per acquietancias 
vel per indenturas super huiusmodi compotis liberandas 
et allocandas, et dicta solucio sine distribucio de pre- 
dictis xlv li. xvii s. xi d. q*. fit sine huiusmodi acqui- 
etanciis vel indenturis, vt apparet per premissa, suspi- 
catur quod dicti collectores non soluerunt dictis villatis 
et hamelettis eosdem xlv li. xvii s. xi d. q*., modo quo 
computarunt etc., per quod et pro eo quod dicti duo 
collectores, videlicet, lohannes de Rotherfeld et Wil- 
lelmus de Beston pluries districti et manucapti veniendi 
hie ad plures dies preteritos ad recitandum compotum 
suum de finibus predictis etc. et per huiusmodi distric- 



jo8 * APPENDIX 

cionem et manucapcionem se iusticiari non curauerant^ 
preceptum fuit vicecomiti dicti comitatus quod attach- 
iaret ipsos lohannem et Wiilelmum per corpora eorum 
etc., ita quod eos haberet hie modo in crastino Sancti 
lohannis Baptiste ad audiendum iudicium etc et ad 
recitandum dictum cotnpotum etc., et quod interim 
caperet in manum Regis terras et catalla ipsorum 
duorum coUectorum nomine districcionis. Pro eo edam 
quod dictus vicecomes alias retomauerat quod predictus 
Ricardus de Goldesburgh nichil habet etc., preceptum 
fuit vicecomiti quod caperet ipsum Ricardum, ita etc, 
ad dictum crastintmi ad recitandum dicttun compotum, 
vna etc 

Et ad diem illtun vicecomes retomauit quod predicti 
tres coUectores non sunt inuenti etc. et quod cepit in 
manum Regis terras et catalla ipsorum lohannis et 
Willelmi quorum terrarum et catallorum valor patet in 
eodem returno; et iidem lohannes et Willelmus vene- 
runt et predictus Ricardus non venit et dicti lohannes 
et Willelmus super premissis allocuti dicunt quod de 
predictis xlv li. xvii s. xi d. q*. distribuerunt per 
superuisum dictorum iusticiariorum diuersis villatis de 
Westrith3mg Ixxi s. tantum ; de qua distribucione dicunt 
se non cepisse aliquas acquietancias vel indenturas de 
villatis quibus distribucio ilia fiebat preterquam de xv s. 
tantum, vnde ostendunt tres indenturas que sunt inter 
billas de hoc termino, set dicunt sub periculo quod 
etc quod iidem Ixxi s. fideliter distribuuntur iuxta 
formam ordinacionis predicte absque eo quod iidem 
Ixxi s., vel aliqua pars inde, remanent penes ipsos 
lohannem et Wiilelmum vel eorum alterum, et hoc 
pretendunt verificare. 

Dicunt eciam quod xxii li. xvii s. ii d. de summa pre- 
dicta adhuc remanent penes dictum Ricardum de 
Goldesburgh nondum distributi absque eo quod iidem 
xxii li. xvii s. ii d. vel quicquam inde aliqualiter deuenit 



DOCUMENTS, LISTS AND TABLES 309 * 

ad manus ipsonim lohannis et Willelmi vel alterius 
eorum. Cognoscunt vlterius ipsi lohannes et Willel- 
mus quod adhuc habent in custodia sua residuum dicte 
tnaioris summer videlicet, xix li. ix s. ix d. q*. nondum 
distributes iuxta ordinacionem predictam. Vnde sub- 
mittunt se gracie Regis, asserentes se habere in promtu 
eosdem xix li. ix s. ix d. q^. soluendos domino Regi 
vel alibi iuxta ordinacionem curie. 

Quibus visis et intellectis, quia dicti lohannes et Wil- 
lelmus tempore quo admissi fuerunt ad dictum com- 
potum reddendum prestiterunt sacramentum de fideliter 
computando et de petendo nuUam allocacionem nisi 
bonam et veram in premissis ipsique lohannes et Wil- 
lelmus simul cum dicto Ricardo de Goldesburgh peci- 
erunt et admiserunt super eundem compotum alloca- 
cionem de predictis xlv li. xvii s. xi d. q*. integris quos 
asserebant se tunc distribuisse quamquam nisi Ixxi s. 
inde distribuissent prout iam cognoscunt, retinendo 
penes se residuum, videlicet, xlii li. vi s. xi d. q*. non 
distributes, contra debitum sacramenti sui et in depau- 
peracionem villatarum predictarum ac contra formam 
statuti inde et in decepcionem curie etc. ; consideratum 
est quod iidem lohannes et Willelmus pro falsitate pre- 

Flete ^ dicta adeant prisonam et quod dictus Ricardus capiatur, 
tamque idem Ricardus quam dicti lohannes et Willel- 

xlii li. mus onerentur versus Regem de predictis xlii li. vi s. 

vi s. xi d. q*. pretextu premissorum. Et super hoc predicti 

XI d. q*. lohannes et Willelmus committuntur prisone de Flete, 
moraturi quousque etc. 

Et preceptum est vicecomiti quod capiat dictum Ri- 
cardum de Goldesburgh, ita etc. in crastino Sancti 
Michaelis. 

Ante quem diem, videlicet, xxviii<> die lunii hoc ter- 
mino, venerunt hie coram baronibus Elyas de Byrton, 
lohannes de Drouefeld, Willelmus de Fincheden et 

^Crossed through in MS. 



3IO* APPENDIX 

Thomas de Podeseye, omnes de predicto comitatu Ebor' 
et manuceperunt, quilibet videlicet eorum, corpus pro 
corpore habere corpora predictorum lohannis de 
Rotherfeld et Willelmi de Beston coram baronibus hie 
de die in diem durante hoc termino Sancte Trinitatis 
ad satisfaciendum Regi de predictis xlii li. vi s. xi d. q^ 
et ad faciendum finem cum Rege pro falsitate predicta 
ac ad recipiendum ^ quod curia consideret de predictis 
Ixxi s. Et pretextu manucapcionis predicte, dicti duo 
collectores interim deliberantur a prisona predicta. 

Postea dicti collectores soluerunt predictos xlii li. 
vi s. xi d.' per duas tallias leuatas xxvii die lunii hoc 
anno quas ostenderunt. Et postmodum, videlicet, primo 
die lulii hoc termino, predicti lohannes de Rotherfeld 
et Willelmus de Beston fecerunt finem cum R^e pro 
transgressione predicta per xx li., salua eis accione 
versus dictum Ricardum inde si que etc. et eo minus 
quia dicti xlii li. vi s. xi d. q*. tempore quo ipsi collec- 
tores eos leuauerant et receperant non pertinuerunt ad 
Regem, set ad villatas dictarum parcium de West- 
rithyng quibus concessi erant per Regem in auxilium 
solucionis xv® et x® triennalium Regi a laicis conces- 
sarum anno xxv*** concurrentibus eisdem xv* et x*; 
que quidem villate habent accionem in euentu petendi a 
dictis coUectoribus dampna sua pro detencione denar- 
iorum illorum hucusque, et qui quidem denarii pro eo 
quod dicte xv* et x* adiu est cessabant et solucio inde 
tempore debito facta non fuerat, pertinent ad Regem, 
sicut continetur in statuto inde edito dicto anno xxv*^.* 

Et datus est dies predictis lohanni de Rotherfeld et 
Willelmo de Beston hie die Martis proximo post octa- 
bas Sancti lohannis Baptiste per manucapcionem pre- 
dictorum Willelmi de Fyncheden et Elie de Birton, qui 
presentes manuceperunt habere corpora ipsorum lolian* 

^ MS. ac receperint. ' MS. omits the farthing this time. 

\App., i6. 



DOCUMENTS, LISTS AND TABLES 311 ♦ 

nis et Willelmi vnacum predictis xx li. hie ad dictum 
diem Martis, alioquin ipsi manucaptores onerenttir 
simul cum ipsis collectoribus de eisdem xx li. Et 
quoad predictos Ixxi s. de finibus etc. quos dicti collec- 
tores dicunt se distribuisse et vnde iidem coUectores 
liberarunt curie tres partes indenturarum continentes 
XV s. tantum, sicut supra continetur, receptos de ipsis 
collectoribus, videlicet, per villatam de Shelf vi s. vi d., 
villatam de Wodestun xl d. et villatam de Queldale v s. 
de finibus predictis, asserentes ipsi coUectores se dis- 
tribuisse et liberasse residuos Ivi s. villatis sequentibus 
particulariter, videlicet, villate de Beston iiii s., villate 
de Brightlynton v s., villate de Podeseye v s., villate 
de Hundesworth iiii s., villate de Rauclif x s., villate 
de Batelaye iiii s., villate de Morleye x s., villate de 
Sutton X s. et villate de Birton iiii s. ; datus est dies 
eisdem lohanni de Rotherfeld et Willelmo de Beston 
hie a die Sancti Michaelis in xv dies ad ostendendum 
indenturas ipsarum villatarum testificantes quod recep- 
erunt de eisdem collectoribus particulariter predictos 
Ivi s. per manucapcionem Elie de Birton, lohannis de 
Holand, Thome de Podeseye et Hugonis de Wombewell 
de comitatu Ebor'; qui presentes manucepenmt pro 
predictis duobus collectoribus quod ipsi liberabunt hie 
ad dictam quindenam acquietancias siue indenturas vil- 
latarum predictarum de predictis Ivi s., alioquin ipsi 
manucaptores teneantur Regi simul cum dictis duobus 
collectoribus in eisdem Ivi s. tunc Regi soluendis. Et 
quoad predictas xx li. predicti coUectores venerunt hie 
ad dictum diem Martis proximum post octabas Sancti 
lohannis Baptiste et non soluerunt easdem xx li. ; set 
eadem summa assignatur Nicholao Maryns et tallia 
inde leuatur sub nominibus ipsorum coUectorum quinto 
die lulii hoc anno, quam talliam dictus Nicholaus osten- 
dit et de cuius assensu datus est dies dictis collectoribus 
hie in f esto Natiuitatis beate Marie ad soluendum eidem 



312 * APPENDIX 

Nicholao predictas xx li. quern diem dicti collectores 
admiserunt sub periculo quod etc. et per manucap- 
cionem predictorum Willelmi de Fyncheden et Elie de 
Birton. 

Postea predicti collectores soluerunt predictas xx li. 
et inde Hugo de Appleby dictam talliam ex parte die- 
torum collectorum ostendit. Et ad dictam quindenam 
Sancti Michaelis predicti lohannes de Rotherfeld et 
Willelmus de Beston, collectores, venerunt et liberarunt 
curie hie ix acquietancias continentes Ivi s. et dicunt 
per sacramentum suum se bene et fideliter distribuisse 
et liberasse eosdem Ivi s. particulariter villatis in dictis 
acquietanciis contentis prout eedem acquietancie testan- 
tur, que quidem acquietancie sunt in baga de particulis 
compoti dictorum collectorum de finibus operariorum 
supradictorum. Ideo tam ipsi collectores quam predicti 
manucaptores sui recedant inde quieti, nisi aliud etc. 

4, Accounts of Collectors of the Triennial of 135^-^ (Cf. pt 

I, ch. iii, I, B, especially c.) 

A table of figures taken from Enrolled Subsidies. 

Extracts from Accounts, K. R., Enrolled Subsidies and 

Lay Subsidies. 

INTRODUCTORY NOTE. 

Enrolled accounts, known as Enrolled Subsidies ; a complete 
series giving the date of the collections, the names of the col- 
lectors, and the totals of the tax as well as the totals of the 
penalties for each county. 

Original accounts, known as Lay Subsidies ; by no means a 
complete series ; but each account in existence gives full details 
of both tax and penalties, district by district within the county. 

Manuscript list called "Descriptive Slips;" attempts to give 
the date and a brief summary of the nature of the account. 

' It has been pointed out in pt. i, ch. iii, s. i, A., that the accounts of 
the collectors of the grant of 1348 contain no reference to the penalties. 



DOCUMENTS, LISTS AND TABLES 313 * 

Hunter's Inventories, printed in R. D. K., ii, app. ii, 165- 
167, iii, app. ii, 99, show some instances for the grant of 1352 
where the penalties under the statutes of labourers are noted 
as "allowances," and the "Descriptive Slips" show more such 
instances ; but an exhaustive examination of this whole series 
revealed many more occasions where the penalties are recorded 
in the accounts, or at least referred to, than is indicated either 
by Hunter or by the " Descriptive Slips." Further, in many 
cases where the heading of the original account is torn away 
and the date and the names of the collectors thus destroyed, 
the makers of the " Descriptive Slips " have been able to 
assign the account to a given subsidy only by the nature of the 
grant or by the character of the handwriting. It is possible, 
however, by noting references to the application of penalties 
and by a comparison with the totals of penalties given in En- 
rolled Subsidies to date the account with absolute correctness. 
This series also includes many subsidiary documents, such as 
writs and receipts for the payment of justices' wages, as well 
as memoranda of the apportionment of the penalties. 

There have been references by various modem writers to the 
disposition of the penalties ; ^ but, except by Hunter, these ac- 
counts do not seem to have been thoroughly examined until 
Mr. J. F. Willard, while working on methods of taxation in 
the fourteenth centiu-y, went through this whole series some 
months before I reached London. He had himself intended to 
print some of these accounts, but with great generosity he has 
allowed me to use them instead, and has lent me his figures 
with which to check mine. 

In the following pages I give a table, based on Enrolled 
Subsidies, 14, of the totals of both tax and penalties, county 
by county, supplemented by information from Lay Subsidies. 
I also print a series of extracts from all the original accounts 
in Lay Subsidies and in Accounts, Exchequer, K. R., where a 
detailed comparison of the tax and penalties district by dis- 

'Gasquet, Great Pestilence, quoted pt. i» ch. iii, s. i, B, a and b; 
Powell, East Anglia Rising, 2; Stubbs, Const. Hist., ii; 434. 



314 



APPENDIX 



trict within the county can be made — in 28 instances out of a 
possible 135. The asterisk indicates those accounts that appear 
in the " Descriptive Slips " as of uncertain date, and that I 
have been able to date with absolute certainty — six in all. To 
these must be added two others which are not represented in 
my extracts: 158/21, Northumberland, is assigned by "De- 
scriptive Slips " to the 3rd collection of the grant of the 22nd 
year, but the familiar formula of "no estreats of penalties 
under the statutes of labourers," added at the end, proves 
conclusively that it is the grant of the 25th year; 211/25, 
York, N. R. is assigned to the 2nd collection of the grant of 
the 25th year by character only ; a similar formula at the end 
puts the matter beyond doubt. 

In printing these extracts I give the full heading of the first 
tax printed, that for Bedford, and after that only the names 
of the collectors, unless, as sometimes happens, the phraseology 
of the heading differs from that usually found ; I print the tax 
first in each case and the apportionment second, even when 
this is not the original sequence. The references, unless other- 
wise specified, are to Lay Subsidies ; the Roman numerals refer 
merely to the order in my list 



DOCUMENTS. LISTS AND TABLES 



315* 



A table of figures taken f 


Vom Enrolled Subsidies 


,14- 






Triennial Grant of 135a. 2$ 


Edw. III. 










CoUec 


. 


Tax. 




Penalties. 






tion. 


1. 


s. 


d. 


ob. q. 


1. 


s. 


d. ob. 


q. 






I 


674 


17 


4 


I 


82 


16 


7 





Bedford 




2 


674 


17 


4 


I 


10 


2 


9 









3 


674 


7 


7 


I 


68 


5 


I 







Total 




2024 


2 


3 


I I 


161 


4 


4 I 









I 


1036 


3 


9 





362 


16 


4 





Berks. 




2 


1036 


3 


9 





300 


13 


10 









3 


1036 


3 


9 





99 





12 







Total 




3108 


II 


3 





762 


II 


2 









I 


688 


5 


4 





344 


2 


8 





9iickt. 




2 


688 


5 


4 





Apportionment not 








3 


688 


5 


4 





made by justices. 






Total 




2064 


16 








344 


2 


8 









I 


lOII 


10 


6 


I 


307 


II 


6 





Cambridge 




2 


lOII 


10 


6 


I 


No estreats. 




• 




3 


lOII 


10 


6 


I 


103 


6 


3 I 







Total 




3034 


II 


7 


I 


410 


17 


9 I 









I 


478 


17 


9 





No estreats. 




Cornwall 




2 


478 


17 


9 





89 





S I 









3 


478 


17 


9 





No estreats. 






Total 




1436 


13 


3 





89 





5 I 









I 


249 


4 


5 


I 


No 


sessions. 




Cumberland 


2 


349 


4 


5 


I 


No estreats. 








3 


249 


4 


5 


I 


73 


6 


9 I 







Total 




747 


13 


3 


I I 


73 


"(6 


9 I 









I 


471 


3 


4 


I 


No estreats. 




Derby 




2 


471 


3 


4 


I 


61 


14 


II 









3 


471 


3 


4 


X 


Penalties only enough 
















for justices' 


' wages 


• 




ToUl 




1413 


10 





I I 


61 


14 


II 






3i6 



Devon 



APPENDIX 
Triennial Grant op 1352.— 



Collec- 
tion. 1. 

1 953 

2 953 



Total 



Tax. 

8. d. ob. q. 

15 o o o 

15 o o o 



953 15 



2861 



Penalties. 
1. s. d. ob. q. 
No estreats. 
140 13 10 o 



o 



o 



i I. Unable to levy penalties. 
12, No estreats. 



140 13 10 



Dorset 



Total 



I 

2 

3 



851 
851 
851 

2554 



9010 
9010 
9010 



I 



No estreats. 
II o 14 o o 
141 14 o I 



152 15 2 



Total 



I 

2 

3 



1^234 
"34 
1234 



14 
14 
14 



7 

7 
7 



I 
o I 
o I 



3704 3 9 I I 



675 II o 

56 14 II o 

222 14 I o o 



955 







Gloncester 



Total 



1 1642 0700 

2 1642 0700 

3 1642 0700 

4926 1900 



No estreats. 
Excuse iUegible. 
loi 15 7 o o 

loi 15 7 o o 



Hereford 



Total 



I 

2 

3 



437 
437 
437 



5 7 
5 " 

5 " 



o 

o 



1311 17 5 o 



No estreats. 

51 900 

No estreats. 



51 



o o 



Herts. 



Hants. 



Total 



I 


610 


3 


6 


I 


I 


138 420 





2 


610 


3 


6 


I 


I 


12 I II 





3 


610 


3 


6 


I 


I 


50 10 2 







1830 


10 


1 





I 


200 16 3 





I 


444 


7 


10 


I 


I 






2 


444 


7 


10 


I 


I 


Delay granted. 




3 


444 


7 


10 


I 


I 


43 5 






Total 



1333 



3801 



43 



o o 



DOCUMENTS, USTS AND TABLES 
TuBiTNiAL GxANT OP i^si.^O^nHnmed. 



317* 



Collec 




Tax. 




Penalties. 


tion. 


1. 


s. 


d. 


ob. q. 


1. 


s. 


d« ob. Q. 




I 


153 


2 


3 











Itle 6L Wiffht 


2 


153 


2 


3 













3 


153 


2 


3 





8 


12 


000 


Total 




459 


"6 


9 





8 


12 


000 




I 


1927 


6 


II 


I 


133 


6 


800 


Kent 


2 


ig27 


6 


II 


1 


58 


12 


3 X X 




3 


1927 


6 


II 


I 


II 


19 


II 


Total 




578a 





10 


I 


203 


18 


10 I I 




I 


377 


9 


5 


I 








Lancaster 


2 


377 


9 


5 


i' 


No estreats. 




3 


y77 


9 


5 


I 


*203 


M 


II 


Total 




1132 


"s 


4 


I 


203 


14 


II 






• 


For three years. 










I 


757 


12 


10 


I 


No estreats. 


Leicester 


2 


757 


12 


10 


I 


47 


2 


4 I 




3 


r57 


12 


10 


I 


156 





12 


Total 




2272 


18 


7 


I 


203 


3 


410 




I 


665 


II 


8 




• 


No estreats. 


Lincoln, H. 


2 


665 


II 


8 





62 


8 


800 




3 


665 


II 


8 


Penalties not even enough 



Total 



1996 15 o o 



for justices' wages. 
62 880 





I 


953 


9 


4 





No estreats. 




Lincoln, K. 


2 


953 


9 


4 





28 II 10 







3 


953 


9 


4 





105 19 11 I 





Total 




2860 


8 








134 II 9 I 







I 


1526 


2 


II 


I 






Lincoln, L. 


2 


1526 


2 


II 


I 


No estreats. 






3 


1526 


2 


II 


I 


56Q 14 9 





Total 




4578 


1 


10 


I 


560 14 9 






3i8 



London 





APPENDIX 




Triennial Grant of 1352.— 


ConHnm€d. 


Collec- 


Tax. 


Penalties. 


tion. 1. 


8. d. ob. q. 


1. t. d. ob. q 


I 733 


6800 




a 733 


6800 




3 733 


6800 


No estreats. 



Total 



o o 





I 


341 


19 


7 


I 


146 


4 


10 





Middlesex 


2 


341 


19 


7 


I 


II 


9 


6 







3 


341 


19 


7 


I 


2 


2 


II I 





Total 




1025 


18 


9 


I I 


159 


17 


3 I 







I 


133 


6 


8 













Newcastle on Tyne 2 


133 


6 


8 















3 


133 


6 


8